The Guyana Story: From Earliest Times to Independence

Xlibris Corporation, 2013 M02 28 - 690 páginas
The Guyana StoryFrom Earliest Times to Independence traces the countrys history from thousands of years ago when the first Amerindian groups began to settle on the Guyana territory. It examines the period of early European exploration leading to Dutch colonization, the forcible introduction of African slaves to work on cotton and sugar plantations, the effects of European wars, and the final ceding of the territory to the British who ruled it as their colony until they finally granted it independence in 1966. The book also tells of Indian, Chinese, and Portuguese indentured immigration and shows how the cultural interrelationships among the various ethnic groups introduced newer forms of conflict, but also brought about cooperation in the struggles of the workers for better working and living conditions. The final part describes the roles of the political leaders who arose from among these ethnic groups from the late 1940s and began the political struggle against colonialism and the demand for independence. This struggle led to political turbulence in the 1950s and early 1960s when the country was caught in the crosshairs of the cold war resulting in joint British-American devious actions that undermined a democratically elected pro-socialist government and deliberately delayed independence for the country until a government friendly to their international interests came to power.

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The Lusignan Riot in 1912
The Rose Hall Disturbances in 1913
Workers Protests in 1917
The Early Years
Critchlow in the Workers Struggle
Gandhi and the Immigration Proposals
Continuing Efforts to Revive Indian Immigration
The Ruimveldt Shooting in 1924

Raleighs Second Expedition to Guyana
Early Dutch Exploration
Early Dutch settlements
The Dutch West India Company
Treaty of Munster
The Beginning of the Colony of Berbice
A New Charter for Berbice
Extent of Dutch Settlement
Invasions of Guyana 16651712
The BerbiceSuriname Boundary
Dutch Progress
The Arrival of Laurens Storm van Gravesande
Dutch Progress in Mazaruni and Cuyuni
Plans by Spain and Portugal against the Dutch
Spanish Raids on Dutch Territory 17581768
Further Problems with the Spaniards
Religion among the Dutch in Guyana
Establishment of Demerara
The Slave Trade
Slavery on the Plantation
The Work on the Plantation
Religion of the Slaves
Dutch Control of Essequibo
The Outbreak of the Berbice Slave Rebellion
The Collapse of the Rebellion
Spanish Ideas of a Frontier
Guyana under the British French and Dutch 17811783
From Dutch to British Hands 17831803
Berbice at the End of the Eighteenth Century
Growth of Georgetown
The Beginning of British Guiana
Control of Essequibo after 1750
Early British Administrative Reforms
Amerindian Loyalty to the British
The Antislavery Movement in Guyana
Rumors of Freedom
The Demerara Slave Uprising
The End of Slavery
Damon and the Essequibo Rebellion
The Apprenticeship Period
The Arrival of the Portuguese
Consequences of the Labor Shortage
West Indian and African Migration to Guyana
The Arrival of the East Indians
New Indian Immigration After 1845
The Origin of the GuyanaVenezuela Border Dispute
The GuyanaSuriname Border 18311899
The Village Movement
The Arrival of the Chinese
The Chinese on the Plantations
The Work of O Tye Kim
The Angel Gabriel Riots of 1856
The Growth of Education before 1840
Expansion of Public Education 18441876
The Development of the Creolese Language
Hardships Faced by the Indians
The Des Voeux Letter
Riot at Devonshire Castle
Indian Settlements
The Cent Bread Riots
Development of Local Government
Resistance to Taxation at Friendship
Building the Sea Defense and Drainage System
Central Government
The Surveys of Brown and Sawkins
Further Claims by Venezuela to Essequibo 18761890
Establishment of Road and Railway Transport
Establishment of a Money System
The Start of the Gold Industry
Growth of Georgetown
Early Administration of New Amsterdam
The Beginning of the Rice Industry
The Immigration Ordinance of 1891
Political Changes 18911917
More Indian Settlements
Early Education of Indians
Efforts of Christian Churches to Convert Indians
American Intervention in the GuyanaVenezuela Border Dispute
Arbitration Treaty between Britain and Venezuela
The Arbitral Award
Marking the GuyanaVenezuela Boundary
The GuyanaSuriname Boundary 19001926
Disturbances at Plantation Friends
Sugar Workers Strikes in 1905
The 1905 Riots
Labor Unrest 19061910
The Start of the Bauxite Industry
The Boundaries with Brazil and Suriname
The Draft Treaty
The Maritime Boundary with Suriname
The New Constitution of 1928
The Establishment of the MPCA
The Leonora Disturbances
The Moyne Commission
The Early Years of Aviation
Guyana during the Second World War
The Bookers Empire
Dr Giglioli and the Fight against Malaria
Constitutional Changes 19411947
Cheddi Jagans Entry into Politics
The Political Affairs Committee
The PAC and the 1947 Elections
The Formation of the GIWU
The Enmore Martyrs
The Venn Commission
Some Events of 19471949
The Establishment of the PPP
The Appointment of the Waddington Commission
The Report of the Waddington Commission
The PPP in 19511952
The Undesirable Publications Ordinance
The Election Campaign in 1953
The General Election of 1953
The PPP Government of 1953
The Overthrow of the PPP Government in 1953
The British Case for Suspending the Constitution
The PPP Rebuttal of the British Accusations
American Involvement in Guyana in 1953
Visit by Jagan and Burnham to Britain and India 1953
Establishment of the Interim Government
The Split in the TUC
The Robertson Commission
Repression against the PPP 19531955
The Split in the PPP
The Aftermath of the Split
The AllParty Conferences
Failure of the Interim Government
The Ultraleftist Split in 1956
The Shooting at Skeldon 1957
The 1957 General Elections
The Program of the New PPP Government
The Organization of the PNC
The Constitutional Committee 1958
Establishment of the United Force
Economic and Social Issues 195861
Political Developments in 195960
The Constitutional Conference 1960
The Elections in 1961
Brewing AntiPPP Challenges in 1961
The JaganKennedy Meeting
The 1962 Budget
Street Protests by the Opposition
The Disturbances
The WynnParry Commission
The Constitutional Conference in 1962
Attempts to Reach a Political Solution in 1963
The 80Day Strike
Antigovernment Violence in 1963
The Constitutional Conference in 1963
Protests against the Sandys Formula
Economic and Social Development in 1963
Establishment of the University of Guyana
Renewal of Venezuelan Claim to Essequibo
The Outbreak of Racial Disturbances in 1964
The Escalation of the Racial Disturbances
Mediation by Ghana and Trinidad in 1964
Jagans Coalition Proposals
Betrayal by the British Labor Party Government
The 1964 Election Campaign
The December 1964 Elections
The PNCUF Coalition Government in Control
The ICJ Mission
Emergency Rule in 1965
The Independence Conference
GovernmentPPP Discussions on the Border Issue
The Geneva Agreement
Independence Granted to Guyana
Colonial Administrators of Guyana
General References
The Author
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Dr. Odeen Ishmael, a veteran Guyanese diplomat and widely published author, is currently Guyana’s ambassador to Kuwait and Qatar. He previously served as ambassador to Venezuela (2003–2011) and to the United States of America and the Organization of American States (1993–2003). He has written extensively on Guyanese history, education, and culture and is internationally recognized as a premier analyst and commentator on the political integration movement in South America. In 1997, his country decorated him with the Cacique Crown of Honor for his diplomatic work, and in 2002 in the United States, he was honored with the Martin Luther King Legacy Award for international service.

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