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thus checking the natural impulses of different There stands one great obstacle in the way of minds, and crippling voluntary exertion, the source this necessary reform. At present, the classes in of all true intellectual success, is defeating the which those subjects are taught, in which the purpose for which it exists. But besides this, future M.A. is to be examined, are imperative. such a uniformity is at the present day acting New classes would require to be established for against the interests of the Universities themselves. the new system. And then it would be difficult Almost all those situations which government has to make the old classes obligatory. The consa. thrown open to competition, are not acquired by quence might be that the professors in these examination in a special prescribed course, but departments would suffer considerable diminutico the subjects are within limits left to the choice of in their incomes, for they are at present largely the individuals. This is especially the case with dependent on their fees The answer to this the highest of them all, the Indian Civil Service. objection is, that the classes are not for the proIt may with perfect confidence be affirmed, that fessors, but the professors for the classes. those who are successful in the Examination for University is in the first place established for the that Service, are superior to the majority of Scot- instruction of students, and not for the support of tish Masters of Arts. Yet for the most part these professors. At the same time it is equally plain young men are disqualified for passing the ex- that there cannot be a good University without amination for M.A. We shall take an instance, well paid professors. And, therefore, we should We know a young man who competed for the be delighted to see those men who are now handIndian Civil Service. In preparing for the com- somely endowing Edinburgh University with petition, he followed the bent of his own mind, scholarships turn their attention to the dependent he stood very high in classics, especially in Greek, state of the professorships. Make the professorhe stood high in German, he was among the first ships to a considerable extent independent of fees, in Metaphysics, and he was among the first in and then there is no argument against free coma knowledge of English Literature and English petition in teaching in the Universities. Open History. Altogether, he held a high place in the up the Universities to all qualified teachers or list. Yet for years he had not looked near a lecturers, and there will at once be more energy, mathematical book, he knew almost nothing of more successful teaching, more independent reNatural Philosophy or Natural Science. The search, and a fuller representation of all branches true end, however, of education had been accom- of knowledge. plished in him. He went to India with an ardent Dr Lees has also in his admirable pamphlet love for his favourite studies, and we can assert some judicious remarks on the necessity of one with confidence, that he will continue to have University for Scotland. This matter we reserve delight in these studies to the end of his days. for a future occasion. Before leaving this country he would willingly have connected himself permanently with his own Tue CONSCIENCE Clause.- A return has just University, but the strict uniformity of the ex- been published of the cases in which “the educaamination prevented him. This case is only one tional department of the Privy Council has out of many which we know of a similar nature; objected to make a grant towards the building of and these cases will necessarily multiply, for a National or Church of England School, between educators are beginning to see that it is their the 1st day of January 1861 and the 31st day of business to develop individuality while training December 1864, on the ground that children of the mind.

dissenters might be excluded from such a school; What then do we recommend ? some one may specifying in each case why the objection was ask. We think that, as Dr Lees proposes, the taken, and whether the promoters received it (the plan of the Indian Civil Service should be followed grant) by inserting a Conscience Clause in their A considerable variety of subjects should be set Trust-Deed.” There are seventy-one cases. In down, inarks should be assigned to each, and the forty-one cases, the promoters have agreed to student should be allowed to select from these insert the Conscience Clause in their trust-deeds; subjects for examination. If he reaches a certain in eight, no answer has been returned; and in aggregate number of marks, he should be declared twenty-two, a negative answer has been given. M.A., whatever be the subjects he has chosen. In a considerable number of the twenty-two cases, The number of aggregate marks might be so fixed the half, or more than the half, of the population that it would be impossible for a student to become are dissenters. These facts speak for themselves. M.A., without being acquainted with several sub- They are historical and prophetical. jects of different training powers.

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THE MUSEUM,

AND

English Journal

Journal of Education.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

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N a previous article* we have endea- | We believe that, in our present condition, matter

voured to shew that the body, or is an essential element in consciousness; or as Dr material part of man's nature, plays | Carpenter expresses it," that some change must a much more important part in the be effected in the nervous centres by every im

animal economy than is commonly pression of which we become conscious ;" that as supposed ; that not only are body and spirit in- | in the external world there is every reason to beseparably connected together in this life, but that lieve that we can only take cognisance of material both are inseparably present in every one of our objects or their properties, so in the mental we powers and faculties, that both are concerned in are only conscious of those thoughts or spiritual every act.

Hence every thought that passes operations that effect some material change in through the mind partakes of the material as our nervous organisation. The soul's work is ever well as the spiritual, and every action of the an unconscious work. It acts unconsciously in body, of the spiritual as well as the material. We the formation and development of the minutest believe that wherever we have growth and decay, part of the body, equally unconsciously in the wherever we have a power or faculty capable of highest operations of the mind. “The soul,” says improvement through exercise, subject to fatigue Morell, “exists unconsciously from the formation through exertion, and capable of being restored of the first cell germ; it operates unconsciously by rest or by material means, then, and to that throughout all the early processes of life; it acts extent, we have to do with matter. In place of unconsciously even in the greater part of the believing that the soul has its seat in some par- efforts which subserve our intellectual developticular part of the brain, or stomach, or other ment. All the most complete researches into the part of the body, or has to do only with some of nervous system confirm this view of the case."the higher operations of the mind, we are of (Elements of Psychology.) * opinion that it pervades and animates every part * To some these views may seem to savour of materialism. of the system, acting in the minutest cell, as well “The charge of materialism, however,” says Mr Newnham, as guiding and directing the highest operations of

"will rest on those who represent the mind (spirit) as suscep

tible of growth in infancy; of development during adolescence ; the mind. “ The soul,” says Morell, “is in the of attaining its full energies in the period of manhood ; as liable whole body, in every part, in every nerve; it to decay in common with the failure of the animal powers toforms the peculiar essence of humanity, and with

wards the decline of life; as obscured and enfeebled by disthe body it constitutes the reality and the unity and may we not add, as annihilated by death 1for if the

ease; as having its functions destroyed by a variety of accidents; of the individual man.” The spirit is enveloped spiritual principle be thus exposed to the same natural and in every direction by a material covering, through

morbid changes which act upon the body, what ground have

We for supposing that the last is not a final change; or that which, and by means of which, it thinks and acts. the mental manifestations have any higher origin than that * The Body in Education, vol. il. p. 9.

which results from the principle of life, and the influence of

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VOL. II.

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Body and mind are therefore in our view not present article we restrict it to its commonly reseparate and distinct, but are each compounded of ceived acceptation, and use it as denoting the the same elements,-each partake both of matter culture of the external organs of the mind, parand spirit. Were this mere matter of opinion, ticularly those of sensation and motion. It is, and did we not believe that most important re- however, of the utmost importance to keep in view sults in the matter of education depended upon a the intimate connection that subsists between our right understanding of this subject, then we mental and physical natures; a connection which should have considered ourselves out of place only becomes intelligible to us when we recognise here in advancing or dwelling upon it. We the same material element as present in both. think it, however, of the utmost importance to The material upon which our mental manifesta. the educator to understand the nature of the tions depend, is the same as that which constitutes materials with which he is dealing, how far their our physical frame, is subject to the same lawi, operations are subject to law and order, or directed and is sustained and nourished in the same way. by influences beyond his power of control. If The same arterial blood nourishes all parts of the matter is an elementof mind as well as of body, then system, and is dependent upon the various diges. would we expect the laws that regulate the latter tive, respiratory, and other functions of the body. to prevail also in the former. Accordingly, do we Hence it is that a sound body is necessary to not find that those that apply to the one are soundness of mind, as in like manner a sound applicable also to the other? Do we not find that mind is necessary to health of body, for nothinz the powers and faculties of the mind are developed can affect beneficially or injuriously the one withunder exactly the same rules and conditions as out exerting a like effect upon the other. Unfor those of the body. In the one case as in the tunately, however, the important bearings of the other, the great, the only means of improve cultivation of our physical powers are in a great ment is exercise,-exercise under the same con- measure overlooked, and hence the culture of the ditions and limitations, and adapted to the par- body has little or no place in our present systems ticular faculty. In all cases, the effect of exercise of education. This was not so among the classie is the same, rendering operations which are at nations of antiquity. Among the Greeks, gymfirst difficult or disagreeable gradually less so by nastic exercises were thought of so much impractice, until they come to be habitual. From portance, that they received as much time and regarding the principle, we may thus come in attention as all the other branches of education many cases to understand how we are to deal with put together. To this they were indebted for the mental constitution of man.

that healthy and beautiful development, in which Though the term physical education would the Greeks excelled all other nations; and it “at thus in a sense embrace all education, as we hold the same time imparted to their minds,” accordthat our physical or material nature is concerned ing to a writer in Dr Smith's Dictionary of in all our conscious mental operations, yet in the Antiquities, “that power and elasticity which

will ever be admired in all their productions." its harmony upon the healthy play of the several organs of the Physical education, then, we regard as the probody? But no! the spiritual principle of man, the divinity per exercising of the different physical organs of that stirs within him, continues always the same, and suffers no change from the varying circumstances of oganisation."

man in order to render them strong and active in (Principles of Education.) To seek for proofs of the soul's the performance of their various functions. Its immateriality and immortality among the changing and perish- object is to render the different members of the able, is to seek the living among the dead. They are to be found, not in parts, but in the whole ; animating every part; body ready, willing, and efficient servants of the conferring thought and feeling ; and manifesting itself in those mind. We hear much in the present day of principles of truth, beauty, and goodness, which are beyond utilising our wastes. In our manufactures, our reason or experience, and that aspiration after a more perfect state of being, which indicates a nobler origin and a higher mining and metallurgical operations, everything destiny than any pertaining to this life. But even these in- is done to turn the refuses to the utmost advancomprehensible mental principles are dependent upon our tage, we take in and cultivate every possible acre physical nature, in so far as they are only developed and brought out by observation and experience. As, without com

of land, and yet how little care do we take of our munication with the external world, our mental nature would moral wastes. To say nothing of brain, how little be a perfect blank, so without individual instances of beauty or effort is made to cultivate and turn to advantage goodness being presented to our observation, these higher the bone and sinew that are growing up around principles of our nature would remain undeveloped. It is by the repeated contemplation of such instances that those inner Yea, is there any one among us that has not principles of the soul reveal themselves to us, in like manner within himself such wastes, that is not conscious as the lapidary, by repeated grinding and polishing, brings out that there are certain organs of his body, that for the beautiful streaks and colours that lie concealed under the rough exterior of the precious stone.

want of proper training do not render him that

us.

amount of ready and efficient service that they monly neglected, and the pupil is left to hang, otherwise might do. How many of our senses, climb, swing, and perform the other movements at for instance, supply the mind with that amount will, and in any way he pleases. Their main of ready, accurate, and varied information of object also is to develop strength and endurance which they are capable ? How many of our in certain of the muscles, to the neglect of others, muscles render the necessary amount of efficient while accuracy, grace, and nicety of movement service to the behests of the mind? There are are entirely overlooked. Physical education, in upwards of 500 muscles in the human body, the our view, has for its main object the training of great majority of which are under the control of the various physical organs to render a ready and the will

, and yet for want of proper training they efficient service to the mind. Its movements are in general act in so irregular, slovenly, and therefore not few and simple, but various and awkward a manner, that double the force is re- complicated, and require to be based upon an quired to accomplish half the work that would intimate knowledge of the structure and physiotherwise be necessary if they were properly ology of the various organs. They require to be trained. By learning to act promptly and at once, such as are natural and proper to the different not only is the action itself more easy, and the parts, and their training to be carried out with a demand upon the nervous powers less, but the due regard to health and development. That is mind itself is set free to attend to other duties; the correct and proper movement of a muscle whereas the man who is always resolving and re- which is performed with the least possible degree resolving to effect an object, has the mind fre. of fatigue, and with the greatest facility and quently recalled to it, and the effort employed in grace. Exercise should be commenced gently each resolution is often greater than would be and gradually, beginning with those movements necessary for the performance of the duty itself. that are simplest and most easy, care being An awful sea of misery is that mind which is taken not to pass to the more violent and difficult, principally taken up with unfulfilled resolutions. till the preceding by practice have become quite The effect of proper physical training is to enable easy. Every movement should be performed the several bodily powers to perform the greatest slowly and continuously, without jerk or effort. amount, with the greatest amount of ease, or the Almost all our ordinary movements are compound, least possible degree of fatigue. Even in the being made up of a number of minor ones, into simple and common operation of walking, for which they require to be resolved, and each instance, how seldom do we see it performed with practised separately in order that the entire that ease and grace of which it is capable! We see movement may be learned fully and accurately. too much force thrown into certain of the muscles, Our attention is intense in the inverse ratio to its others unnecessarily called into action, some act- extension, and the smaller the movement or poring out of their turn, others unnecessarily strained tion of a movement upon which it is directed, and fatigued. “An easy, graceful, and firm de- the more readily and accurately will it be learned. portment in walking,” says one, “is as uncommon It is of the utmost importance that precision and as it is dignified and prepossessing. In walking accuracy be constantly aimed at in the performgracefully, every muscle employed is called upon ance of the different movements, as by this means for no more than its fair share of exertion,-all is the attention is excited and kept up. It is by compact and united, the whole frame proceeds thus enforcing the greatest accuracy in the differcalmly and equably, each part of it acting in ent movements, that military men can engage in unison with the rest.” The great object of edu- the same operations day after day for twenty cation, whether physical or mental, is to econo- years with fresh and increasing interest. mise power so that we may have the greatest possi- That system of exercises, which on the whole ble amount of work at the least possible expense comes best up to our ideas on the subject, is that of material or effort.

which is named after the Swedish physician Ling: Physical education we regard as something and is advocated in this country by Dr Roth, very different from that which commonly receives without, however, its being carried to the unneces

Its object is not to render boys sary length that is recommended. We shall here adepts at running and leaping, climbing poles, notice some of its leading features, referring for ascending ropes, or hanging by their hands or details to the special works published on the heels. In general, such exercises can only be subject. It is a characteristic of this system, that injurious to the system, both mind and body; and, this principle we have advocated, of reducing at best, they serve only to develop mere muscular every act to its simplest component parts, is carstrength. In such cases, all instruction is com- ried out. “ Movements, even apparently the

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most simple, are compounded of several elements. intonation, and quickly or slowly, according as the Thus, in so simple a movement as a leap, there movement is to be done in quick or slow time. are three principal parts clearly distinguishable, The marking and counting of the time is a very which follow each other, and each of these parts essential element, as by means of it the moreconsists of smaller ones also distinguishable." ments are made regular and uniform, and the It “comprises a raising of the heels, a flexion of sense or perception of time is developed. the foot and knee joints, &c., forming the first metrical development of the speech is made an part of the leap; a strong stretching of the dif- important object of education ; but with regard to ferent joints, &c., in order to spring from the the exercises of the limbs, the metrical laws have ground; and, finally, another flexion and stretch- been very little or not at all thought of, and it is ing of the different limbs in order to finish the a great advantage of Ling's Gymnastics that it is leap, and return to the previous upright position.” made one of the principal features."(Roth.) * Therefore, for a complete consideration of the In exercising, there are first of all the various leap, we have not only to see that it is done with positions that are to be taken up, as the fundaa certain amount of quickness, but that the differ- mental, the close, the stride, the walk, the coment motions follow each other one certain way, mencing. Then there are the simple or elementary and in a certain time, and that the separate movements of the different parts of the body, as motions bear a determined relation to each other (a) of the head, (b) of the foot and leg, (c) of the with regard to time.” “ It is indispensable for arm and hand, (d) of the trunk. These are then the teacher to divide each movement into its combined and varied in many different ways, but constituent motions or elements, and to mark not before the respective single movements can them during their performance by counting, for be correctly performed. Then there are walking only in this way can we become conscious of the running, and leaping exercises, the object of form and signification of each movement, or the which, however, is not to develop velocity in the exercises become conscious actions.” “To raise feet, but to teach them to move with steadiness the arms from a hanging position in a loose ran- and accuracy, to preserve good postures, and to dom way without thinking, and to stretch them increase the elasticity of the foot and knee joints. in the air, can have little corporeal effect, and In the different forms of movements with regard certainly no mental one ; but to stretch the arms to space, the line of movement describes certain in a manner and direction, and with a velocity symmetrical figures, as in the walk and run exerall previously determined and exactly prescribed, cises, to move in a straight, circular, serpentine and then to move their different parts (upper and line, &c., each of these different modes of moving fore arm, hand, and fingers), precisely as deter- having some special object with regard to the mined and commanded, this is an exercise which, developing effect of the exercise. independent of the physiological effect on these There is a still higher and more important kind limbs, tends to awaken and sharpen the sense of of gymnastics, also forming a part of Ling's systime and space. To learn to leap very far or tem, and called æsthetic gymnastics. It embraces very high, it is not necessary to have any special the proper positions and movements of the body gymnastic instruction ; but to be enabled to leap by which to express the thoughts and feelings of in a certain way with the least possible expendi- the mind. Every mental emotion or pussion has ture of power, with great certainty and precision, appropriate forms of expression, and as these are with graceful ease, with nice regard to distance, effected by means of the muscles, they naturally &c., &c., this is a matter calling for skilful and form a part of physical education. The body is systematic instruction, and such a system con- | the index of the mind, and it is of importance stitutes gymnastics.” The exercises are performed that the ideas which one wishes to convey to anslowly, at least at first, so that the mind may other should be accompanied with their appromake itself fully conscious of them, and the atten- priate actions, from which they receive force and tion be concentrated upon the different movements. carry conviction to the minds of others. And They are all done as in military exercises at word yet how often do we find the two almost wide as of command, the orders being short and signifi- the poles asunder-actions, for instance, that are cative, and pronounced in an impressive manner. intended to be kind or affectionate, performed in There is, first, the announcing order, which so clumsy and awkward a fashion as to be very describes generally the limb to be moved and the much the reverse. People,” says Chesterfield, direction of the movement, as “ Right knee up-“ mistake grossly who imagine that the least wards,” and then after a short pause the execu- awkwardness in either matter or manner, mind tion order « Bend,” pronounced with a strong or body, is an indifferent thing and not worthy of

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