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Weimar. — Emancipation of the School. -- The BAVARIA.-Girls' Commercial School.-There has Chamber has agreed to ask of government a new existed for some time at Munich a school where school bill embracing the following points :-1. That girls receive gratuitous instruction in caligraphy, sehool instruction should aim higher. 2. That the commercial arithmetic, including particularly ex. board of inspection should have no necessary con- change, book keeping by single and double entry, nection with the church, and should be composed commercial correspondence, the German and French chiefly of men of pædagogic training and experi- languages, and the knowledge of goods in general ence. 3. That the outward circumstances of the The pupils of this school are beginning to be teacher should be improved. All were agreed on preferred for the counter and desk, and they are the last of these points, but animated debates took sometimes specially advertised for when such situaplace on the first and second, and the resolution, as tions are vacant. a whole, was carried by only a small majority.
Proceedings of Societies.
COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS.–At the monthly meet- shoulders back, chest expanded, windpipe vertical ing, 10th May, the Rev. J. D. D’Orsey of Cambridge chin at right angles, head to command the audience, and of King's College, London, the eminent lecturer not bending over the book. The last implies the on Public Reading, gave an address to tbe members heresy of looking off the book, and doubts the prinof the college. He began by remarking that, like ciple of the stern common school order of “Look ou Canning's hero, the miserable knife-grinder, of “story your book, Sir." Good readers look off more than he had none to tell," or of paper he had none to read. on. Their eye wanders in advance of what the brain He had for twenty-five years been in the habit of is delivering to the tongue; the glance is ten words speaking verbatim, in a plain and homely style, to in advance of the expression. It is of the greatest every kind and every size of audience. He had lec- importance in reading aloud to stand upright. tured to two and also to eighteen hundred. When The art of correct breathing has also to be studied. he came to London three years ago, he invited the If we do not breathe well we cannot read well. The clergy to meet him, but advertisements and private lungs should be kept full through the nostrils. The circulars only brought him an audience of two. Since nostrils should be kept clear, the mouth moist. The then, he had had sixteen hundred clergymen apply Book of Wisdom teaches good physiology in the to him for counsel or lessons in the matter of Church verse, The nostrils are made to breathe through.” reading. His audience at the College of Preceptors, Mr D'Orsey illustrated this part of his lecture by owing to the weather and the latencss of the season, rapid mouth breathing and shewed how quickly was likewise small, but it was intelligent, and would voice was affected—restored again by drinking water. grow like that of the clergy. One reason why people He also mimicked speaking with empty lungs, a not don't come to a lecture on reading is, that all people uncommon fault in sermons, and shewed and conthink they can read, and ninty-nine out of a hundred trasted the voice with lungs full. would pa-s it by thinking there is nothing in it; for The speaking and reading voice require educating. did they not get the gold medal for reading at Dothe- No one disputes the necessity of educating the singboys? Mr D’Orsey's subject was not elementary ing voice. Singing is a gift improved by taste, and reading; no magic method of reducing years to reading is analogous. Singers spend months in weeks, but the art of reading aloud. He divided vocalisation to strengthen, sweeten, and make more this subject into three heads :
Alexible the voice. A similar course is required in 1. The Mechanical part of the subject. 2. The schools for reading. The consequence of its general Intellectual. 3. The Emotional.
omission is, that the reading voice in 99 per cent. Notwithstanding our College of Preceptors, our cases is latent. Each school has its own whine. Parliament, and our public speeches, the subject is Ladies in their whine let the last notes perish like not well understood. Lord Palmerston was right in slaves on the middle passage. The lecturer then his speech at Romsey, referring to reading aloud, displayed the power of the speaking voice, by taking when he said we could not do it.
the expression “the power of speech," and pitching Mr D'Orsey mimicked the favourite attitudes of it successively on the notes of the speech gamut, readers, with shoulders shrugged, chest contracted, from the deepest chest tones to the falsetio, exhibitwindpipe curved, the worst position possible for the ing a power out of common reach of not screaming. purpose. In school, the pupils are all in attitudes. Between the divisions of his sui ject, Mr D’Orsey The true position for reading is, heels together, caused the meeting to rise for conversation and rest -an interval taken advantage of by Dr Wilson for the miracle of the loaves and fishes. Others develope a lengthy exposition of his views.
the prepositions, and swallow up essential words That it is as practicable to teach the management of Emotional, pathetic, stormy, jubilant: words are renthe speech notes as of the vocal, the reverend lecturer dered all alike. Emotion like taste is not to be gave many good-humoured but grotesque and laughtaught. Hints and examples only can be given. able examples. As a rule, he said, the English do not This important and interesting lecture kept the open their mouths. Milton's letter to Hartlib speaks attention of the meeting so long, that but little time of it. Distinct articulation is impossible without was left for debate, Dr Hodgson, Mr Alfred Jones, opening well the mouth. Mr D'Orsey's Portuguese and Mr D'Orsey made remarks, and with the usual tutor continually cried to him, “Open your mouth," vote of thanks, the meeting ended. “Open your mouth," and he had had to thank that The subject for June is, “ The Teaching of Elemen: tutor for a useful lesson. A gentleman entering tary Mathematics." holy orders had been to him (Mr D'Orsey) for an impediment—the impediment was simply mumbling. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE.—The Standing CommitHis lips were of wood, and the advice given was tee, Board of Examiners, and Committee of Manage“Sit down before your glass and make faces." He ment, met on the 13th May. The Standing Com. pursued this remedy for three months, and his lips mittee remitted to the sub-committec to prepare the became india-rubber, and no one could have dis heads of an education bill, and bring them, for concovered that he ever suffered from imperfect speech. sideration, before the different local associations, and The remedy for lisping on the other hand is, to close the next general meeting. The General Committee the teeth and not let the tongue come out The misuse had under their consideration the case of members of H, V,W, R, and G were dilated upon, and humour and fellows whose contributions were in arteari. some examples given from the north countries, The other business was routine. from the pulpit, the bar, and the House of Commons. The lecturer defended the aspiration of wh in white EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE.—A meeting of the Edinand whale and such like words, or rather that the burgh Local Assocation was held on the 13th Mar, aspirate should not be altogether dropped.
when the principal business was the consideration of The lecturer conoluded by regretting that he the heads of a bill brought before the meeting by the
a could only give in a lecture hints for development Rev. David Brown. They are as follows:- In schools not go into the subject. A golden rule to observe the Bible shall be used as the only text-book for to shew that the intellect is active in your reading, teaching religion, leaving the catechisms 10 be is to read as you speak. Conventional reading is taught by the parents, the clergy, and Sabbathdetected at once. The good reader's voice sounds as school teachers. But where teaching the catechism if the subject is spoken, and a person outside the is insisted on, then allow the children of Episcodoor would not be able to distinguish the transitions palians, Ronian Catholics, and any others whose 10 and fro between reading to speaking. The lecturer parents may object, to dispense with learning it; and cited the Rev. Mr. Mackenzie of Holloway and allow these children the use of the class-room at Charles Dickens as good readers, who with book in other than school hours, when religion may be taught hand would be thought speaking. He then asked by some one of their own denomination. That promiscuously for a book from the company, and Scotland be divided into school districts, and 3 carelessly handling it, surprised the company by say. school-house and dwelling-house for the teacher be ing, I have been reading for a minute or two, and erected in each district where these do not already passed the book to the chairman with the proof ecce exist. That property in each district be assessed for signum. The intellect expresses itself through the education, in the same way as it is at present assessed voice. Emotion is expressed by emphasis. All lan- for the support of the poor. That local boards be guage consists of notional and relational words, i.e appointed, consisting of the heritors, and a certain of ideas and connectives. Bad readers emphasise all number elected annually by the rate-payers who are alike. Not one hundred churches in England read not heritors from among themselves; the board to the Lord's praver properly. As a skilful player per- elect the teacher, fix and collect the assessment, keep forms with gradations of emphasis on the piano, the property in repair, fix the fees to be paid by the so a good reader passes over the little words to children, and, along with the teacher, regulate the bring out the force of the important ones. Over branches to be taught, and the books to be used. abundance of emphasis is, however, worse than The ministers of religion in the district shall either deficiency. The text, “ Saddle me the ass, and the be ex officio members of this board, or all only eligible saddled him,” is curiously altered by excess of empha- for election as other ratepayers. A general sis, and it is not improved by another change, as mittee shall be appointed, consisting of a professor “ Saddle me the ass, &c.," though made applicable to from each of the four Universities, with the Lord so bad a reader. A Milesian thought all the italics Advocate, the secretary of the Educational Institute in the Bible meant emphasis, and put a curious con- of Scotland, and one member nominated by the struction upon the phrase, “and they did eat," in Queen, to whom all differences arising between the
teacher and the local board shall be referred, and resolution, which entitled assistants to admission Fhose decision shall be final. The teacher shall re- without other qualification, was passed by a con. ceive from the local board a salary of not less than siderable majority. The discussion on the essay £60 per annum, and in addition the fees of the child was broached by Mr Edmed of Reedham, who exdren, with a dwelling-house and garden ; and when pressed some disappointment that a paper entitled he becomes nnable to discharge the duties of his “Results," should only have referred to general office, eita.r from sickness or age, he shall be entitled moral results, rather than to the results to which the 10 receive two-thirds of his salary during the re- public mind is now so much directed, that is to say, mainder of his life. The government shall annually the rudiments enforced by the new code. Mr Alfred pay over to the general committee the sum of seventy Jones complimented the essayist upon the modesty thonsand pounds, out of which sum the committee and earnestness of his paper, and took up in turn shall pay for inspection, assist some of the poorer the promiscuous topics extracted from the “ Diary of districts
, pay the salaries of necessary assistants, the Veteran Schoolmaster." He suggested another with all other expenses connected with their duties view of several of these topics. Thus, with punc25 a committee, and then, if any of the sum re- cuality some teachers aimed at martial rigour, and main, divide it among the most efficient teachers. made it an unforgiven sin if a child varied by a All who intend to be teachers shall require to attend minute in his arrival at school at any time. He at least two sessions at one of the Universities, study (Mr Jones) preferred to make the schoul emulate the Latin, Greek, geometry, algebra, and natural philo- precision of a well-ordered household, where everysophy, &c. No teacher shall be eligible for election thing should proceed regularly and punctually, but as head-master of any educational establishment, under the influence of social and domestic love, in potil he has acted as an assistant-master, and has lieu of that of the drill-serjeant. He could not agree been examined by the Educational Institute and the with the essayist that flogging was ever a good in General Committee. After a long discussion, the school, and refuted the statement that it was, by a document was remitted to a committee, consisting reference to University College School, where flogging of Messrs Pryde, Brown, and Kennedy, who were has ever been unknown. On the subject of public instructed to revise it, and report to the meeting prayer in schools, he (Mr Jones) neither admired held on the first Saturday of June.
teachers for practising prayer, nor condemned them
for not. If a teacher accepts an appointment where ELEMENTARY TEACHERS' Association Quarterly prayer is consonant to his own feelings, and to the MEETING, 6th Mar 1865.—A paper was read by Mr feelings of his managers, he is right in the practice. Wallbridge, entitled “Results,” being extracts from But numerous schools leave theology to parents and the diary of a veteran schoolmaster. The writer pastors, and do so by their desire and concurrence. introduced the subject by stating that there were Mr Colin Roberts, Mr Ryder, Mr Freestone, and results of a teacher's life-work other than those others joined in the discussion ; which was brought which are obtained by an inspector's examination ; to a close by a speech from Mr Robert Sanders, the and which results constitute the truest glory of an secretary, and the summing up of the president. educator of youth, afford the most pleasing incentives to his great and noble work, and are such as will be Association of CERTIFICATED SCHOOLMASTERS OF sure to follow the labours and endeavours of every Scotland.— The petition to Parliament for the furteacher thoroughly and truly earnest, conscientious, ther suspension of the Revised Code in Scotland, and faithful. The writer then proceeded to extract got up under the auspices of this Association, was from bis diary a number of well-selected facts, de transmitted to London at the beginning of May, rived from his own experience of many years, bear with 366 signatures; but as the Committee of Council ing upon the formation of moral and religious had then agreed to do what the petition asked, Mr character, and which clearly proved that he had not Dunlop deemed it unnecessary to take any further laboured in vain. The writer closed the extracts by steps in the matter. The prospects of the Associasaying, that a teacher of the young who wishes to tion are still improving. The membership exceeds impress the stamp of a good character on his pupils, 200, while arrangements are in progress for the must be good himself, and most thoroughly con- affiliation of old District Associations, and the scientious: boys are keenly perceptive of right-doing, formation of new ones. A circular is being prepared and soon detect flaws in those whose theory and on this subject, the main points of which will be, practice do not agree.
It is the duty of teachers that the greater number of small sections of teachers to seek by every means (God helping them) to make there may be for the discussion of educational topics, the better boy become the better man—a duty which the better will the objects of the Association be can be carried out more powerfully by example than served ; every certificated teacher should be a memby precept. Previous to criticism upon the essay, ber of some branch; all branch members to be niemthe advisability of admitting assistants to the quar-bers of the general body, and pay the entrance-fee ; terly meetings, and under what conditions, was dis- local expenses, when necessary, to be defrayed by cussed, After various amendments, the original local subscriptions; branches to be in every other
respect independent; secreturies to be in communi- paper, “Public Examinations," on which remarks cation with the general secretary, who will keep were made by Messrs Rowbotham and Bradbury. them up in information, and receive suggestions for . The third subject, “ The School Library," was introconsideration by the Directors, and in the case of duced by Mr Rowbotham of Pontefract, and conany important matter to be brought before the tinued by Messrs Hardcastle and Lupton, who had Directors, the opinions of district associations will good libraries connected with their schools. be asked, previously to any action being taken on it. The chairman closed the discussion of each subject The constitution must remain intact until the next by very valuable remarks on the subjects generalls, annual meeting in March 1866, when alterations and on topics incidentally introduced by the various found necessary in the mean time can be made. , speakers. Home lessons should be supplemental The Directors are at present engaged in drawing up rather than preliminary, the reproduction or revision a series of questions on a national system of educa• of lessons given in school, and not new lessons to tion, with their opinions on them, to be a basis prepare. Care should be taken in selecting the lesfor the members individually to consider and make sons, which should be short and definite, and subjected up their minds on the leading points at present to a rigid su pervision. Public examinations migat agitated thronghout the country, that they may be be made useful as a means of advertising a good ready forcibly to express their own views when school, and securing the co-operation of the parents. asked, and have them properly represented to the No time should be spent in specially preparing for sub-commissioners.
such examinations, they should not interfere with the
regular school work for a single week, the childre YORKSHIRE BRITISH AND WESLEYAN Teachers' should be prepared for them all the year round Association.--The Seventh Annual Meeting was They should be so conducted as to shew what the held in the Wesleyan Schools, Darley Street, Leeds, pupils have learnt and how they are instructed.. on Saturday the 20th of May—the president, J. G. 'good library was a valuable accessory to a day school
a Fitch, Esq., M.A., H.M. Inspector of Schools, in the It should consist of interesting as well as instructive chair. Present also, H. M. Inspector, Arthur Milman, books, yet it was not advisable to have all the books Esq., and fifty-three teachers. After the election of written down to the capacities of children; some of officers and other preliminary business had been dis- them should be of a higher character, if it were only posed of, Mr Ingleton of Bradford read a well writ- to shew the pupils that there is something beyond ten, elaborate, and useful essay on "Home Lessons,"; and above them, which they should endeavour by in which he strongly recommended the use of exer- persevering effort to acquire. cise books in preference to slates for home work. A Arthur Milman, Esq, concurred in the remarks of well conducted system of home lessons would accus. the president. His fear was that, in carrying out tom the children to habits of self-reliance and neat- the home lesson system, the children were frequently ness, store their minds with useful knowledge, and worked too hard. secure the co-operation of the parents. Seven or Most of the members dined together, and spent eight of the teachers took part in the discussion of the remainder of the afternoon in visiting the Towe the subject. Mr Drury of Halifax read the second Hall, Museum, and other places of interest.
British MUSEUM.—Amidst the various discus- | houses of a peculiar kind of property belonging sions which at present occupy the public mind in to the nation. The books and objects are sent regard to the British Museum, there is one ques- there to be deposited, and, if they are safels tion which does not seem to us to have received deposited and the stores accumulate, the whole the attention which it merits. It is again and end of the institution is considered as accomplished. again said that the British Museum is a national But those who look with non-oficial eyes, reguru institution, but the question is rarely asked, llow the storing up of materials as only the preparais this national institution to benefit the nation on tion for accomplishing the real end of the instithe widest scale ? Government, and especially tution, and they look upon the real end of it ss officials of the institution, are apt to look on the the placing within the reach of all, on the fairest British Museum and similar places as mere store. I terms to all, the means of investigation and of
culture. But a difficulty arises from the very quity, and besides this, these remains awaken and nature of the property which is stored up. A cherish a sense of the beautiful among the masses. rare edition can be only in one place at one time. The Elgin marbles can only be in one place, but A rare work of art is under the same limitations. copies of them might be in many places. Should And so whenever such collections take place, they there not be over the country places in which the must have a definite locality, and be easily acces- treasures of the British Museum might act on the sible only to those who reside in the neighbour- masses and be valuable to scholars through copies? hood of that locality. This cannot be helped. These copies, if well executed, are for all essential But a question arises, Can these valuable collec- purposes as useful as the originals. The New tions not be made of some use to that largest Museum of Berlin, though entirely filled with portion of the nation which is scattered over the copies, is as instructive and as interesting as the country at considerable distances from the special old Museum, with its originals. In this matter, seats of the national collections ? Now, we think, continental towns are vastly before us. Bonn is a great deal can be done and ought to be done, an insignificant town, yet we do not know that and we shall state how.
there is a single place in England out of London We shall take first the case of the British in which the classical student could study so well Museum Library. Among the donations made the remains of ancient sculpture. Every univerto that library, many duplicates occur. What sity and every large town should have its sculpshould be done with these duplicates ? Should ture gallery, and a very considerable number of there not be libraries of the same nature as that these sculpture galleries should be entitled to reof the British Museum in all the very important ceive a copy of every important work bought for towns in Britain and Ireland, and should not the the British Museum. duplicates be distributed among them? The trus- In one word, the great collections in London tees of the British Museum have not acted on this should be centres from which the whole nation principle hitherto. We have in our library several should reap instruction. They should be great valuable volumes marked "Museum Britannicum,” educational establishments, supplying the whole “ 1831, duplicate for sale.” Nay, we suspect nation with the means of scientific and æsthetic that they have been actually stingy in their treat- cultivation. ment of other libraries. The trustees of the British Museum Library, for instance, ordered FIRST REPORT OF TAL SCOTTISH EDUCATION Comphotographic facsimiles of the remains of the MISSION.—OPINIONS ON THE REVISED CODE.—Mr Epistles of Clement of Rome, made from the unique Gordon, inspector, thinks "the individual examicopy preserved in the Codex Alexandrinus, to nation is well fitted for Scotland.” Being asked, be published, but we doubt if any library in the whether the fact that the grants “depending on kingdom was favoured with a copy of this curi- attendance, over which the parents, and not the ous document; and if there were a few, we are teacher, had control, would such tell severely on sure that they must have been very few. Nay, we the teacher ?” Mr Gordon safely enough responds, do not know if a copy of it has yet found its It may be.” Dr Cumming found the examinaway into the British Museum library itself. tion under the new code “ excessively wearisome
Then, again, the Natural History collections in some cases, but he thinks that the examina. must continually receive duplicates. Should there tion” will secure that a certain attainment will not be national collections in each of the great be reached by all the children. He thinks the towns of the country, and might not these be standard has been rising, but under the Revised Faxtly benefited by the superabundance of the Code“ it will fall,” and has heard of instances British Museum treasures ?
where the teaching of grammar and geography The same remarks might be made in regard to was discontinued, because no remuneration was nearly all the departments of national storehouses. got for it. He thinks that the regulations will For instance, the National Gallery in London have an injurious effect on the older children.'' groads under its load of Turners, but the National Mr Laurie thinks, that, under the new code, the Gallery in Edinburgh bas not one single specimen payments made to schools, “ especially in remote of the prince of landscape painters.
localities, such as the Highlands and Islands," But the British Museum could do more than would be seriously reduced, and is also of opinion this; and we shall choose again, for exnmple's that “ the money should not be so much dependent sake, one department. There is nothing that on the results of examination as under the Retends to foster a living scholarship so much as an vised Code." Dr Cook says, speaking of the intimate acquaintance with the remains of anti- method of payment under the Revised Code, “I