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skill, which have brought within the reach of all that little system in the vast system of the solar

hose who would know something about astronomy, world ; than that miniature earth, ever performing so capital, so trustworthy a guide.

round our earth a series of movements exactly The object of M. Guillemin has been essentially similar to those which our globe perforins round the to write a treatise for the multitude. Leaving to sun ? Amongst the physical peculiarities connected others the glory of emulating La Place and Herschel. with the moon, we must notice the absence both of he aims, like M. Figuier, at being a vulgarizer of atmosphere and of water. From the former cir. science, if we may use such an expression, and we cumstance it follows that the lunar landscapes have think that he has perfectly succeeded. A quotation a strange character. Here the shadows have always from the preface will shew what materials have been the same intensity; and the harshness of the tones accessible to our author, and prove, to a certain is softened only by the reflections which are extent, that he deserves our fullest confidence. sufficiently numerous on a soil particularly uneven.

“I have aimed at placing this attempt of No perspective, none of those effects of light and popularized science on a level with the most recent shade which in vest our owu terrestrial landscapes and the most authentic discoveries. I have there with so much charm. Refraction does not decom. fore addressed myself directly to the greatest astrono pose white light into seven primary colours, and mers both in Europe and in America. All have into a thousand various combinations. The rain. liberally given me the assistance of their learning; | bow and other phenomena of the same kind are original memoirs, drawings, photographs, have been unknown to the inhabitants of the moon. On the sent to me from the various centres of scientific other hand, for them, the stars and the rest of the knowledge with a generosity for which I must hero constellations shine brilliantly in the broad daylight. publicly express my heartfelt gratitude. Encourage. The absence of water is a consequence of the absence ments and counsels have not been wanting. The of air. Supposing seas, lakes, or merely streams, venerable patriarch of contemporary astronomers, existed on the surface of the moon, the want of Sir John Herschel, Admiral Smyth, MM. Warren atmospheric pressure would reduce them immediately de la Rue, and Lassell, in England; the illustrious into vapour, whilst under the energetic influence of director of the Pulkowa observatory, Otto Streue, the sun, the gas thus generated would produce in Russia; MM. de Littrow in Germany, and P. S. round the satellite a thick kind of coating. Now, Bond, in the United States, are, amongst foreign observation of the most accurate description has astronomers, those to whom I owe most thanks for failed to ascertain any moveable spot on the moon's their generous assistance.

disc, and therefore, we are justified in concluding “In France, M. Le Verrier has eagerly placed at the total absence of water, which we have admitted my disposal the library of the imperial observatory, à priori. and has authorised me to take drawings of the finest The constitution of the stars, their classification, instruments belonging to that magnificent establish- their different groups, are fully explained in the ment. MM. Laussedat, Chacornac, Goldschmidt, second division of M. Guillemin's work. With have helped me with their advice, and communicated reference to the physical and chemical elements of to me their observations."

which they are formed, our author shews that, in From this statement we see that M. Guillemin order to ascertain these, we need not wait until the has been particularly favoured for the preparation instruments employed by astronomers in their of his volume; and when we further take into con observations have reached a state of perfection, sideration the resources available in the numerous which we are scarcely justified in expecting. bulletins, memoirs, journals, and other publications “Thanks,” says he, “to an admirable method of of the various scientific societies, we shall have analysis, by virtue of which we can conclude from some slight idea of the ample stock of materials he the constitution of the luminous spectra to the had to work from. Let us now ascertain what use presence or absence of certain substances in the very he has made of them.

focus of light-thanks to what is termed spectral The first part of the book, entitled the solar world, analysis, we may anticipate the speedy appearance of is divided into three sections, treating respectively an epoch wben we shall be able to say: Iron, copper, of the sun, the planets, and the comets. The quicksilver, exists in such a star; that one contains chapters referring to the moon, profusely illustrated, sodium, the next manganese. Perhaps also we shall and containing as they do the results of the most succeed in ascertaining, amongst the constituent recent and accurate observations, commend them- elements of Sirius, Vega, Orion, &c., the selves particularly to the reader's attention. As of substances unknown to our world.

Already M. Guillemin aptly remarks, the proximity of the investigations of this kind have begun, a few data moon to the earth, which it accompanies in its are established, and this new branch of astronomy evolutions round the sun, renders it one of the promises the most curious, the richest harvest." heavenly bodies the most interesting to study and After some interesting considerations on the to know. What can be more curious indeed, than milky way, and the other clusters of nebula, M.

presence

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Guillemin sums up as follows the descriptive part of unknown, from the simple to the complex; he his book :

begins by shewing how we can measure the distance " In the depths of boundless space, numerons of an object inaccessible but placed on the surface agglomerations of stars exist, which are, as it were, of the earth, such as a tower, a steeple, a tree, &c.; the archipelagoes of that indefinite ocean. Each one he then demonstrates that the ascertaining of the of these milky ways is itself formed of u multitude distance betwoen us and the moon, for example, is of clusters, where the suns are grouped as in so many calculated on precisely the same principle. The systerus, the condensation of which is more marked theory does not, therefore, present the slightest than in the ensemble of the nebula.

difficulty; all the obstacles are to be met with in "The suns are the individuals of these associations the application, and these can be avoided with care, of worlds. But here again we find the tendency to patience, and a moderate amount of skill. the formation of groups ; and the double and The final chapter of M. Guillemin's book treats multiple stars reveal to us the simple systems by of the principal astronomical instruments. Whilst virtue of which two or three suns gravitate one preparing this portion, the author has enjoyed, as round the other.

we have already noticed, the advantage of examining " Here would stop what we can know of the at leisure the magnificent collections of the Paris structure of the universe, were it not for the fact observatory; and the woodcuts which reproduce these that we ourselves form part of one of the simplest marvels of modern scientific ingenuity are very anongst these solar worlds, and that the study of well done. In conclusion, we think that the popular our planetary system, with its varied organisation, treatise on astronomy thus added by Messrs Hachette shows to us the part played by one of these millions to their already large store of educational works, of heavenly bodies wbich move through space, deserves the strongest commendations; and we know projecting everywhere their rays and their heat." of no other work on the same subject better cal

M. Guillemin has thus described the innumerable culated to excite our love for that great God, phenomena of which the firmament is the scene; he “excellent in power and judgment, and in has explained and illustrated the rotation of the plenty of justice,” who has “fastened the foundation planets, the movements of the comets, the distribu- of the earth, and laid the corner-stone thereof." tion through space of those luminous bodies which the power of God has scattered with such magnificent The Great Schools of England: an Account of the profusion, to engage our study and to excite our

Foundation, Endowments, and Discipline of the Chief praise. It remains now that we should determine

Seminaries of Learning in England; including the laws that regulate the world and maintain

Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St Paul's, Charter between its constituent parts the most admirable

House, Merchant Taylors', Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsharmony. In a treatise like the one we are now

bury, fc, fc. By HOWARD STAUNTON. With noticing, destined for general readers, it would have

Illustrations. London: Sampson Low, Son, & been, of course, out of place to give mathematical

Marston, Milton House, Ludgate Hill. 1865. calculations, and to reproduce the learned argumen. tation of Kepler, Newton, and Lalande. M. Guillemin This work is somewhat similar to the “Public has merely quoted some of the fundamental pro- Schools' Calendar” which we noticed some time positions, and he has admirably succeeded in giving ago. Both derive a good deal of their material from a complete, accurate, but by no means abstruse, the Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners on the résumé of the laws upon which the equilibrium of the Great Public Schools of England, and both give inphysical universe is founded.

formation with regard to a few of the principal The measure of the distances which separate the schools not lying within the province of the Com. heavenly bodies is, as we all know, one of the most missioners. They differ, however, in their aims. puzzling problems in astronomy, and for persons The “ Public Schools Calendar" supplies us with unaccustomed to mathematical methods, it seems numerous particulars which it is necessary for those beyond the reach of possibility. We are not to know who wish to send their sons to any of these astonished, accordingly, at finding our author de schools, and details the events of last year with a voting to it an entire chapter; and we need scarcely minuteness calculated to satisfy the members of say that he has cleared every difficulty that could each school. The general details of these matters possibly remain in the mind of mero tyros. To are also given in Mr Howard Staunton's work, but measure, with the help of a standard judiciously his aim is much more ambitious. He enters into the selected, the distance at which is from us an object history of each School, gives biographical notices of visible but inaccessible: such are, in all their famous men brought up in it, describes its buildings, generality, the terms of the problem, and the sup. and adds literary and antiquarian remarks, wherever posed obstacle is stated at once as we make the necessary or interesting. Pictorial illustrations are enunciation. M. Guillemin here, as throughout his also used to realise the outward appearance of the whole volume, proceeds from the known to the places.

Mr Howard Staunton prefaces the book with an

Staunton to remarks which have been made on this introduction of some length. It is admirably writ- subject in the articles in the January number of the ten, full of profound thought tersely and gracefully Museum, on “The End of Intellectual Education," expressed. In this introduction he gives a sketch and on “The Necessity of a Knowledge of Physiof the state of education in the various countries of ology,” and in the article on Physiology in the preEurope, notices the historical rise of schools, and sent number. then passes on to the discussion of what ought to We should like to extract large portions from this be taught in our highest schools. His statements introduction, to give the author's opinions wider are generally accurate, and evidently got from the circulation, for they well deserve it. We shall conbest sources. Occasionally, however, we notice a tent ourselves with one extract. slip. Where, for instance, did he get this informa- “ To make the loftier kind of education in Eng. tion with regard to Greece? “In modern Greece, land what it ought to be, three measures are chiefly where, in harmony with the glory and the greatness needful: the appointment of a minister of public inof ancient Greece, education should be not merely struction, with somewhat of autocratic authority; universal, but nobler than everywhere else, it is the establishment of a national university; and the deplorably neglected.”

formation of academies and schools, corresponding A recent article in the Museum, based on the pro- to the Gymnasium and the Realschulen of the Gergramme of studies published by the authorities of mans, in which the business of instruction should the Athenian university, gave our readers some idea not be monopolised, to the extent it is in our great of the completeness of the staff of professors in the schools, by the ministers of the church. university of Athens. And we have before us “ Education in England is at present very much statistics collected by the Government, and discussed of a chance-medley affair. It has neither unity of by professors in the university, in an Athenian object nor of spirit. The whims of individuals, the fortnightly journal called the Pandora, which shew bigotry of sects, the timid interference of the Gowhat immense strides education has made within vernment, the tricks of charlatans, sciolism, incomthe last few years in Greece.

petency, coarse popular feeling, and necessity, all Mr Howard Staunton's opinions are in general co-mingle and counteract. What fruits can such a remarkable for their soundness—a rare quality, system, or rather such an absence of system, bear? we are sorry to say, in writers on education in this A minister of public instruction would not, it is true, country. To one of them, however, we beg leave to eradicate the whole evil, would not provide a perfect demur. “On the other hand, while nothing of remedy, but he would be an efficient instrument of human physiology but the faintest outline, and no

a great reformation. He would potently help to bring thing of political economy but that which operates order and unity; he would infuse energy, and would to correct antiquated errors, should be offered as compel even the most recalcitrant and incapable to intellectual nutriment to the pupils of the great follow a comprehensive plan. In this country there English schools, natural history should be presented is a dislike, and a very proper dislike, to that bureauincessantly and abundantly, though always as a re

cratic meddling which is the bane of continental creation rather than as a study."

states. But we sometimes suffer as much from the The study of physiology is absolutely necessary want of centralisation as other nations do from its to a scientific knowledge of natural history. Natu- excese. By all means let bureaucracy, which is the ral history is a series of classifications. These pedantry of despotism, be opposed. Let no dread, classifications are ultimately based on physiological however, be entertained of centralisation where differences, and the most important results of a study education is concerned, for vigorous centralisation of natural history are lost if this study is not com

would quicken and stimulate public instruction, enbined with that of comparative anatomy. But if we large its scope, and hasten its march. separate a general knowledge of natural history A national university in or near the metropolis from a thorough scientific knowledge of it, then is one of the most urgent national needs. This neither physiology nor political economy can be re

might be the noblest university on the earth. The placed by natural history. For natural history, British empire is not limited to the British islands, owing to the simple nature of its facts, can be pre- and British influence is not limited to the British sented to the child in his earliest stages of training, empire. London is the centre of the world's matewhile physiology and political economy present such rial commerce; it might be the centre of a diviner complicated problems, that in a complete system of commerce—that of mind. The cosmopolitanism education they can be treated fully only towards the which would destroy earnestness and efface nationend of the course. They both, moreover, present alities is not to be commended, but how desirable a modes of investigation not known to natural history point would that be, where what is best in all as a mere series of classifications. We say this, nationalities could meet.” apart altogether from the insight which both give into man's individual and social life. We refer Mr

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Public and Middle-class School Education : what it is proper he should know. Thus it is a sin to try to

and what it should be. By a PRACTICAL Man, know God's own words ! But, oh, are we better than Master in a Public School, for many years Prin- they when we pronounce a man to be an infidel cipal of a Classical and Commercial Academy, because he obeys God's bidding, by looking at his Author of various works on Education, &c. works as well as words; because he studies the London: Virtue, Brothers, and Co., 1 Amen lessons that the physical world was intended to teach Corner, Paternoster Row. 1865.

him; because he would ascertain that that very

Creator is far mightier, far wiser, far more benevolent, We suspect we are not fit to criticise this work. just, and merciful to man than any words can ever We have a kind of idea that it is awfully clever, but represent him to be ? we have to confess that we do not fully understand “ If so, what a depraved man I must be accounted it, and we are occasionally uncertain whether the who have spent all iny leisure moments, and also author is serious or ironical. However, we shall let all the money I could dispose of, in trying to fathom our readers judge by specimens. Here is the

as many of nature's secrets as lay in my power to dedication :

investigate. Can I expect mercy after all my "There is the same difference between a thinker experiments in chemistry, physics, anatomy, and and a learned man, as there is between a book and physiology? after all my geological researches? its table of contents.

and after all the consequent musings and reflections “I admire learned men, but I keep all my love in moral philosophy? Is there any hope for me, for thinkers; to the latter, therefore, do I beg to who find that the more I see, the more I want, and inscribe the following pages. That they may prove will endeavour, to know ? for me, who am convinced acceptable to many is the earnest wish of their that were my natural life to last for ever, for ever, bumble writer."

too, would the whole of my energies be devoted to His account of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the study of God's works, which teach me so well, Epicurus, and Zeno is as follows:

ay, better than any sermon, how unworthy I am of * Then came Socrates and all his doubts.

I his mercy, and how much I need his grace to save wonder whether the author of the Cartesian philo-me from despair? sophy had more misgivings about the reality of his “ Permit me now to state briefly the reasons why own existence than Socrates. Yet the latter was scientific men are thus despised, or rather feared, by continually urging man to know himself, for he, many. alas! believed in an immortal soul, the proclamation "1st. The pulpit ever waged war against the of which creed left him no doubt as to the mortality physical sciences in favour of the metaphysical; no of his own body, on which the grateful Athenians wonder, then, that physicists of all descriptions and made a most deadly experiment with hemlock, merits should, at the same time, be run down in the when the noble philosopher's life was all but nearly minds of the prejudiced by the sweeping assertion spent. How are those now treated who openly that experimental philosophy is atheistical.' profess the contrary opinion ? Why, they are “2d. The earth was formerly believed to be a outlawed !

fixed plane or flat body, longer from east to west "Plato, too, distinguished himself by propounding than from north to south, resting on, and environed his theory of innate ideas, which we disbelieve, | by water (the infernal regions being where the word while we admit the testimony of the senses, which implies). A man, never mind who, his name is he wisely (?) discarded.

legion now, expressed his opinion that the earth is “ Aristotle was the real founder of sound philo- not a plane, but a globular or spheroidal body, not sophy. There was some logic in him, though we fixed, but turning round itself at a most tremendous do not share all his conclusions; yet I cannot help rate, while the velocity with which it travels thinking I have heard more genuine philosophy elliptically round another body of similar form, expressed by men who never heard of that philosopher, though millions of times larger, is beyond comparison nor ever were at any school, than Aristotle ever with any motion of which man may have an idea.

That man offended the church and creed of his day : “ Epicurus refused to recognise the noble aspirations he was a bad man. of human nature. His name is now a by-word by “3d. The blissful ignorance of the ancient which the sensualist is known to many of us. interpreters of God's word led them to think that

Zeno, a Stoic, though once a Peripatetician, had the blue to be seen overhead in a cloudless sky, was truly faith in a Providence, but he had the misfor- a solid vault (firmament) resting on pillars beyond tune to deify Fate."

the waters that surrounded the earth: that the sun Here is a specimen of his treatment of science:– took a quiet walk by day, and the moon by night,

" In Roman Catholic countries he is still con- along that immense vault, and that the stars were sidered as a bad man (unless he be a priest) who heavenly spirits, or guardian angels, watching by dares read more of the Bible than the Church thinks night over the souls committed to their care.

knew of.

66

Ingenious and poetical though such suppositions are few of the famous passages omitted. They are might be, they found sceptics who would not rest well adapted for committing to memory. The notes till they had proved their absurdity. Galileo, Kep. are judicious, and generally short. Altogether, the ler, Tycho Brahe, Leibnitz, Spinoza, Bacon, Newton, book will be found of great use in schools. Descartes, Laplace, &c., go and hide yourselves : you are all very bad men.

Easy Arithmetic for Young Beginners. In Lessons " 4th. A universal deluge was (and is still) one for Home and School. By J. Langton, M.A., of the favourite errors in which children are led to Head Master, Boy's Model School, Borough Road, believe, by means of those beautiful arks, full of all London; and A. F. Smith, B.A., Vice-Principal manner of grotesque animals, and in which men and Mathematical Lecturer, Normal College, were and are kindly allowed to remain. Away with Borough Road, London. Fourth Thousand. you, all ye exceedingly bad men, who either deny London : Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., Stationers' the existence of the flood gates in heaven, or who, Hall Court. like Hugh Miller, of learned but tragical memory, dare call the testimony of the rocks,” and of every tion. Its aim is to introduce young children to the

We give this little work our heartiest commenda. living thing, against such a “time honoured” creed as that of a universal deluge. Away with you, we

study of arithmetic. The writers understand tho

roughly the nature of children, and accordingly the say, we will none of you."

exercises given are exactly such as will lay a good

foundation, and will make arithmetic a real educating A Handbook of British Plants, designed especially power. We trust it will displace many of the books

for Schools, Science Classes, and Excursionists. which are now used as first arithmetic books; for By W. Lowndes Notcutt, author of “ Hand-while they violate the ascertained principles of edubook of the Microscope,” “The Geography of cation, this little work is based on them, will render Plants," &c. London : Longman, Green, & Co., the study interesting, and will make progress sare. Paternoster Row. Cheltenham : Norman & Sons, The exercises extend to simple division. Clarence Street. 1865. This handbook supplies a desideratum which many

The Applications of Geology to the Arts and Manustudents of botany must have felt. All those treatises

factures. Being Six Lectures on Practical Geowhich enable beginners to find out the name of a

logy, delivered before the Society of Arts, as a part plant are half-a-guinea or upwards ; but here he may

of the Cantor" Series of Lectures for 1865. By

Professor D. T. Ansted, M.A., F.R.S., &c., &c. have a convenient and accurate guide for three shil. lings and sixpence. Mr Notcutt bas accomplished

London : Robert Hardwicke, 192 Piccadilly. 1865. this saving of space and money by a judicious plan.

These lectures are exceedingly interesting and He gives in as few words as possible those features of instructive. The facts are collected from a great plants which will enable the beginners to recognise variety of sources, and relate to a great variety of all the British species. In a short introduction, Mr things and places, and they are presented in a clear Notcutt describes the principal parts of a plant, and and attractive form. The work consists of six lecthe classification of plants, and gives directions how tures :-1. On Agricultural Geology; II. On Springs to examine and dry them. He then analyses the and Water Supply; III. On Minerals obtained natural orders of British plants; he then gives the from Superficial Deposits, Sands and Stream Ores, characteristics of the genera, and then of the species, Clays, Cements and Artificial Stones; IV. and V. and he concludes with a copious glossary. The work on Materials obtained from Stratified Deposits, contains descriptions of every known British plant Stones used in Construction, Fuller's Earth, Salt

, and fern. It will be found exceedingly useful to the Bitumincus Shales, Ironstone, and Coal; and VI. young botanist, as he can easily carry it in his pocket; On Minerals obtained from Mineral Veins and Mining. and its arrangement is so clear and its descriptions The work contains a great number of useful tables, so careful, that he will not have to turn over its leaves and is illustrated by diagrams. Teachers will find it long before finding what he wishes.

very useful in helping them to throw a little interest

into their geographical lessons. Shakspeare for Schools; being Passages from his

Works to be committed to Memory. With Notes, School Series. Edited by the Rev. G. R. GLEIG, original and selected. By the Rev. C. Lenny, M.A., Chaplain-General to H. M. Forces. QuesD.D., late of St John's College, Cambridge. tions to W. Hughes's Geography for the use of Second Edition. London: Published by Relfe Beginners. London: Longman, Green, Long Brothers, 150 Aldersgate Street. 1865.

man, Roberts, & Green, 1865. The title of this book gives an accurate idea of its The preface of this little book states almost every. contents. The passages are well chosen, and there thing that we need say of it, except that the ques.

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