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attention.” “ An ungraceful manner of speaking, that introduced it in this way. It imparts symawkward motions, or a disagreeable address, are metry and beauty to the entire frame, and gives great clogs to the ablest men of business.” This an agreeable air and grace to the movements, species of training received among the ancients a which never fail to prepossess. More important, great degree of attention, particularly from their though less understood or regarded, is the effect orators, in whose education it occupied a chief of physical exercise upon the mental operations. place. “Every emotion of the mind,” says The effect of the body upon the mind is everyCicero, “has from nature its own peculiar look, where very marked. Not only is health of body tone, and gesture; and the whole frame of a man, necessary to soundness of mind, but the exercise and his whole countenance, and the variations of of the bodily powers exerts a direct influence upon bis voice, sound like strings in a musical instru- the operations of the mind. “Mirum est,” says ment, just as they are moved by the affections of Pliny, “ut animus agitatione motuque corporis the mind." Looks, tones, and gestures are fre excitetur." The mind is first awakened into conquently much more expressive than words, and sciousness by impressions received through the in every one who claims to be regarded as edu- bodily organs, and these ever exert an important cated, the two ought naturally to go together. influence upon it. It is with these impressions This is only to be done by careful training, and that the understanding first exercises itself. directing the attention to the different movements. Hence,” says Salzmann, “the more we bring In this case the mode of teaching differs from the our body into collision with surrounding objects, other, and is not done at the word of command; that is, the more we exercise it, the more will its but the teacher having explained and even shewn organs be sharpened, and the mental powers be the exercise which is to be done, designates it roused to examine the various relations of those only by a clear and intelligible expression, and objects to us, and investigate their effects.” The by a second expression directs the action to be natural course of all training is from the body to commenced. If the exercise consists of several the mind, from the external to the internal, and parts, they are to be designated as one, two, three, there are various of our mental faculties that &c., or it may be by looks and gestures.

most receive their earliest, and ever receive their These remarks will shew the nature of the best, training through the exercise of the body. physical education which we have in view, and The attention which has been trained to concenife may appropriately conclude by noticing cer- trate itself upon external objects will be more tain of the beneficial results which would follow readily and perfectly brought to bear upon mental from it. We have already noticed what we re- states. The will, which has been accustomed to gard as the main object of physical education, assert its dominion in the movements of the body, that, namely, of bringing the various bodily powers will be better able to control the operations of under the direction and control of the will, so the mind. That magnanimity of mind and manthat they may render it ready and efficient service. liness of spirit that characterised the ancients, is Many good intentions perish from want of ability no doubt to be traced to their high physical trainto carry them out into action. The unexercised ing. It also has an important effect in cultivatweakly body creeps at the command of the will, and ing the æsthetic faculty, by developing a taste for seldom obeys it, except in those points which are beauty of form and motion; and to this we are agreeable to it. “The weaker the body, the more indebted for those models of antiquity that are it commands ; the stronger it is, the more it obeys.” still unsurpassed. Physical exercise, too, by (Rousseau.)

directing our thoughts and activities outwards, One important result of physical exercise is, and withdrawing them from self, is the best prethat it imparts health and vigour to all parts of servative against melancholy, misanthropy, hypothe system. It accelerates the circulation of the chondria, and a host of other mental or nervous blood, strengthens the vessels, increases the cuta- disorders that affect mankind. For want of proneous exhalations, and preserves the fluids in a per exercise, a man becomes a visionary, an enhealthy state; improves the appetite, quickens thusiast, a fanatic. “To thousands, the world the digestive operations, and augments the heat appears to-day serene and bright, to-morrow disof the body. The body is thus rendered capable mal and gloomy; to-day they can displace mounof resisting colds, and fortified against the attack tains, to-morrow they cannot move a straw." of numerous diseases. Even in the cure of dis- “And this complete change is commonly produced ease, physical exercise was recognised as an im- by the state of their bodies alone.” Nor is the portant means as early as the time of Hippocrates, moral effect of physical exercise less remarkable his master, Herodicus, being said to be the first than the intellectual; and many of the old divines

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are to be found recommending it as a means of matter of his discourse. He, on the other hand,
driving out the devil. Many of the passions with who is conscious of awkwardness in his position,
which we have to contend have their basis in our of impropriety in his movements, cannot look
physical constitution, and derive strength from naturally or speak connectedly on the sahject
the very weakness of our other powers. “ Physi- before him, from his attention being constantly
cal decline and moral depravity are intimately called away by his bodily feelings, and a painful
connected, and those laws which are requisite for consciousness of his position. Hence Whately
the preservation of health serve also to preserve recommends the public speaker to study to avoid
and improve the morals.” “In a word, our moral as far as possible all thoughts of self ; for in the
health and energy are commonly the result of same degree that he is thinking of himself, he is
our physical health and strength, and our moral “abstracting his attention from that which ought
failings are often nothing more than consequences to occupy it exclusively." There is no better way
of our bodily defects."—(Salzmann.) By action we | of abstracting attention from self than by accus.
diminish the nervous susceptibility, which only toming ourselves to natural and correct more-
finds delight in pleasurable sensations, and which ments, so that they become habits, and are
is a great source of immorality. Besides, it is by performed almost instinctively.
good actions that men become truly moral and Another important result of correct physical
virtuous, and for right action physical training is training, which we have not seen noticed in any e
necessary.

the numerous works on the subject, but which Another important result of correct physical we believe to be not less real than the other training, is exactly the same as that of a master is what we may term the reflex action of more. having a servant on whose ability and skill he can ment upon thought. We do not allude here confidently rely. He knows that his commands to what may be termed the physical effect of will be attended to, that his orders will be pro- motion upon thought, or the increased rapidity perly executed, and, consequently, he does not of thought and clearness of ideas that brisk require to give minute directions, or go into physical exercise tends to produce; but to the details, or superintend the several operations, and tendency of correct physical action to sugrest he can thus give his undivided attention to more the proper words and expressions. We believe important objects. In the same way, the man that there is such an intimate connection between whose physical powers have been properly trained, feeling and action, thought and expression, that knows that he can rely upon their readily and the one tends naturally to suggest the other ; and efficiently carrying out his intentions, is enabled not only that the word, thought, or feeling tends to direct his attention to more important matters, naturally to produce the proper action, but that and in cases of difficulty or danger, to see and at the action also tends to suggest the proper word, once seize upon any means of escape or relief that thought, or feeling. Burke, in his essay on the may present themselves.

Thousands," says Sublime and Beautiful, remarks, that "there is Salzmann,“ meet with accidents every year, be such a connection between the external feeling of cause they are lumpish, helpless, and liable to a passion and the external expression of it, that turn giddy, because they want power, agility, we cannot put ourselves in the position or attitude address, to help themselves." Address doubles of any passion without communicating a certain the faculties of the mind, and to know how to degree of the passion itself to the mind." Hence employ our powers to the best advantage, often we believe, not only that appropriate action supplies the place of strength. The public speaker, will naturally follow correct thought, but that by for instance, who feels confident that his position means of correct action the appropriate thoughts is natural, and that his thoughts and expressions and expressions will be suggested, the action will will be accompanied by their appropriate actions, not only suit itself to the thought, but the thought can keep his mind quite at ease on these points, will do so to the action. and concentrate his attention entirely on the

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The Museum, August 1. 1865.)

ELEJEN TARY ARITIINETIC AND THE REVISED CODE.

167

ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC AND THE REVISED CODE.

S

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O far as they have gone, either in Scot- oftener depend on his own power of correct and

land or England, the Revised Code quick calculation than un any text-book. We examinations shew that the weak propose to give one or two instances of plans by point of the elementary schools is which this exercising of scholars in the elementary

arithmetic. The following are the rules may be greatly facilitated. Some of them percentage of failures in the three R.'s :

are new,

and some old, and our purpose will be

gained if we excite teachers to increase the stock ENGLAND.

for themselves. 1863.

(1.) In simple addition, the answer can be very Reading,

12.66 per cent.

easily got by reading out the question, &c., that Writing,

14.9

the sum of each pair of lines = 100, 1000, &c. Arithmetic,

23.43

For instance,
1864.

36
35

342 Reading,

11.9 per cent.

644 100 65— 100 246 Writing

13.9

81
81

754– 1000 Arithmetic,

23.7
19- 100 76

987
SCOTLAND.

39
24- 100

13- 1000
1864,
61- 100 51

275 Reading,

84

49— 100 725— 1000 10.89 per cent. Writing,

28.6
33.4

384

381 Arithmetic,

3342 The Scotch returns are only for the period May

(2.) A series of sums varying by a common

difference to August 1864, and would seem therefore scarcely

may be given out. When the number to present a fair basis for the comparison made of terms is odd, the answer = the middle line between the two countries in Parliament by Mr multiplied by the number of terms. Bruce ; yet, at the same time, they shew that in 65

647 both, and especially in Scotland, teachers must be 72

536 bestirring themselves. The cause of the inferiority 79

425 in arithmetic can, we think, be easily ascertained. 86

314 In this branch, where practical facility depends 93

203 80 much upon routine drilling, repetition of ex- 100 amples, and correction of mistakes, the pupil- 107

2125=425 x 5 teacher's services were invaluable. Here, there. fore, it was to be expected that the first effects of 602 = middle line 86 X number of lines. the reduction in their numbers,

,-a reduction of

(3.) The following affords a simple plan of connearly twenty per cent., — would be observed.

structing exercises on the black board :Teachers will now require to make up for this

678

789 want by such appliances as are within their reach.

67

666 Text-books, containing the greatest number and

1134

1332 variety of examples, are now more in request, and

333

369 in more than one school, sets of cards, filled with examples in the different rules, are being largely The first line is any number; second, that number used. Depending more on their own unaided diminished by another easily subtracted ; thiru, efforts, teachers must now call to aid all means double the second; and, fourth, the number sub. by which rapidity and correctness may be secured. tracted from highest multiplied by 3. Answer is The old plan, of putting down each pupil to work four times the top line. questions from his own book, will clearly not gain (4) Write on the black board a horizontal line the desired result. Arithmetic must now be of figures, adding as you go along. Then ask the taught in classes, and in too many cases the pupil to put down the same figures, except the first, teacher must have two or more of these going on one place to the left, putting the first to supply the simultaneously. To do this efficiently, he must vacant space on the right. Then form the third in

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a similar way from the second, and so on till the three lines have been read out, their sum is the number of horizontal and perpendicular lines is line immediately below them. the same.

SUBTRACTION. (Sum 36.)

(1.) Put for the minuend a number consisting 6789231

of repetition of the same figure ; let the sum of 7892316

each pair of figures in the subtrahend figure 8923167

in minuend. The answer is obvious :9238678

88 | 88 | 88 | 88 99 | 99 | 99 | 99 | 99 2316789

35 | 44 | 62 | 71 90 | 81 | 27 63 54 3167892 1678923

53 | 44 | 26 17

9 | 18 | 72 | 36 45

1 (2.) Or, as an exercise where borrowing and 39999996

carrying will come in, let the minuend consist of The sum of the right hand line is 36 (which you a single digit, followed by ciphers, and the subtraascertained when putting down the question line); hend of any multiples of 9 below 99. Thus :each of the others is the same, with the carriage 3

80 00 00 00 00 00 00 added to it.

54 36 | 81 | 90 | 27 | 45 | 63 (5.) The following is another case where an ad

35 63 18 09 72 54 73 dition class may construct its own question, and the teacher can quite easily verify the result. With the exception of the first and last figures Put down a horizontal line of figures

, even in the which must be wrought, the answer may be read unit's place, multiply by 5, put the product below, off at sight. Each pair of figures in the answer is ask the pupil to add these two lines, put the sum

simply the reversion of the two immediately abore

in the subtrahend. below, and then add the sum to the line above, and go on doing so till there are 12 lines in all;

(3.) Put down for a minuend a series of mul. the 12th line is 100 times the second, or 500 times tiples of any number, for a subtrahend the same the first.

series of a smaller number. The answer will be Examples

the multiples of the difference of the numbers in 2345680 =

the same series. 11728400 5 a 17340 =

Examples. 14074080 = 6 a

20808

16, 24, 32, 40, 48 multiples of 8 from 2 to 8 times. 25802480 =

38148 =
12, 18, 24, 30,36

6 29876560 =

58956 =
4,06,08,10,12

2 65679040 =

97104 105555600

multiples of 13 from 156060 91, 78, 65, 52, 39, 26, 13 =

7 times to once. 171254640 73 a 253164

28, 24, 20, 16, 12, 08, 01 = multiples of 4 from 276790240 128 a 409224

7 times to once. 448024880 - 191 a 662388 724815120 = 309 a 1071612 = 309 a

63, 54, 45, 36, 27, 18, 09 = { multiples of 9 from , ,

7 times to once. 1172840000 - 500 a 1734000 = 500 a

This requires only an adaptation of the multiplior 100 times 5 a or 100 times 5 a

cation table, and by omitting a term now and then, The answer is in both cases 100 times the second an endless variety of examples may be formad

. line, a result easily verified. Another useful ex.

Here are some whose construction may be easily ercise is furnished by asking the pupil to sum the detected :whole twelve lines thus put down.

182736455463 (6.) The following are specimens of questions

40608101214 that might occur more frequently in our arith

142128354249 metical books :76 654 682

382

21426384105
354
318
134

13263952065
81 132

645

69 192 1131 1645

8162432040

585 384 2262 3290 1170

175185119 768 524 6580 2340

144270098 1536 9048 13160 4680

31915021 Read from the top line, and when more than

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5 a 6 a

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11 a 17 a 28 a 45 a

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73 a 128 a - 191 a

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As we have exhausted our space, we must defer answer in any of the examples we have adduced. the remaining simple rules to another occasion. Even when revising the simple rules with advanced We need scarcely remark that very few scholars scholars, there is scope for such variety that there in the simple rules would be able to force the I would be little fear of them doing so.

cae

HINTS ON TEACHING ELEMENTARY BRANCHES.

a

HE Report of the Committee of Coun- I like efforts to attain an exceptionally high standard

cil on Education for 1864–65 has just in a few cases do very much to raise the average appeared. It is, as usual, full of im- standard of care and intelligence in the reading of portant statistics, and contains much the whole school.

matter for discussion. One of the “A great change has taken place of late in the most valuable reports, if not the most valuable, is character of the ordinary class books for reading. that of J. G. Fitch, Esq., M.A., on British and Several new sets of reading lessons have appeared, other Protestant schools, not connected with the which profess to be specially adapted to the ReChurch of England, inspected by him in the vised Code, and these are rapidly superseding the county of York. It abounds in judicious remarks, Irish lesson books. The great fault in that cheap which should be well considered by every teacher and popular series was, that the language was too of the elementary branches. We therefore ex- bookish, and that a single page often contained tract the principal part of it.

more technical and unfamiliar words than could “The proportion of children who have passed be adequately explained in a whole day. The rethe examination in reading is very large,–11,089 sult of using such books was seen in the mechaniout of 11,476. The failures occur chiefly in the cal way in which the children pronounced syllable lowest standard, in which the little ones some- after syllable, and in their almost complete ignortimes fail through awe and bewilderment, rather ance of the matter to which the lessons referred. than from absolute ignorance. But although But in the reaction against this form of error it reading, which is fluent and accurate, as far as seems to me that the compilers of many modern the mere utterance of words goes, enables so many school books have been betrayed into another. to pass, I still desire to see more attention paid to Instead of crowding their pages with information, style and expression, and I have felt obliged to they have determined to give no information at warn teachers, that after the first examination a all. The fear of using a hard and repulsive style more stringent test will be applied in these re- has led them to the adoption of language so ostenspects. I fear that reading, even in the higher tatiously childish, that it is often difficult to find classes of our schools, will always be dull and life in a lesson a single word which admits of easier less, until teachers are more ready to acknowledge explanation, or which is above the level of the that it is an imitative art, and to be learned, not pupil's own daily talk. These books have unmerely by practice, but by example. Few teachers questionable advantages. They facilitate the take pains enough with their own cultivation in mechanical art of reading, and they make the this respect, and fewer still train their pupil. lessons attractive and amusing to the little ones. teachers to anything like finished excellence in It is a great gain to a child to form pleasant assothe art of reading. When the master or mistress ciations with the thought of a book, and to form is a graceful reader, the effect on the children is them as early as possible. But on the other always very manifest. In such schools the teacher hand, books of this kind teach little except the reads often to his class, desiring the scholars to art of reading. They do nothing to enlarge the follow him, to imitate the distinctness of his utter- learner's vocabulary, or to familiarise him with ance, and to observe his tone and emphasis. Oc- the ordinary language of books or of educated casionally he reads aloud to the whole school a

Moreover, they do not suggest to a teacher story or piece of poetry, taking pains to make it the necessity for any questioning. They disa model of good elocution. On my visit to a courage, as far as their influence extends, all school of this kind I am generally asked to hear cultivation of the intelligence in connection with one or two of the scholars recite a selected pas- reading, and they fail to leave on a child's mind sage, which has been learned by heart for the a due sense of the seriousness of study, or any purpose, and I always notice that these and the strong feeling that he has much to learn from

a men.

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