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from our own ignorance and carelessness. People correspondence is ever found to exist between the talk a great deal about the depravity of human character of the mind and the state of the brain. nature, but human nature, if we may be allowed They grow together, and decay together; whatthe expression, is not half so depraved as men ever affects the one exeris an influence upon the make it by their own neglect and folly. “ The other. The mind is weak in childhood, strong in depravity of human nature,” says a distinguished mature years, and decays with the decline of life; divine, “ may be too easily assumed to be incor- a certain amount of brain is necessary to sound rigible by those who do not look for its causes in mental action; whatever directly affects the brain, the deficiency of moral education."

as a blow, pressure, &c., manifestly affects the Man is a compound being, having a body mate- mind, to the extent sometimes of producing unrial and corruptible, and a soul immaterial and consciousness or insanity; whatever affects the incorruptible; the one subject to the laws of body, and consequently the brain, by way of elematter, the other endowed with the properties of vating or depressing its natural powers, exercises spirit. To the educator, to him that sets himself a corresponding effect upon the mental powers. to the development of the human powers and "I have examined, after death,” says an eminent faculties, it is of importance to know what posi- surgeon, " the heads of

many
insane

persons, and tion each of these occupies in the animal economy, have hardly seen a single brain which did not when he is dealing with the one or with the other, exhibit obvious marks of disease; in recent cases, or whether either of them is ever to be met with loaded vessels, increased serous secretions; in all by itself apart from the other. In body, has he instances of longer duration, unequivocal signs of anything but matter; in mind, anything but present or past increased action ; blood vessels spirit? In the one, does he ever meet with apparently more numerous, membranes more matter alone; in the other, with spirit by itself? thickened and opaque, depositions of coagulable

The body is that part of man's nature that lymph, forming adhesions or adventitious membrings him into connection with the material branes, watery effusions, even abscesses ; add to world. It is by means of the senses that the this that the insane often become paralytic, or mind or spirit of man obtains its knowledge of the are suddenly cut off by apoplexy." If the authomaterial universe. It sees, hears, tastes, &c., rity of a metaphysician is required, “ The mind,” only what and so far as the senses give it the says J. D. Morell, “ we know by experience depower of seeing, hearing, tasting, &c. Wherever pends for the manifestation of all its activities we find a human being that has never possessed upon a material organism. Consciousness, moreone or more of these senses, we find his mind to over, reveals to us the fact, that our mental phebe entirely destitute of all those classes of ideas nomena keep pace in every stage of their growth that are connected therewith; and if we could with the material counterpart, the one becoming suppose one who has never bad any avenue of more mature as the other becomes more perfect " communication opened up between his mind and (Elements of Psychology).* the external world, the mind of such a person Farther, we learn from physiology, that every must of necessity be a perfect blank. Hence thought that passes through the mind causes the our very ideas are at first only material. The destruction of a certain portion of the nerve mind must begin with the concrete before it rises matter of the brain ; that human thought, like to the abstract; it must first bave the individual fire, cannot subsist without fuel, and, like fire too, before it can reach the general. In other words, only exists by the destruction of that from which it must ever have the material before it can attain it derives its subsistence. Even more than this, the spiritual. Our ideas of hardness, softness, some physiologists, among whom is Dr Carpenter, colour, motion, beauty, virtue, &c., are first of all

* "" The mind,' says Descartes, is so intimately dependent awakened by the contemplation of particular upon the condition and relation of the organs of the body, that objects and instances. " The child has not formed if any means can ever be found to render men wiser and more to itself a refined idea of moral good, but contem- ingenious than hitherto, I believe it is in medicine (or an

improved condition of body) they must be sought. As bearing plating a given action, it proclaims it to be good upon this point, and also as shewing the ridiculous errors that or evil.” (M'Cosh's “Intuitions of the Human sensible men, who are carried away with particular theories, Mind.'')

and yet cannot shut their eyes to facts, sonietimes fall into in

their attempts to reconcile the two.' Satan does take advantage But not only are the earliest materials upon from the ill humours and diseases which are in the bodies oi which the mind acts material, supplied to it men, greatly to molest their spirits ; and when bodily diseases through the senses, but it also acts upon

em are removed by the use of natural means, the matter upou

which the evil spirit was wont to operate being gone, he does through a material organ, the brain. This is evi

no more disturb and disquiet the minds of men as before he dent from a variety of considerations. · A certain dia :"-Dr Increase Mather's Special Providences.”

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are oi opinion “that some change must be effected a material being at the mercy of a spirit moving in the nervous centres by every impression of about in another sphere of intelligence, and which we become conscious, whereby that im- directed and guided by laws and influences which pression is organically perpetrated in such a he could neither control nor comprehend, has, as manner as to allow of its presenting itself anew it were, sheathed this spirit in a material covering, to the cognizance of the mind at any future in order that all its movements may be observed time" (Human Physiology). And who can say and reckoned upon. To an intelligent being for certain that it is not so? Who can tell what whose welfare is committed to himself it is of the even the minutest particle of matter may not con- utmost importance that the laws and operations tain? We will hear him who shall analyse the of nature are regular and determined, otherwise brain of one of those minute animals, of which his every provision might be thwarted, his every multitudes exist in a drop of water, and shall give purpose deranged. It is ever the material side of us the exact proportions of albuminous matter, our nature that is towards us, for this only can we and fat, and phosphorous contained therein. The comprehend. Indeed, we question if there be any humiliating fact is, that of the essential elements element in nature of which we are cognizant that or properties of matter, we are about as ignorant is not material, or known to us only from its conas we are of spirit.*

nection with matter. As regards the nature of spirit in itself, and If we may seem to set too high a value upon apart from matter, we know nothing directly. the material side of our nature, we might refer to We can only speak of it negatively, as being in various passages of Scripture where the like docits nature and properties entirely distinct from trines are taught, and where we are admonished those of matter. Matter is changeable, spirit is not to sin against our bodies, which are temples unchangeable; matter is divisible, is destructible, for God's Holy Spirit to dwell in. Such a high spirit is indivisible, indestructible; matter is value does the Scripture set upon these bodies of limited as to time and space, spirit is unlimited ours, that one of the most distinctly taught docas to either; matter is subject to law and order, trines of the New Testament is, that they will be spirit, as belonging to another sphere of intelli- again raised up at the last day, and endure gence, is not amenable to any laws, or subject to throughout eternity. They will indeed be perfect any influences known to us. The soul or spirit and free from infirmities, but they will be the of man cannot by itself take cognizance of or same bodies that we possess now, and they will acquire a knowledge of the properties of matter, bear about with them the impressions received at least in any sense that we know of. Without in this present state of existence. This is very eyes to see, ears to hear, and the other senses, by clearly expressed by Dr Candlish in his “Life in means of which we acquire a knowledge of the a Risen Saviour.” “I am apt,” says he, “ to feel nature and conditions of matter, pure spirit can

as if with reference to this or that small instance not, at least in the same way as we do, perceive of sloth or of self-indulgence, it cannot really material objects. Nor can it be subject to those matter much how I act. It is but an affair of the material laws and influences to which our bodies body after all.” “My spiritual walk with God are subjected. Not only so, but, as already shewn, in Christ is safe. Oh, my friends, beware of the our very thoughts, feelings, and emotions are de- first approach of this most subtle and insidious pendent upon our physical constitution for their temptation, and that you may beware of it, hold

fast your faith in the doctrine of the resurrection." The natural conclusion from all this is, that the

“ Then (in that future life) you live again in immaterial is enveloped in every direction by the the body; in the very body, as to all essential promaterial; that the Deity, in place of leaving man perties, and to all practical intents and purposes,

* « The constitution of the elements in the material world is in which you live now.” “Let me never at any inscrutable ; the gravitating force, and the principles of che time, in any circumstances, lose sight of this solemn mical affinity, and the nature of light, and the principle of Vegetative life, these things are utterly inscrutable; so also is

thought, that the deed which I am now doing in the principle of animal life ; and so in like manner, but not the body, the thought I am thinking now, the more so is mind."--Taylor's " World of Mind."

word I am speaking now, the work I am working † "Die Seele ist ein einfaches Wesen; nichts blosz ohne Theile sondern auch ohne irgend eine Vielheit in ihrer Qua

now in the body must follow me. I may perhaps ität.”. “ Sie hat ursprünglich weder Gefühle noch Begierden; lay it down at death, but I must take it up at the sie weisz nichts von sich selbst und nichts von andern Dingen; resurrection. This deed of mine must follow me es liegen auch in ihr keine Formen des Anschauens und Den into that future and eternal life.” “I am to live kens keine Gesetze des Wollens und Handelns ; auch keinerlei wie immer entfernte Vorbereitungen zu dem allen." --- Herbart not a ghost, a spectre, a spirit, I am to live then Lekrbuch sur “ Psychologie."

as I live now, in the body."

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Farther, we hold, indeed it follows naturally both the physical and the mental powers, and atfrom what we have already advanced, that not tention to the other conditions upon which a state only are soul and body inseparably connected the of health depends. More particularly, however, one with the other in this life, but that they are it teaches us to look for the same laws governing both inseparably present in each individual act; our mental constitution as we know to prevail in not only “that the soul and body are perfectly co- our physical nature. "If the mind," says Morell, incident,” but “that no single organic action partakes truly of an organic character, though takes place in the one without the other" (Morell). in a higher region, the laws which apply to the Thus every thought that passes through the mind progress of organic life generally ought, mutatis partakes of the material as well as the spiritual, mutandis, to hold good within its own subjective as in like manner every action of the body of the sphere, and the functions of the one ought to spiritual as well as the material. This is of im- throw light upon the several stages of the other." portance to bear in mind, as we constantly hear The mind is as much under the control of laws as persons speaking of mental acts and physical acts, the physical system and laws too of the same kind. as if the two were distinct and separate, and not “If, for example," says the author of the “ Natuinseparably connected the one with the other.* ral History of Enthusiasm," "scientific inquiry

The spirit is the active formative principle, the relates to the mental processes of perception; or body that which is animated and formed. “In to the combinations of impressions from two or mind,” says Feuchtersleben, "we have incorpor- more of the senses ; or to the laws and conditions ated spirit, in body animated matter." In the of volition; or to the influence of animal appetites former the spiritual, in the latter the material or moral emotions; or to the operation of the element predominates, but both are in each. reasoning faculty, all these are matters of fact be

By thus bearing in mind the intimate connec- longing to the actual conformation of this or that tion that subsists between soul and body, and the animal; and are as strictly physical and as absodependence of the former upon the latter for its lutely independent of metaphysical dogmas and manifestations, we can understand a number of abstract truths as are the affinities of acids and the mental phenomena which are otherwise in the crystallisation of salts." “These inquiries, comprehensible. We can understand the growth simply physical as they are, must be solved by and development of the mind from infancy to observation and experiment, and cannot even in manhood, and its decay in old age; we see how the most remote manner be affected by abstract particular states of body manifest themselves in doctrines of the sort that constitutes the greater corresponding conditions of mind, how physical part of what is termed the 'science of mind.'influences acting upon the body come directly to In a word, any sort of practical question relating affect the mental powers. Have we not here, too, to the dispositions, constitutional motives, or proan explanation of what is otherwise so mysterious, per treatment of this or that species of animals namely, the hereditary transmission of mental | higher or lower, must be determined in the qualities as well as physical characteristics ? If methods proper to physical science, and can we recognise the physical constitution of the neither be illustrated nor interfered with by those mind, then the principle is the same in both cases, unchanging truths which draw not their materials and there is nothing more mysterious in the one from the world as it is.”—(Introduction to Edthan what we observe every day in the other. wards On the Will.)

But it is especially in the matter of education The great means of improving any power, that the recognition of this doctrine is of value. whether mental or physical, is exercise. It shews us the necessity of a sound body to a one condition,” says Sir William Hamilton, “unsound mind, that “in order to make the most of der which all powers, and consequently the intelthe intellectual powers, the animal system should lectual faculties, are developed, is exercise. The be maintained as nearly as possible approaching more intense and continuous the exercise, the a state of health" (Sir B. Brodie). This is only more vigorously developed will be the power." to be effected by a due and proper exercise of In all cases, the exercise is subject to the same

* " The true difference between intellectual and sensual plea- | laws and conditions, and effects the same results. sure does not consist in this, that intellectual pleasure is that On a muscle, for instance, the first effect of exerwhich is perceived by the body (for the body perceives not at cise is to occasion the destruction of a portion of all, the soul being the only true percipient in both), but rather in this, that sensual pleasure is that which the soul perceives, by the matter of which it is composed, leading to an the meditation of the body upon the occasion of some motion increased flow of nutritious material, i.e, arterial or impression made upon it, whereas intellectual pleasure is

blood, to the part, which compensates, and more that which the soul perceives immediately by itself and upon her own thoughts.”—John Norris's Miscellanies.

than compensates, for the waste that has taken

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place. It is in this way that the repeated exer- planation of what has been so puzzling to many cise of a muscle enlarges its size, and gives it a of our would-be philanthropists, the small degree greater degree of density and hardness, together of success that has attended all the efforts hitherto with increased strength and power. This may made of inducing working-men to devote their not of itself account for the greater freedom and spare time to intellectual pursuits ? After the dexterity which exercise, in a particular direction, system is exhausted, by ten or twelve hours of imparts to a muscle, unless we also suppose that physical labour, it naturally demands ease, or the new material receives, in the act of assimila- only those lighter mental efforts that commonly tion, a particular mould or bias from the state of come under the head of relaxations. The best the muscle at the time. In this way we would friends of the working-man are those who seek to account for the fact, that actions which are at add to his happiness, comfort, and enjoyment in first troublesome and difficult, become gradually the sphere in which God has placed him. There less so by practice, until they come to be a second is a dignity, a majesty, in physical as well as in nature. In like manner, the exercise of any of mental labour, and skill and excellence to be acour mental faculties, while causing the destruc- quired in the one as well as in the other. tion of a portion of the nerve matter of the brain, Thus, in the physical constitution of the mind, causes also an additional flow of nutritious mate- we find an explanation of many of its phenomena. rial to the part, and thus the mind is improved We find it subject to the same general laws as by the brain, the mind's organ acquiring greater the body, and we see how it should be so. In the volume, density, and fineness of texture. May one case, as in the other, exercise is necessary to we not farther suppose, as in the other case, that development, exercised under the like conditions, each new particle of matter receives a particular and producing the like results. It must be of its mould or impression, and believe, with Dr Car proper kind, in its proper time, and to its due

every impression of which we extent. Each power or faculty has its appropribecome conscious,” “is organically perpetuated ate exercise. The time best adapted for any

kind in such a manner as to allow of its presenting of training is when the system is fresh and vigoritself anew to the cognizance of the mind at any ous, and the attention fully alive. Each kind of future time."

exercise, mental or physical, has also its appro That the exercise of any bodily organ causes an priate conditions. It ought not to be conincreased flow of nutritious material to the part, tinued too long, nor cease too soon; not to be is evident from the increased degree of fulness prosecuted too slowly, nor yet too fast; not to be and heat that is imparted to it; and that the intermitted too long, nor resumed too soon. It same takes place in the brain during mental exer- ought to be commenced slowly and gradually, by cise, is evident from the like feelings, and some- little and little at a time, and prolonged and extimes throbbing sensations that are occasioned in tended as the special organs come to acquire it when such exercise is long protracted.

strength. “ The plastic, or hardening operation,” The first effect of any exercise, whether physi- says Professor Bain, " takes a certain interval of cal or mental, is to increase the activity of all time; and, although the current be never so parts of the system. It is thus that in a rapid much sustained by keeping at a thing, the rate walk, for instance, the mental powers are elevated, of acquirement is not increased in the same and the ideas flow more readily. The reason is degree.” evident. At first, an increased flow of blood is We thus learn, in many cases, from a study of imparted to all parts of the system ; and it is only our physical, how we ought to proceed in the as the waste in one particular part becomes greater training of our mental powers. When we wish than the natural supply can compensate, that it to teach a child a manual art, we do not do so by comes to be abstracted from the other parts which any learned disquisitions on its principles or phiare thus deprived of their due share, and a feeling losophy, but by directly setting it in the way of of fatigue is produced. It is in this way that practising it. In like manner, we believe that bodily exercise tends to produce mental fatigue, our moral teaching of children would have much as in like manner mental exercise to occasion more effect, if, in place of lecturing, and telling, bodily fatigue. It is in this way, too, that people and explaining so much as we do, we set them who have much physical exercise feel a natural simply and quietly to the practice of what is right repugnance to great mental efforts, in the same and proper. The same, we believe, holds true in way as those who have much mental labour are all intellectual teaching. If we wish to teach a naturally disinclined to much active physical man logic, or language, or anything else, we ought exercise. Have we not here, too, a natural ex- to do so, not by rules, and definitions, excep

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tions, but by examples which we ought to teach he has not to do with an incomprehensible essence, him how to follow.

guided by laws and directed by influences which Our remarks might be carried farther, but we he can neither understand or control; but that, must stop. They will not be without their value on the contrary, it is everywhere the creature of if they inspire a spirit of investigation, and lead law and order, and subject to influences which it the teacher to believe that, in dealing with mind, I is his duty to find out.

THE CONSONANTS.-PART SECOND.

OF THE TRANSMUTATIONS AND INTERCILANGES TO WHICH TIEY ARE LIABLE,

ferent ways.

lished usage.

F a word is radically the same in two | English, have all grown out of some one or other

languages, say English and Latin, stock, which, as a single language, is now extinct. the fact may be accounted for in dif. Their common origin is proved by there being

thousands of words radically the same in all three, 1st. The word in the one language where there has been no borrowing from one may be taken, or, as it were, manufactured from another. the other in accordance with the laws of estab- 4th. Sometimes the existence of the same word

In this manner almost all our in different languages is not of itself a proof of scientific words are formed. In this manner we any connection between these languages. The are forming words from Latin and Greek almost word may be onomatopoetic—formed in imitation every day.

In this process generally the con- of some natural sound. Thus though og in sonants of the original roots are not changed to Greek, bur in Latin (uro, anciently buro as in the

eye in the spelling. From a vicious pronun- comburo), and burn in English, have most prociation of the original languages, the sound, both bably a common origin, they might have been of vowels and consonants, is often changed, but, separately formed, as their original no doubt was, errors excepted, still according to regular rules. in imitation of the sound of fire; just as the

2d. The word in English may have grown out Scotch burn is due to the sound of the purling of the Latin, mostly through the medium of the brook. French. In this case the consonants are often It is from the second and third of these classes quite changed. The people of successive genera- of words that we must draw our illustrations of tions have here made the words—not one or two the changes to which the consonants are liable. authors or learned men. Thus receive has grown And in tracing the connection of words we may, out of recipio, while recipient has been manufac- for our present purpose, generally disregard the tured from the same. There is the very same vowels altogether. They have a certain philodistinction in French between manufactured words logical value, but in comparison with that of the and those of natural growth, so that many words consonants it is not great. In them lies the which have actually come to us through that music, the softness, the sweetness, the feminine medium are exactly the same as if they had been grace of language, as D'Arcy Thompson says. In taken direct from the Latin. But it is by the them, too, I would add, is found all the fickleness process of gradual change and natural growth and and inconstancy attributed to woman. Our geneadevelopment that the great body of French words logies must be traced on the father's side, among have been formed from Latin. In a similar way those bold rough consonants regarding which it the most important part of our English vocabulary may be truly said that it is not good for them that has grown out of the Anglo-Saxon. Thus cheap they should be alone. The oô's and bē's, however, has grown out of ceap, and eye out of eage. must not be entirely disregarded. They are

3d. The word in the one language may neither peeresses in their own right, tracing their descent, have been manufactured nor have grown from the you must remember, from the princely guttural corresponding word in the other, but both words and labial families. may have been derived, by adoption or by natural This vocal inconstancy is abundantly manifest growth, from some common source, some other from the local dialectic peculiarities both of Scotch language. Thus Italian, French, and Spanish, and English. Every teacher knows that it is are well known to be the offspring mainly of mispronunciations of the vowels, far more than of Latin, German, Dutch, and (in a great measure) the consonants, with which he has to contend.

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