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It is seen also in the pasts and past participles of 2. Aspirates of different orders are frequently
our strong verbs, as, drive, drove, driven; and in changed for one another ;
many cognate English words, as, strike, stroke, 3. Semivowels also pass into one another.
streak; peak, pike, poke, pick; drip, drop; fill, III. Mutes of one order cannot pass directly
full; stick, stake, stock; revise, revision, &c. Any into mutes of a different order on any mere
one sees that such words as these are radically the phonetic principle.
same, because the consonants are the same though Canon I. This is a well-known law. It lies at
the vowels vary greatly.

the foundation of philological researches. Grimm, But in considering the interchange of conso- the great German philologer, has discovered that, nants with one another, we may not only compare in comparing different languages, these interwords which are radically the same in different changes of consonants of the same order are not languages, but we may also get much assistance arbitrary, but follow a fixed law which is known from a study of the regular inflectional changes by his name. A sharp mute tends to become an ty which any one language is subject. For this aspirate, an aspirate to become a flat mute, and purpose, Euglish, however, is of little use. Such a fat to become a sharp mute, and so on. Thus, a thing as the change of one consonant into an- pater becomes father; frater, brother ; duo, two. other in the inflection of a word is to it almost Here we have the sharp mutes p and t changed to unknown. Hence the very contracted ideas which the aspirates f and th ; the aspirate f becomes the mere English scholars have of this whole subject. flat mute b, and the flat mute d becomes the sharp Other languages are richer in this respect. The t. It is not meant, that in the words which I euphonic changes in Greek will occur to many as have here given as an illustration of the law, the a good illustration of what I mean. The inflections English have been derived from the corresponding of nouns in Welsh is a still better. The following Latin words; but that both have, previous to the examples are from Prichard's Celtic Nations :- historical period, been derived from a common English.

source, and that the circling change which the Father, Tad, thad, dad, or nhad. law describes has proceeded one step farther in

Pen, ben, phen, or mhen. the English than in the Latin words. This is

Bara, vara, or mara. but natural, as Latin is the older language.

Duw, dhuw, or nuw. But my paper is on the consonants, not on The different forms are used according to the philology, and I am digressing. rules of the language.

1. The simplest change is, I think, that of a Infectional changes like these are generally far sharp into its corresponding flat, or the contrary. better proofs of the connection and immediate We have an example of this change in our final interchangeability of consonants than the com- 3, which is pronounced sharp or flat to suit the parison of cognate words in different languages; preceding letter. It is sharp after sharps, flat for here the change is directly from the one to the like z after all other letters. So the d of the past other, while in the latter case there may be a tense and participle of verbs is pronounced, and number of steps between.

often spelt, t after sharps. The past participle in The following are the chief phonetic principles Latin ends in t, sometimes s, corresponding to on which the interchange of consonants de- our d. Another instance of sharps and flats inpends :

terchanging, is in such words as loaf, loaves ; Referring to the tabular scheme of classification breath, breathe; cloth, clothe. Highlanders and given in Part I. of this paper, *

the Welsh are apt to pronounce the flats sharp, 1. Any consonant may be changed into any as if the b's, d's, and g's were p's, t's, and ks. In other consonant of the same order. Thus, German, the flats have the sound of their corres

1. Any lubial may change into any other ponding sharps at the end of words, but resume labial;

their own power if a termination iş added. Thus 2. Any lingual into any other lingual; d is pronounced t in kind, a child, though not in 3. Any guttural into any other guttural. the plural, kinder. Also a consonant may pass into a combina- 2. The next change in point of facility is that

tion of consonants of the same order, and of a mute into its corresponding aspirate. In vice versa.

Gaelic this is a mere inflectional change. Thus, II. Nasals, aspirates, and semivowels of dif. if a verb begins with a mute, its past tense begins ferent orders are interchangeable. Thus, with the corresponding aspirate. The same change 1. Any nasal may pass into any other pasal; is frequent in nouns and adjectives. A table is * February No. of Museum.

bord, and my is mo, but my table is not mo bord,

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but mo bhordsa, the bh being pronounced as o. same word as pipe. In German it is Pfeife. Then Both in Greek and Latin 6 soon lost its proper we have puff and fuf, blaze and flash, rip and force in many words, and acquired that o v. In rive, dip and dive, murder and murther, burden attic Greek 77 in verbs, takes the place of 00. In and burthen, &c. modern Greek ô is pronounced as th in the. There A comparison of English with German gives are a good few cognate words in our own language abundant examples of this change, thus : exhibiting the same change. Thus, fife is the English.

English. ship, Schiff.


bleak, bleich.
sheep, Schaaf.

weak, weich.


book, Buch.
help, Helfe.
forget, vergessen.

awake, wach.
sleep, schlafen.
bite, beiszen.

wreak, rächen. have, haben.

father, Vater. shove, schieben.


horn, cornu.
shoved, schob.
thing, Ding

heart, cord-is.


halm, calamus.
knave, Knabe.
thou, du.

hound, canis. Looking at this list in the light of Grimm's In German z is pronounced ts. We see here, law, it will be seen that German is the younger again, that s bears the same relation to t that of the two languages. The sharp mute in Eng- bears to p. lish always corresponds to the aspirate in German, 3d. The interchange of nasals with other consoand the aspirate in English to the flat mute in nants of the same order is not so common. The German, but not vice versa. Observe also, that s change is nevertheless immediate and quite natuin German holds the very same relation to t in ral. If the reader will look back to the Welsh English, that f and ch respectively hold to p and words given above, he will see that it is a mere k. This is important as a confirmation of the inflectional change in Welsh. In Gaelic, the aspipropriety of ranking s as the true aspirate of t. rate m is pronounced as a sort of v.

Other exThe common doctrine is, that s, z, sh, and zh form amples of this interchange are ever, immer; never, a class by themselves, usually called sibilants, and nimmer : Bacozw, choras; Umros, somnus. that sh bears the same relation to s that th bears Very frequently a nasal and mute of the same tot. This classification is, I think, quite a mis- order are complementary. Thus, a mute is often take, and productive of nothing but confusion. I added to a nasal for some euphonic reason. Exconsider th, which is rather a rare sound, to be the amples are, örng, avogós ; camera, chambre; aspirate of the thick t, made by protruding the tonitru, Donner, thunder; Schlummer, slumber; tongue to touch the teeth, while s is the proper Henry, Scottice Hendry; young, younger, proaspirate corresponding to the pure English t, and nounced young-ger, &c. On the other hand, before sh corresponds to a t formed by turning up the a mute, the nasal corresponding is often inserted. point of the tongue and making it touch the palate Thus, frango, rumpo, tundo, scindo, cumbo, &c., farther back than in pronouncing our English t. are strengthened forms of the stems, frag, rup, The same will, of course, be true of the varieties tud, scid, cub, &c. This practice seems to arise of d and its corresponding flat aspirates.

from an attempt to get a more appropriate sound In illustration of the statement, that a single to express continuation and effort. It seems to consonant in one language may be represented in be natural, especially for people in a low state of another by a combination of consonants of the civilization, to think much of present efforts, but same order, I give the following list :

soon to forget past toils. It is said that the English.


females formerly employed in coal mines might path, Pfad. tell, zählen. have been often seen bringing up their loads crypale, Pfahl. tame, Zahm. ing, and returning singing the next minute. pan, Pfanne. tongs, Zange. Accordingly, we find these strengthened forms in apple, Apfel. toe, zehe.

the present, but not in the perfect tense. On the pepper,

Pfeffer. ten, zehn. same principle, we have step (Scottice, stap), penny, Pfennig. heart, Herz. stamp; tap, Gr. Tup, thump; click, clink; trip, damp, Dampf. cat,

Katze. tramp; nubes, a cloud, but nimbus, the dark rain stump, Stumpf. set, setzen. cloud.

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says, "The Welsh language changes Prichard, “that d and r, consonants which appear pinto m. Here the connection in phonetics and in sound sufficiently remote from each other, were the connection in language do not closely coin in the Oscan language easily confounded." There cide.” I humbly think the connection in phone is no reason for being surprised this. The tics is pretty close. A cold in the head will effect organs with which both letters are pronounced the change. I heard a story illustrative of this are the same, and very nearly in the same posithe other day. In a theatre in a provincial town tion. Nor does there seem to my ear to be a an actor in the play of “Douglas," labouring under greater difference between the sounds of d and r cold, began,—“Mby dame is Dorbal,” &c. ; when than between the sounds of p and f. So we have a voice from the gallery shouted, “ Blow your dose, meridies for medidies, auris and audio, aes aeris Dorral!"

and aeneus, donum and òūgov, anugns and plenus, th. The softest state in which a consonant is lacryma and durguja, satis and äñis, Ulysses and found is when it has been worn down to a semi- Odvodsus. In Latin, r often usurped the place of vowel. It seems then to be in the last stage of what was formerly s, as in arbor for the older decay. In English, w, y, and I are often silent, arbos. Similarly we have generis the genitive of and final r is scarcely pronounced at all. The genus, Yevos. In the Mpongwe language (mouth process of change is not, however, all in the way of the Gaboon), t passes into r, and d into l, as of waning. It is well known that there was for- a regular inflectional change. As inflectional merly but one character, V, for both u and v. It changes of consonants are the surest proofs of is pretty evident that in Latin this letter was their affinity, I submit the following illustraonce pronounced either as u or w. Thus volvo tions :had been pronounced wolwo, our wallow. This

1.-EUPHONIC INFLECTIONAL CHANGES IN GREEK. would make the supines volutum and solutum

8 9

д natural and in analogy with other verbs in uo. But

7 B
become 77

in the modern languages derived from Latin the
sound of w has been quite superseded by that of

7 X

27 go x Ito o 9


off t. In harmony with this, we find English words beginning with w radically the same in German, II.-In Mpongwe (from Du Chaillu). and spelled also with w, which is pronounced as

As a mere inflectional change, 8. Thus water is in German wasser, pronounced


b, f, t, d, s, sh, j, k, tasser. Again, in modern Greek v is pronounced become v, vorw, v, r, 1, 2, zy, y, g. f, where there can be no doubt but it was a vowel in the ancient language.

III.-INFLECTIONAL CHANGES IN GAELIC. The interchange of y with the other gutturals Plain form, m, P, b, f, t, s, d, c, g. is quite as common as that of w into v. Words Aspirate, mh, ph, bh, fh, th, sh, dh, ch, gh. such as day, way, lay, where I imagine the y was Pronounced v, f, v, silent, h, h, gh, ch, gh. not very long ago slightly heard in pronouncia- With the exception of the aspirate linguals in tion, ended in Anglo-Saxon in g. In German, Gaelic, almost all these changes are illustrations also, these words have a g.

of the great law that consonants of the same order In English, igh has the name sound of i, which, are interchangeable. it will be borne in mind, is equal to äy. Now,

Canon II. -1st. Nasals are interchangeable. this gh is replaced in German and Scotch by ch. Thus the prefix in becomes im before m, p, and b.

The same is true of ey, which also before gutturals
Light, Ger. Licht; Lat. Luc-is.

becomes &y=eng.
Recht; Rect-us.

2d. Of the interchange of aspirates of different I


orders, I may give the following examples : Eye, Auge; OC-ulus.

9 in Greek becomes f'in Latin, as Segw, fervio; In these and many similar words, the long Juga, fores; Jņe, fera; sguagós, rufus; also Jinw, sound of i, or rather the last element of that volo. So Thursday is in Scotch Foorsday. diphthongal sound, seems due to the former pre- Initial s passes into h. Examples are Spanish sence of a hard guttural. So, also, our termina- words beginning with h, representing what was tions y and ly are in German ig and lich, in Dutch formerly an f in the older language, and in the ig and tijk, the last being our word like.

Latin words from which they are derived. The The change of the other linguals into the semi- aspirate fh in Gaelic in some few words is provowels is very frequent, although it is perhaps nounced h, and probably was so once in every often overlooked. " It must be concluded," says case, though now commonly silent.

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In English, gh having the sound of f, repre- into sh. This is a sort of compromise, s being the sents the guttural aspirate in Scotch and German. intermediate of the three linguals, and y being a Laugh, enough, sough, slough, trough, rough, tough, guttural, instead of being at the trouble to bring are in Scotch lach, eneuch, souch, sloch, troch, roch, both sets of organs into play, we use the organs teuch. The dislike of English to aspirate gutturals between, and say sh. This is the general result is shewn in their being sometimes changed into fof a y after s. A similar change occurs when y as in these words ; sometimes into the softer labial follows t or d. Thus righteous may be pronounced sound of w, as in plough, bough, slough; sometimes right-yous or right-shus. If India be contracted omitted altogether in pronounciation, though a y into Indya, it will have a great tendency not to or gh still remains a silent witness to the former rest there, but to become Inja, that is, Ind-zha. existence of a guttural, as in low, Sc. laigh; bought, In all such cases, it is the y that passes into sh or Sc. bocht ; though, Ger. doch, &c.

zh, in conformity with the second canon given Latin has the same dislike to aspirate gutturals. above. True y is not an aspirate, but a semiThus we have nix nivis for nizs niris, the root vowel ; but in many languages, the sounds of ch nich being mutilated for snich, Gaelic sneachd, and gh are unknown, and y is the nearest approxi

Vivo, as shewn by the perfect and supine, mation. At any rate, the guttural semi-vowel y must have had originally a guttural for its last passes regularly into the lingual aspirate sh or zh consonant. It is the same as our word quick, no less than ch does. J in French has the sound which retains its original meaning in the phrase, I have symbolized by zh, and represents the Latin the quick and the dead." The original verb ), which, there can be little doubt, was once proQVIGO had first lost the initial Q, a common occur- nounced as y. As instances of the aspirate ch

This would give vigo vixi victum con- passing into sh, we have many words like ship jugated like rego. Hence spring other forms, which is in Dutch, schip, where the ch has its own vigeo, vigor, vigil. Then vigo got softened down, guttural sound, and represents k in the Icelandic perhaps first into vigho and then into viho, which skip, and our skipper. Another instance of the passes into vivo precisely in the same way as interchange of guttural and lingual aspirates is Hesperus passes into Vesperus. The connection the well known fact that the rough breathing in between the assumed vigo, viho, and vivo is similar Greek often represents an s in Latin. There is to that between drag, traho, draw, and draught= the same relation between words in Gaelic begindraft. In the same way I would explain the ning with s and the corresponding words in Welsh connection between conniveo, connixi, fluvius, and which begin with h. But the change of s into h fluo fluxi, juvo and jucundus, &c.

is a common inflectional one in Gaelic. Thus, then, I think I have shewn the existence How are we to explain the very common change of interchange between the aspirate labials on the of k into ch soft, or even into the sounds of sh or s? one hand, and the aspirate gutturals on the other. For example, c hard in Anglo-Saxon, or k in GerOf the aspirate linguals, I am not aware that any man, often becomes ch soft in English. In Latin, interchange with the labials except th, which c must have once been always hard, but in Italian, stands nearest them.

before e and i, it is pronounced as ch in English, It is hardly worth while shewing that the three while in French it pronounced as s, or has been pairs of lingual aspirates are interchangeable. changed into ch, pronounced sh. Many people say th for s from a difficulty in pro- I believe in all these cases k passed into ch=t,sh nouncing the latter. The eth of the English third in the first place. This t,sh passed into sh by the person singular is only another form of es, which first canon, and sh into s by the second. In this has nearly supplanted it. Cerf in French is cervo case, then, Italian is nearer to the original Latin in Spanish, where c is pronounced th. S passes as than French is. naturally into sh. The words passion and nation Latham has, I have no doubt, given the true are pronounced in French pa-si-on, na-si-on ; and explanation of the transition from k to 1,8h. It is so with all other similar words. As we have this:-taken these words from the French, there is no First, The k sound is followed by a small vowel, doubt that it is the s which has passed into sh, not e, or i, or y; if not, the first step is to insert one. the sh sound into s. The way in which this has This is no uncommon thing. For example, Walker taken place is apparent enough. First, we have sanctions the pronouncing of garden as if gyarden. contracted a word of three syllables into two, Secondly, This small vowel is squeezed into a y. making the i lose its full vocal power, and become Thirdly, This y passes into sh. Canon II. Thus the semi-vowel y, as nasyon, passyon. Secondly, A. Saxon coorl = kyorl = kshorl, charta = carte it is not, then, the s alone, but the sy that passes = kyart =kshart.


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Fourthly, In this combination, k is supplanted when as an example. In the mouth of a Scotchby t, as being easier of pronunciation, along with man, it is pronounced hwen, or rather chwen. An the following linguals:- Thus kshorl became tshorl Englishman softens down the guttural element or churl, and kshart became t,shart or chart. very much, or perhaps omits it altogether, and

I must refer to Latham's English Language for says wen, a German says ven, and an Aberdonian the evidence in support of this explanation. fan. What is peculiarly noticeable here is the

It will be observed that the change of k into t fact that the extremes fan and chwan are found giren above is at variance with Canon III. It side by side in different Scotch dialects. In this does not, however, stand alone as an exception to particular instance, English and German are much that rule. P shares the same fate. Thus pipio nearer each otber than the Scotch of Fife is to pipionis must have become the French pigeon that of Aberdeen. So also, though ixxos is but through the Italian piggione, where g has the a dialect variety of int0s, it is farther removed sound of d,zh, or the English j. The steps of the from it than is the Latin equus. process must have been, 1st, pipione; 2d, pipyone; It is true that quum is often written cum, and 3d, pipzhone ; 4th, pidzhone; 5th, pizhon = that quoque was pronounced coque, but this is pigeon. Other instances of the same are prope, merely an absorption of the sound w into the proximus ; nubes, nuage ; cavea ; It. gaggia, Fr. nearly related vowel sound following, just as wood cage ; apium, ache, &c. The exception, then, and wool are vulgarly pronounced ood and ool. to Canon III, may be thus stated :-A mute There is no evidence, that I am aware of, that labial or guttural may change into the corres- quam was pronounced cam. ponding mute lingual when followed by a lingual I do not deny that there may be real excepaspirate,

tions to this canon, but as yet, the more such 3d

. Semi-vowels are interchangeable. In many exceptions have been examined, the fewer they words where I seems to be silent, it has passed have become. into the sound of 66, or w.

Thus there is no 66 It must be remembered that this paper is not a sound in the German representatives of wood, philological one. My task is the humbler one of would, should but there is an i. Bolster, solder, | tracing the phonetic relations of the consonants boll

, poll, &c., become in Scotch bowster, sowder, with one another. Changes may be made on bow, pou, &c. So from dole we have dowie. words from many causes, which may be quite inAgain, pl and cl in Latin become pi and chi in explicable on any of the principles stated above.

Thus clamare, chiamare; plumbum, Immediately is often vulgarly pronounced immepiombo.

dantly. This is evidently not a phonetic change Canon III. Mutes of different orders, with the of any kind, but a mistake founded on the analogy exception above mentioned, are not interchange- of such words as instantly; urgently, &c. But of able. An objection often taken to this law is the the omission or insertion of consonants; of their fact that qu in Latin often corresponds to in metathesis ; of the history of languages; of the Greek, and k in Gaelic to p in Welsh. I must many questions as to how language is influenced refer to Donaldson's new Cratylus and his Thes- by education, or the want of it; by civilization, aurus for a full discussion of this question. literature, and the printing press; by the characSuffice it here to say that qu is equal to kw, and ter and habits of a people; by conquests and the that the represents the labial w, not the k, mingling of races, -of these and other such topics which has been altogether lost. We have a simi- I have studiously refrained from speaking. lar case in regard to our wh. Take the word




From 1 to 180.

10 in the tent brave Mencetiades

Tended that wounded knight, Eurypylus :
Meanwhile the Greek and Trojan hosts fought on :
Nor was the deep ditch to withstand for long

The brunt of Trojan onset, nor the wall
With the ditch round it, which above the ships

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