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and expression and outgoing of human character ! his pupils to studies of a more interesting and What specimens for example and for guidance in useful nature than the logic and metaphysics of the invaluable art of composition, an attainment the schools." “Accordingly, after explaining so of the highest importance in every sphere of pro- much of the ancient logic as was requisite to grafessional life, and one too little attended to by tify curiosity with respect to an artificial method far in our present system of college training! In of reasoning, which had at one time occupied the addition to all this, what a fund of intellectual universal attention of the learned, he dedicated resources would be found in such studies as these, the rest of his time to the delivery of a system of and that not only akin to the wants and exigencies Rhetoric and Belles Lettres." of literary life, but eminently fitted also to give The late Lord Macaulay, in his review of the development to the faculties, vigour to the under- works of Lord Chancellor Bacon, by Basil Monstanding, elevation to the character, refinement to tague, after giving a searching analysis of the an. the taste, and to raise the whole man above all cient philosophy, and shewing how very powerless that is frivolous or grovelling among the multi- it was, with all its logic and metaphysics, to effect farious pursuits of the world. How very dry and the solution of any problem bearing in any degree unavailing is the study of logic in comparison upon the progress and wellbeing of the human race, with such studies as these. At the very most, likens its results to those of the workers in a tread. logic is but an attempt of more than questionable mill, where there was much exertion but no prosuccess at the preparation of the instruments, while gress. And in reference to logic as between Aristhis is alike their preparation, their employment, totle and Bacon he observes, that, “what Aristotle and their achievements in the reaping of rich and did for the syllogistic process, Bacon has done for plentiful harvests. Away then with these dry the inductive process; that is to say, he has analysed bones, these relics and leading strings of bygone it well. His rules are quite proper; but we do not times, and let us betake ourselves to studies worthy need them, because they are drawn from our code of our modern manhood, and worthy too of the stant practice. Considered as an intellectual feet, increased and increasing intelligence and conse- the Organum of Aristotle can scarcely be admired quent demands of modern society.
too highly." “But the more we compare," says In support of these views, we would quote the Macaulay, “individual with individual, school with following authorities. The celebrated Locke, whose school, nation with nation, generation with geneopinions on all matters connected with the consti- ration, the more do we lean to the opinion that tution and working of the human mind, cannot the knowledge of the theory of logic has no tenbut command respect, says, “If you would have a dency whatever to make men good reasoners." man reason well, let him study, What? Logic? no, Upon the whole, then, as it cannot be mainnot logic, but geometry.” In this recommendation tained that the study of logic is fitted to make we see the great mental philosopher realising the men good reasoners, and this is confessedly its simple fact that the faculty of reason, being im. only object, it would certainly be desirable to planted in us by the author of our nature, all we leave it out of the curriculum, and to take in can do for its improvement is to be done by suit- those about which no doubt can exist as to their able exercise, in no way subjecting it to rules, but power in effecting this most important object. by engaging it distinctly and immediately, as oc- This would appear to be all the more desirable, incasion requires, in the actual performance of the asmuch as while the power of reasoning would function itself.
be naturally and easily acquired in the prosecution The great political economist, Dr Adam Smith, of other studies, an amount of information, a stock the author of the “Wealth of Nations," &c., when of real substantial attainment would at the same appointed to the chair of logic in the University time be secured, and that too of a highly available of Glasgow, “soon saw the necessity of departing kind in the great practical pursuits of professional widely from the plan that had been followed by life. his predecessors, and of directing the attention of
G. L., ST ANDREWS.
HINTS ON REGISTRATION.
1864–5, xxii). 5. The Reference No. is thus used :
it is required (e. g. by a manager, guardian, or emSir,—The subjoined forms are intended to sup- ployer) to trace a child throughout its school career. plement and illustrate the “ Hints” which appeared The name is found in the Index; the Reference No. in your number for August.
shews in which year's class registers, and in what
part of them, the child's name was first entered ; in
connects and continues the history till his attend.
ance has ceased. Winter, Thos.
CLASS REGISTER. (1.) The column for age should
be headed Age at date of next examination, which in
indicates their amount of Previous Education. The (Date.)
fifth boy on the list, Oswald, has passed no examiThe INDEX should, of course, be alphabetical in nation under the Revised Code ; but his present form, the above extracts representing the page de- knowledge is sufficiently shewn by the class in voted to W. 2. No child's name should be entered which he is placed. (3.) The figures in this column more than once. 3. A double line should be drawn indicate the class register, quarter and number in under the entries for each year, thus shewing at a which the child's name is last found. A new boy (e.g. glance the number of new comers for the year. Wilson) has, of course, no reference number to former 4. At the bottom of every page a space should be registers; while for re-entrants (such as Smith and provided for the signature of the managers, as to Oswald) it may be necessary to refer back several the correctness of the assigned “ Occupations of years before their former attendance can be found. Parents." This is strongly recommended by the This, with other reasons, make it advisable to have Committee of Council in their last Report (Min. I the class registers of each year bound together and
1. Attendances this Week ......
Number of Withdrawals.............
Av. - 5
1. School Fees
(Eleven similar weeks.)
June 8th to 12th.
| No. of Class. Whole No. of
Whole No. of
3 115 4 198 5 237 6 280
1 0 2 0 3 3
S. d. 14 1 6 1 10 1 7 1 11 2 3
6 | 10 5
2= the number of times he had been withdrawn, First Quarter.
and the larger 1 = the week of return), and left
again in the 6th; that Oswald, another re-entrant, June 1st to 5th.
who had once before been withdrawn, was readmitted in the second week of the quarter.
WEEKLY RESULTS. In determining what facts should be each week required from the registers, it is to be remembered that three sums furnish the materials for all the more important school statistics.
These are, 1, the number of children who have been 130 5+5 279
even once in the school, within any given period; 2, the number of times the school has been open during the same period; and 3, the whole number of attendances. The second and third have the principal place assigned to them in the above forms of Class and Summary Registers.* The first (num
ber present at all) is obtained for each class by simply (Eleven similar Weeks.)
numbering the names on its registers, and the sum 1. Number present at all this Quarter 2. Average number of times attended
of these numbers gives the same fact for the whole by each child this Quarter.
school. As it is thus easily obtained, and also, becarefully preserved. In the second and succeeding cause it is one of those particulars which become quarters, as no Reference No. is required, the column significant only when calculated for large numbers it would occupy is subdivided for Fecs and Attend and considerable periods, I have thought it better ances brot. ford. (4.) On the examination schedule to give it a place only at the end of each quarter the principal teacher is required to certify that he (vide Summary). The average number of times, for has himself verified the No. of Attendances of each the same reason, and because of its dependence on child presented for examination, which entails very the result just mentioned, occupies a similar position considerable labour and no slight chance of error, in the Summary Register, and is deleted from the if it be postponed till near the date of the inspector's weekly returns. visit. 1 introduce the column Attendances this The number of Entrances and Withdrawals, besides
Quarter, which I would have marked each week by being returns required in Form IX., are tests so • the master himself, to lesson the trouble by distri- sensitive and indubitable of the success or non-suc
buting it over the year, and to reduce the chance cess of the school, that they deserve to be frequently of error to a minimum. (5.) It will be observed and closely investigated, and should, therefore, I that opposite the names of those boys who have left, think, have a place in the weekly table. I have given the reason for withdrawal, on the
I have not thought it necessary to enter into any principle that the class register should contain the explanation of the mode of calculating the abore complete “ School History" of the individual child. results. It will perhaps be sufficient to mention It is thus, also, I compensate for the corresponding that the arrows touch, on either side, numbers which entry in the admission register. (6.) The column check each other. Week of Entrance and Withdrawal, I consider one of the most important of the modifications here pro.
This letter cannot more appropriately conclude, posed. It serves to give the date of admission and than by quoting the opinions of three inspectors leaving of each child, thus dispensing with another
on the system of registration now in use. portion of the admission register; it gives at a
Mr Sparke, in his report for 1863, says, “ Registers, glance the number of boys entering or being with
as at present kept, often contain useless items, drawn from the class, than which there can be no carried forward through the year All such entries better test of the work there done; lastly, it enables us to record the number of re-entrances, thus mea- Mr Stokes, in his report for the same year, is of
are worse than useless, wasting much valuable time." suring a species of irregularity, of which, hitherto, opinion that “ the registers in common use might no account has been taken. The mode and mean- be with advantage simplified.” ing of the entries above made in this column, may
And Mr Gordon, in this year's minutes, afirms, require some explanation. They shew that Jones that school registers, “ in numerous instances, still (first on the register) finally left this school in the admit of being framed to meet more readily and ninth week of the quarter; that Wilson, a new boy, correctly the requirements of the Revised Code." entered on the first week; that Smith, a re-entrant, who had twice gone from this school, returned in the
* In a new Class Register by Mr Binns of Derby, which ?
have just seen, these two particulars form part of the Weekly first week (R' 1, where R= re-entrant, the small | Table.
These opinions perhaps contain sufficient to justify or system which should be well defined and intellithe attempt I have made, and, if necessary, to ex. gible to managers and teachers, and which should cuse its failure.
J. B. M. L. not leave me to work by an uncertain and random
estimate, residing somewhere in my own imaginaTHE REPORT OF MR MIDDLETON, H. M. tion, and sure to vary when I was fatigued, annoyed,
INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS (SCOTLAND). or unwell." SIR,-In examining the Blue Book recently issued If Mr Fearon finds it so essential to guard against by the Committee of Council on Education for 1864- forming erroneous opinions in deciding on a dicta65, I was struck with the confidence of Mr Middleton tion exercise, he must surely envy Mr Middleton in the value of his mode of determining the relative his ability to estimate to a fraction the discipline merits of the several schools examined by him under of the whole school. I suspect that those who are the provisions of the Revised Code. Most people who sceptical as to the value of such rigid conclusions have any acquaintance with school work will ques- will be of opinion that the estimate of the school tion the reliability of the Merit Table so ostenta- discipline will occasionally depend more on whether tiously paraded in Mr Middleton's Report; indeed, the inspector is “ fatigued, annoyed, or unwell,” those best entitled to express an opinion on the mat- than on its own intrinsic merits. ter deem it impossible to arrive at a just estimate of Inspectors are, on the whole, as fallible as other the relative efficiency of different schools. In Mr men, and not more likely to escape erroneous conStewart's Report, published in the Blue Book re- clusions than the majority of intelligent men in the ferred to, he says, at page 150:
other walks of life. It is, therefore, not too much "My own experience of school work leads me to to suppose that Mr Middleton, under the influence think that it is scarcely possible to devise any form of fatigue, &c., may sometimes err as much in form. of limited examination of individual children which ing a judgment on other points of school duty as he will test all the really important points which a good undoubtedly must, occasionally, in forming his deciteacher has in view, and on which the efficiency of mal estimate of discipline. True, there is less room every good school more or less depends.
for mistake under the Revised Code than formerly
existed ; still, so long as it is a necessity with the "I have more than once attempted to place in inspector to prescribe to different schools different the order of efficiency all the schools visited in an sets of exercises, it will be impossible to estimate to official year, by adopting in each case the same or a fraction their relative merits, the more especially a similar combination of inspection and individual since it appears that the accident of a difficult set examination; but I have only succeeded in convinc- of books in a school may most undeservedly tell ing myself that each case must be judged on its own against it. A child may fail to read accurately a merits, unless the standard adopted is so low as to difficult book, and yet be really a better reader than be valueless."
another who succeeds in reading an easier one satisLet us examine how Mr Middleton arrives at re- factorily. Mr Jack, in his Report, page 251, says : sults deemed unattainable by a colleague of equal, “ I have children (averaging from eight to nine) if not greater, experience than himself. Under the presented in books which I should readily accept for head of Merit Remarks, discipline holds a foremost Standards IV. and V. If the school suffers by this place. " In reducing this vital part of school merit arrangement, it is the master's fault, and one to to numerical value, I assume good 1, adding -2 which his attention cannot be too pressingly dior 1-5th for every step above, and subtracting .2 rected.” for every step below this standard: thus, excellent One would have thought that a gentleman occu1.40; very good = 1:20; good = 1:00; very fair : pying the position of inspector could decide on the 0.80.
reading powers of a child, independently of the We are not informed what exact degree of merit simple method of counting the mistakes. It seems entitles a school to the distinction of good, nor by not, however. Is it rational, then, to suppose that what nice shades of merit or demerit decimally cal. such a system can give exact reliable results? I do culated, .2 or 1-5th, is to be added to or deducted not assert that Mr Middleton makes a mere machine from this standard. Probably this is a mystery of himself. I have reason to believe, indeed, that beyond ordinary comprehension. It is impossible, he exercises his judgment in all cases like an honest however, to suppose that conclusions so nicely cal- man. What I assert is, that so many different things culated can be the result of mere judgment, as we are to be taken into account in different schools, that have it on the authority of another inspector that no man can judge to a nicety their relative efficiency, such acts of judgment are not to be relied upon. and that a system under which it is possible to deterMr Fearon, at pa ge 59, says :
mine so important a point by counting up mistakes, "I desired, in a case where the passing or reject- irrespective of the nature of the exercises prescribed ing of each child was to be attended with results so in different schools, is utterly undeserving of conimportant to the schools, to tie myself to a method / fidence.
Nobody questions Mr Middleton's ability to form REGULATIONS RESPECTING GOVERN. a tolerably correct general estimate of a school ; but MENT INSURANCES AND ANNUITIES, when, on the faith of a few hours spent within the
SIR, -A copy of regulations has appeared, made walls, he proceeds to reduce the matter to decimals by the Postmaster-General, with the consent of the and fractions, his opinion becomes simply ludicrous. Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, for the Such considerations as the kind of citizen turned purpose of carrying out the provision of the Chanout by different schools, are entirely beyond the cellor of the Exchequer's Act, in so far as the Post reach of his Table, yet will any one deny that this Office department is concerned, and for the guidis the highest test of a school's efficiency? Mr
ance of its officers. Middleton must be aware that schools, never very
A short and plain abstract of these regulations, conspicuous for excellence in any of the three together with full and clear illustrations of the “ R.'s,” have acquired a notoriety for the honour tables of premiums, and instructions as to the course able success in life of their pupils; yet such schools to be followed by persons desiring to insure their would undoubtedly rank low in his Merit Table. lives or to purchase Gåvernment annuities, will There is a kind of teaching-perhaps, indeed, the
soon be prepared. These regulations extend over best—which seeks more to cultivate the mind than forty-four folio pages, and are sold at 6d. As an render it precocious—to sow the seeds of future ex- important means of training the working classes cellence than produce ephemeral results—to obtain a
to habits of economy and forethought, this Act natural growth than force a short-lived blossom.
truly educational, and claims a place in our educaA PARISH SCHOOLMASTER,
tional notices. Not INCLUDED IN THE MERIT TABLE.
Perhaps the above will answer your correspond August 16. 1865.
ent's inquiry of last month.
Principles of Education drawn from Nature and Reve- guided by theory is worth little, and there is theory
lation, and applied to Female Education in the Upper as well as experience in the book, yet the words Classes. By the Author of " Amy HERBERT," and give a just idea of the book, for there is very little other Tales, &c. &c. In two Volumes. London: | of theorizing. The author has watched the action Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green. of the human heart with great care, and possessing 1865.
sound sense and high aims, she has given us here
her observations and experiences. The first impression which this book produces is The author looks on education as the “guiding one of disappointment. It begins with a mistaken or leading the young mind in the way which will application of a passage from Scripture. The author best enable it to obey the commandments of God." expounds this passage in such a way as to shew that Her exposition of the principles of education is, it is useless to discuss education, and then gives a therefore, almost exclusively an exposition of the reason for discussing it, which refutes her explana- principles of morality and religion. Her great aim tion of the passage of Scripture, and is contrary to is to shew how right moral principles may come to her own premises. Throughout the book we meet sway the heart, and how evil habits may be eradiwith specimens of incorrect reasoning, and there is cated. The titles of her chapters accordingly are general want of hard grappling with facts and such as Obedience, Justice, Tenderness and Sym. thoughts. The author is also frequently in error in pathy, Reproof, Forgiveness, Advice, Training, Conher expositions of Scripture. She is evidently un- fidence and Responsibility, Human Faith, Respect, acquainted with the original text, and the results Truth, Selfishness, Prejudice and Illiberality, Pride, of modern Biblical criticism; and basing her whole Vanity, Temper, Purity, Love, Friendship. Her expositions on her native sense and the authorised lectures or homilies, as we may call them, on these version, she cannot help falling occasionally into subjects, are in every way admirable, well written, serious errors. But notwithstanding these defects, studded with beautiful and true thoughts, and perthese two little volumes are exceedingly valuable. vaded by sound sense and healthiness of soul. They Most of the chapters abound in the results of a most may be read by all classes of people with considerable careful and penetrating observation of human na profit, and they may do as much good to those who ture. The author says in her preface that “these have not children as to those who have. They are volumes are the result not of theory but of experi- of course specially fitted to influence women, and ence ;” and though in reality experience that is not they are fitted to influence all women. For the