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you describe the history of a Minute before it is rules assumed very much the importance of
submitted to the House of Commons ?-It would Minutes, and have they not had as much in-
usually arise from either an apparent need of a fuence in the mode of carrying out the education
greater measure of assistance to schools, or from of the country as some of the Minutes themselves?
the need of settling some question which had pro- - The process of administration undoubtedly is
voked a great deal of correspondence. A certain that of a judge-made law; you pass a Minute,
number of letters would probably be received from and a practice arises under it; that practice be-
private correspondents, or the official correspond comes generalised, and those generalisations be-
ence might raise the question. The Lord Presi- come subordinate rules, but very often of equal
dent, after a certain length of time, would give importance with the primary ones. It is under
instructions, probably to the Secretary, to draw every Minute as it is under an Act of Parliament.
up the draft of a Minute, which would be confi- “90. Is it not a fact that some of the supple-
dentially printed and circulated among the mem- mentary rules which have been issued have been
bers of the Committee, and very often remarks inconsistent with the Minutes to which they re-
would be made upon it, and when finally settled ferred ?—I should say not.
a Committee would be called at which that Minute "91. How were those supplementary rules
would be passed, and then laid upon the table of decided on ; was the process the same as with the
the House of Commons."

Minutes ?—The supplementary rules were decided

upon chiefly between the Secretary and the ViceSUPPLEMENTARY Rules.

President; in the working of the Revised Code, "86. We have heard a good deal of late of sup- they represent really the generalisation of deciplementary rules; when did the practice of making sions which arose in the daily practice of the supplementary rules first commence in the Edu- office. cation Office ?—The supplementary rules were

“ 92. Then I infer from that answer that, with really in the nature of instructions and directions; regard to those supplementary rules, the Lord a Minute is framed as concisely as may be, and President was not consulted ?-I really cannot the details are left to be supplied in practice; answer that question for certain, but in the main those Minutes circulate all over the country, and I should say that he was not consulted. it is necessary, in order to transact business with "93. And therefore, of course, the Committee precision, that there should be directions to the were not consulted ?--Certainly not the Compersons who have to act under those Minutes, as mittee." to much that is not expressed in the Minutes themselves; that is done sometimes by letters of

Official Correspondence. instructions to the inspectors; but, in the parti- “ 143. Referring to one of the earlier questions, cular case of the Code, it was done by what were may I ask you in whose name is the correspondcalled supplementary rules, which might, how-ence conducted with the managers of schools reerer, equally well have been called instructions lating to annual grants on the part of the office ? to the inspectors.

In the name of the Committee of Council.
"87. But you have not answered my question “114. You have stated, have you not, that the
as to when that practice of supplementary rules annual grants pass only through your hands, and
first began ?—The actual words supplementary not through the hands of the Lord President ?—
rules' were used I think about twelve months All the ordinary cases would pass through my
ago, with reference to certain rules which were hands, or the hands of officers serving under me,
printed in explanation of the Revised Code, but only; but, with regard to any case that raised
the term was a simple accident; the practice of any unusual question, it would rest with myself
instructions to the inspectors dates as far back as to carry it to the Lord President or the Vice-
the Minutes date back; there never was a Minute President, according to the date of which we may
in which there were not instructions to the in- be speaking.
spectors upon it explaining to them the scope of " 145. Then would the form of correspondence
the Minute, and the mode of administering it. with the school managers at that time, and with

"88. Were those instructions to the inspectors reference to that subject, be in your own name
similar in principle and in form to the supple- or in the name of 'My Lords ?' —Always in the
mentary rules which have been issued of late ?- name of My Lords.'
They are not similar in form ; but they are in "]46. So that the managers of schools who
principle.

might be in correspondence with the office would "'89. Have not several of those supplementary have nothing to lead them to suppose that they

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were not in communication with the Committee 1856, I should think that I might have done so,

I of Council as a body, instead of with yourself but not on letters of any importance, certainly. personally as Secretary ?—No; they would have “ 249. You have never done it since ?—To the nothing to lead them to that inference.

best of my recollection, I have not; but, again, I "147. They would be under the impression, should wish to put in the limitation as to ques. when they received an answer to a letter saying, tions of any importance. There is no doubt that My Lords decided so and so,' that the question in the mode of filling up any particular form, or upon which they were in correspondence had in the mere details of administration, I may have been submitted to the Committee, or to the Lord done it. President, or to the Vice-President, or to some

“250. You have stated that the supplementary members of the Committee, and not to yourself rules were generalisations from questions of prac only?—The general question would always have tice that had arisen in the office. Were those had some superior authority to my own upon it. questions of practice individually decided by The given Minute under which the case fell, or yourself, or were they individually decided with the given rule which disposed of the case, would the assistance of the Vice-President ?-I should always have been sanctioned by the superiors of imagine that in cases where the question was in the office, but it would have rested with me to the least degree new, I took them to the Vicejudge whether or not the given case fell under President. the rule or the Minute. If I felt no doubt, I “251. For instance, Rule 7 states, that 'a dehave always considered (and I believe the prac- duction of at least one-tenth will be made from tice is the same in other Departments) that for the grant to a school (not being one for infants the purposes of daily business the permanent only), if no class be represented above Standard officer is trusted with the name of the Depart. III.' Did that condition originate with yourseli

, ment, as he might be with a common seal. He or with the Vice-President, or with the Lord uses it on his own responsibility, and, if he mis- President, or with the Committee of Council ?uses it, the appeal lies to his chiefs ; but in the Those supplementery rules were discussed begreat mass of daily business, it is impossible in tween myself and the Vice-President; they grew every given case to carry each letter to the head up by degrees. of the Department.

“ 252. That is to say, they grew up out of in"]48. Then with regard to school managers dividual cases which were presented to you for who conceived that they were not fairly dealt decision ?—They grew up out of the reports of with, what means would they have of satisfying the inspectors, shewing that the children had themselves that their case had not been submitted been presented either under Standard I., or under to the Committee of Council, because they would Standards I. and II. be under the impression, receiving the communi- “253. Surely that cannot be with respect to cation in that language, that it meant what it Rule 7, for it says, 'A deduction of at least oneexpressed, and that their case had been decided tenth will be made from the grant to a school by the Committee of Council ?—In every Depart- (not being one for infants only), if no class be ment I imagine the same thing would happen; presented above Standard III.'—Yes; but the that practically their case had been decided by cases which suggested the necessity of a rule the Committee of Council in this sense, that the were those cases in which whole schools had been Secretary, who had not actually referred it, felt presented under the lowest standards of all. The certain that if he did refer it, it would be decided point to be settled was, what should be the miniin that way; but I never (to the best of my mum that should satisfy the Committee of Counbelief) in my life received a letter in which a cor- cil in the examination of a school, and it was respondent said, 'I wish you would take this to settled that managers ought to present at least the Lord President of the Council,' which I did one class above a certain minimum; but the not at once take, however trivial I might think cases that had raised that question were cases it, and however certain I might be of the answer.” where all the children had been presented either

under the lowest or the two lowest standards. SECRETARY'S POWERS.

“ 254. Had it never occurred to yourself, or to 248. With reference to your own personal the Vice-President to your knowledge, at the time part in the government of the office, have you that the Revised Code was under discussion, that ever decided alone upon letters of instructions, or such a question must necessity arise ?-I should upon supplementary rules of any kind ?-Upon not have expected that any one would have preletters of instructions in former years before sented a whole school under the lowest standard."

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the earlier examinations under the Revised Code ; Diminution of Grants.

I really do not know for certain that I did not "271. With respect to diminution of grants, is take this St Michael's case to him, but I was in that always done by the Vice-President ?— The daily communication with him about the class of inspector, in his report, says whether he recom- questions which it raised, and if I had not taken mends the grant to be paid in full, and if his this individual case it was not at all that I alone recommendation is that it should not be paid in was directing generally the mode in which such fall, bis report, after being looked to by the cases was to be treated. Examiner, or by the Assistant Secretary, or by

“280. But that reduction, when it was made, myself, as it passed through our hands, would you communicated to the managers as the decinot necessarily be referred to the Vice-President. sion of My Lords ?'—Yes; every decision is

" 272. You would settle the amount of diminu-communicated in that form, by whomsoever it
tion without reference to the Vice-President?- may be made.
If the inspector recommended it; and if, looking “281. Supposing a case to be decided by your-
to his report, it seemed to be primâ facie justi- self on your own responsibility, and communi-
hable, I should sign that letter without reference cated to the managers as the decision of My
to the Vice-President.

Lords,' and supposing that the managers pro** 273. Supposing that the inspector did not tested or remonstrated, do you invariably take recommend it, or only recommended it in a less remonstrance to the Vice-President, or do you degree, would you still, if the facts seem to sometimes reply that ‘My Lords adhere to their justify such a course on your part, refuse the decision ?'—I should consider that I had discregrant without reference to the Vice-President ?- tion to give that answer that 'My Lords' adhered I do not think that I should.

to the decision, if I felt perfectly certain what the "974. Have you never done so ?-I may have decision would be, and that it was in conformity

with precedent.
“ 275. Do you remember the case at St “282. Supposing that the managers remon-
Michael's, Coventry, of Mr Morell, the Roman strated again and again, would the decision of the
Catholic inspector, who was dismissed ?—Yes. case still be conducted by you, and would the

** 276. In that case, was not the grant reduced complaints never be made to my Lords at all ?—
against or without any justifiable report on the I believe that, in any case, I should take a con-
inspector's part ?-1 should not admit that; it tinued remonstrance to the Vice-President; but,
was reduced without his recommendation, but his in a case in which I felt no sort of doubt and
report shewed, if I recollect rightly, that the which had been decided several times over in the
whole of the children, some of whom were 16 or same way, in all the earlier stages of the remon-
17 age, with the exception of a very few, strance, I should make that answer on my own
had been passed under the Standard I. ; and on responsibility.
those facts, I believe, that the grant was in the “283. And you would give no intimation to
first instance refused.

the managers that it was you, and not my Lords,
" 277. It was refused by you without reference who were deciding the matter ?–No.
to the Vice-President, was it not ?-It was refused “ 284. Practically, therefore, you would shut
by me, I believe, without reference to the Vice- them out by their own ignorance from any appeal
President.

from your decision to that of my Lords ?_Of * 278. But did you not afterwards withdraw course it will always be in their power to write that refusal ?-On further correspondence, a num

to the Lord President or the Vice-President; and I ber of statements were made as to the new state am, of course, speaking of the exercise of that of the school, and the refusal was withdrawn or discretion under which I hold my office, and for modified; I do not recollect at this moment what exercising which rightly I am responsible ; but I was the precise decision, but at any rate some

can conceive cases in which I should exercise that grant was made.

discretion without referring the matter further, " 279. And was that done by you without re- although the point might be a reduction or reference to the Vice-President?-The later steps fusal of the grant, if I felt no doubt of it. were taken after reference both to the Lord Presi- “285. And yet, upon the face of your letter, dent and the Vice-President. This particular there would be no kind of indication to lead the grant was at first refused, if I recollect rightly, by managers to believe either that the decision was myself. I should mention that I was in daily not that of my Lords, or that a remonstrance communication with the Vice-President about coming back from them would not proceed

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beyond the Secretary's hands ?—There would be so made by you, the responsibility which the nothing on the face of the letter to shew that. heads of the departments are said to have to

“286. As a matter of fact, are you not aware Parliament would be simply fictitious and illuthat managers in the country generally believe sive ?—No, I think not; because Parliament that all decisions which are stated to be made by would call upon them, and upon them only. If my Lords are the decisions of my Lords ?-I I have taken the responsibility of deciding cases, should not think that any one who is familiar without coming to them, I am answerable to with the dispatch of public business in very large them, and on their proving that I have decided departments could ever imagine that the greater alone, I should, of course, if they were dissatisfied part of it goes to the head of the office.

with my decision, remain open to any punish287. Should you think that country clergy- ment or censure which they might think right men generally are familiar with the dispatch of under the circumstances to inflict. I do not public business in very large departments ?–No. I think that their responsibility is rendered at all

“288. Then country clergymen generally, and fictitious, by any act which a permanent officer managers of that class, would be under the im- may have done in that way. pression, would they not, that the decision that “293. At all events there might be very conyou sent to them as the decision of my Lords was ceivably a strong difference of opinion between the decision of my Lords ?— Yes, very often, per- the managers on the one side and yourself on the haps, that might be so; but, qui facit per alium other, as to whether a decision refusing them a facit per se, in that sense, it would be, really, the grant was a right interpretation of the Minutes decision of my Lords.

which have been laid before Parliament; might “ 289. If they wrote on the covers direct to the not that be the case ?—Yes. Lord President, thinking that would not be “ 294. And if it was the case, would it not opened at the office, such a remedy would not be decided against them entirely by you, without occur to them, because they would naturally be the intervention of any other officer whatever, ii lieve that anything like that would come to the you had no doubt upon the subject ?–My free. eyes of the great Officers of State, of whom the dom from doubt ought to be expressed in this Secretary was ostensibly only the instrument ?– way: if I had no doubt as to the mode in which Yes, I can conceive that they might form that my chiefs would decide it. opinion. I think that the degree in which they “295. But at all events they would be entirely would form it would very much depend upon the in your hands, and would be entirely subject to knowledge of the world which they possessed. the soundness of the certainty which you enter

"290. Do you not think that, considering who tained upon the intentions and wishes of your the managers of schools are, and the sacrifices which chiefs ?— Again, I cannot admit that conclusion. they have often made, it would be fair that they They have many remedies; they have their own should bave, in a case so nearly concerning their Members of Parliament, and they can write own interests, a direct appeal from your decision directly to the heads of the office. Supposing to that of the officers who are responsible to Par- that they took none of those means whatever, and liament for the conduct of the office ?-I think that they accepted my letters, so far they would that, in every instance where the case fairly be in my hands. admitted of doubt, it would be my duty, and I “ 296. You state that they could write directly believe that I have always discharged that duty, to the heads of the office, but I think that you to carry the case to my superior officers.

answered the Honourable Member for Bradford. “291. Still, would it not be a matter wholly that according to the headings of your letter, for your discretion, and for your judgment, they are required to write to you ?— Yes, to the whether the case did admit of the doubt which Secretary. should give to the managers this species of appeal “ 297. Has it never happened that letters hare to which I have referred ?-I think that it must been addressed to your office, complaining of acts always rest in the judgment of the chief execu- of administration, and that those letters have not tive officer to exercise that discretion, as regards been answered, and that then letters of complaint a large number of cases, where the current busi- have been addressed to the Lord President or to ness of the office is large.

the Vice-President?-Yes." « 292. And of course for the decision which is

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F the subjects which now form the duct of Nature's own guidance, he arrives at clear

curriculum of arts in our University and certain conclusions, from sound premises, system, there is one, we think, which, through the unfettered, unruled exercise of those without loss or detriment to educa- mental endowments by which he thinks and

tion, might be well struck out of the reasons, remembers and judges. In perfect conlist, and this is Logic. Various definitions have formity with these views, we find it admitted, in been given of logic, some of them of a very high- the Introduction to the Port-Royal Logic, that sounding, pretentious character; let us take the “ All these operations are performed naturally, common one, viz., that logic is the “art of reason- and oftentimes better, by those who are unacing,” founded, no doubt, on some considerations quainted with the rules of logic, than by those called the theory or the science of reasoning. who know them.” Hence it is that logic as a Now, an art consists of a system of rules calcu- study makes so feeble an impression upon the lated to lead to the performance of that process mind, as having any value in its maxims worthy correctly to which the art refers; in the present of being remembered. In the same work, as above case to reasoning. Admitting, then, that the rules referred to, we have accordingly this admission : of reasoning have been well laid down by logi. “For experience shews, that of a thousand young cians as in rigid conformity with soundness in men who learn logic, there are not ten who rethat

process, still our position is that these rules member anything of it six months after they have are wholly and entirely unnecessary, inasmuch finished their course." Seeing, then, that the as we do that by our very nature which these rules of logic, though fully got up, are so soon rules would profess to enable us to do by art. forgotten, and that by following the guidance of By the constitution of our physical being, we are, our rational pature we reason as well without them it will be admitted, walking creatures, just as we as with them, it would seem to follow, that though are, by the constitution of our mental being, tho study of logic were given up, education would reasoning creatures. Now, as in the former case lose nothing whatever affecting its essential elewe get the use of our legs, or learn to walk by ments, or suffer in any degree in the philosophical exercise in walking, without reference to rule, so soundness of its general structure. in the latter case we get the use of our minds, or Believing, then, as we most firmly do, that the learn to reason, by exercise in reasoning, without study of logic serves little or no purpose in the reference to rule. If an accomplished anatomist way of improving the powers of the understandwere equal to the task of assigning the precise ing, or in guiding them in their search after truth, action and tension of every muscle in the body its place in the curriculum, as it appears to us, connected with the exercise of walking, that would, would be very advantageously filled up if given to no doubt, be regarded as a very clever perform modern literature. What a field for high culture ance; and so it would certainly be, as a display here, and plentiful exercise too for improvement of anatomical talent. It would, notwithstanding, in reasoning; and this not by rules, through which be very

useless one, as regards the act of walk- the power of reasoning can never be acquired, but ing, inasmuch as it would contribute in no through the guiding influence of examples or degree to our walking more gracefully, or with models of the thing itself. Just as we could never greater stability, than we naturally do under a acquire the power of mathematical reasoning by total ignorance of all such knowledge. The same, any system of rules, however well concocted, but we maintain, holds good in the act of reasoning. can very easily, naturally, and thoroughly acquire Though an accomplished metaphysician, if such it by giving due attention to the beautiful models there be. could give an analysis of the intellectual which we have of it in Euclid's Elements of process of reasoning with as much correctness Geometry. and precision as a mechanician could determine It would be impossible to estimate the immenso the parts and analyse the action of a complex advantages which an able man might confer on a machine, yet no one who has ever attentively con- class of young men, having the grand subject of sidered the working of his own mind in the act modern literature as the text for study. What of reasoning, will for a moment affirm that such models and opportunities for high intellectual and knowledge would have the least control over him moral culture! What a field abounding in every in that process by which, under the simple con variety of human attainment, rich in every phase

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