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screening devices are good and testing and training procedures are fair and

legal then the city should not be involved in the tutoring.

96

The final phase of the training for Omaha recruits is a period of policing with an experienced officer for on-the-job training that the police manual calls "coach-trainer field training.97 According to the manual this training is to last twelve weeks. 98

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals

recommends a minimum of four months field training in rotating shifts,

districts and assignments.

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights reported

that in Houston recruits receive 14 weeks of such training and in Philadelphia

18 days. 100

Members of the Midwest Guardians criticized the selection of officers to

serve as coaches for the September 1981 class. They asserted that for the

first time the day shift was not involved in the field training and because

almost all of the black officers are assigned to the day shift (assignment is

based on seniority) this meant there were no black coaches.

The Midwest

Guardians were told the day shift field training had been eliminated because

the new officers would not be assigned to days for at least ten years and

therefore needed experience only on the other two shifts.

As a result of the

Guardians' protest, two young black officers with just one year of experience

each were assigned as coaches.

The officers feel this one year's experience

is insufficient for coaching. They emphasized that they believe it is

important for both the black and white recruits to have experienced black

officers as coaches. They contend that this would promote understanding, acceptance, and enable black and white officers to work together and know each other as individuals. 101 Seeing only white officers in these positions can

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to know black officers and recruits as individuals no different from

themselves then that feeling can carry over to their work in the

community.102

Because of the concerns noted above, the city is looking into various aspects of training and selecting police recruits.103 Mr. Troutman stated that various aspects of the selection procedure and training are being reviewed by the personnel department. The curriculum, the possibility of

civilian instruction, evaluation of instructors and the oral interview are all

being "looked into." Mr. Troutman hopes that his department will be given

clear authority to take control of the recruitment, testing and training for

the police division. He believes he now has the legal authority under the city charter to do so but feels the procedures need to be studied before he can recommend changes.

104

Current Inservice Training

The Omaha police division provided 50 days of inservice training in 1979,

19 days in 1980 and 19 days in 1981. Two sessions, each 15 days, of "police

instructor school" account for the large number of days in 1979. The school was not offered in 1980 or 1981.105 The entire department received firearm

training all three years but generally only a limited number of officers attend the different training programs. 106 Other training covered auto theft, advanced accident investigation, homicide investigation and highway

safety.107

Training that could impact on police-community relations included a stress management school attended by one officer, a public speaking school for the

community services bureau which was attended by 12 officers and a human

behavior program attended by 40 officers.

The latter two training programs

were in 1981, the stress management class had been in 1979. Aside from the

human behavior program, no sensitivity training has been given in the last three years. 108

Several citizens interviewed for this study commented on the need for inservice sensitivity training. Bernice Dodd, director of Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC), advocates sensitivity training for officers to make them familiar with black culture.109 One group of citizens believe officers need training in appropriate behavior and language while performing their duties.110 Two citizens, while making the point that inservice sensitivity training is needed, added that local black leaders could be used

as instructors.111

Some officers may need training in handling spouse abuse and sexual assault cases, according to Mary Larsen, coordinator of the Women Against Violence Program in Omaha. 112 However, Ms. Larsen does not see any major problems in the way most officers handle victims of spouse abuse and sexual

assault cases.

Her organization is willing to assist in providing inservice

and several years ago offered to do so. The offer was refused and it has made no recent attempts to contact the police division on the subject.113

Notes

1. Gerald E. Caiden, Police Revitalization (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington

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2. National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals,

Police (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1973), p. 330.

3. Ibid.

4. 42 U.S.C. 2000e (1976).

5. 31 C.F.R. Part 51, Subpart E (1981).

6. Neb. Rev. Stat. sec. 48-1119 (1979).

7. Omaha World-Herald, July 14, 1981.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Omaha World-Herald, Jan. 2, 1979.

11. Omaha World-Herald, Jan. 16, 1964.

12. Omaha World-Herald, Sept. 29, 1965.

13. Omaha World-Herald, Sept. 7, 1967.

14. Omaha World-Herald, Sept. 8, 1967.

15. Gary Troutman, comments on draft, Apr. 28, 1982 and City of Omaha,

Affirmative Action Policy, Aug. 1, 1979.

16. City of Omaha, Affirmative Action Policy, Aug. 1, 1979, p. 19.

17. Gary Troutman, interview in Omaha, Dec. 9, 1981 and Gary Troutman,

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18. Brotherhood of Midwest Guardians v. City of Omaha, No. 79-0-528, consent

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19. Joe Ramirez, interview in Omaha, Sept. 24, 1981 and I.C. Plaza, interview

in Omaha, Sept. 24, 1981.

20. Sam Walker, interview in Omaha, May 27, 1981.

21. Sam Walker, letter to Gary Hill, Chairperson, Police-Community Relations

Subcommittee, Nebraska Advisory Committee, Apr. 12, 1982.

22. Gary Troutman, interview in Omaha, Dec. 9, 1981.

23. Brotherhood of Midwest Guardians v. City of Omaha, No. 79-0-528, consent

decree at p. 5, (D. Neb., Oct. 23, 1980).

24. Omaha Police Manual, Vol. I, Pers. 1-4, p. 1 and 1-5, p. 1 (Rev.) Sept.

1975.

25. Omaha Police Manual, Vol. I, Pers. 1-6, p. 1, (Rev.) Sept. 1975.

26. M. Lillian Bedell, memorandum to George E. Miller, Oct. 6, 1981.

27. Ibid.

28. George Miller, letter and attachments to staff, Apr. 2, 1982.

29. Ibid.

30. National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals,

Police, Standard 13.3, p. 329.

31. Brotherhood of Midwest Guardians v. City of Omaha, No. 79-0-528, consent

decree, p. 4 (D. Neb. Oct. 23, 1980).

32. Gary Troutman, interview in Omaha, Dec. 9, 1981.

33. George E. Miller, letter and attachments to staff, Apr. 2, 1982.

34. Gary Troutman, interview in Omaha, Dec. 9, 1981 and Marvin McClarty,

James Patterson and Robert Dacus, interview in Omaha, Dec. 8, 1981.

35. Gary Troutman, comments on draft, Apr. 28, 1982.

36. Gary Troutman, comments on draft, Apr. 28, 1982 and interview in Omaha,

Dec. 9, 1981.

37. Gary Troutman, interview in Omaha, Dec. 9, 1981.

38. Wilda Stephenson, telephone interview, Nov. 17, 1981; Fred Conley,

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39. Marvin McClarty, James Patterson and Robert Dacus, interview in Omaha,

Dec. 8, 1981.

40. I.C. Plaza, interview in Omaha, Sept. 24, 1981 and Joe Ramirez, intervien

in Omaha, Sept. 24, 1981.

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