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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The Nebraska Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

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undertook this study to ascertain the general status of police-community relations in Omaha because of its size and minority population. It is the first study on police-community relations by the Nebraska Advisory Committee. In the past the Advisory Committee has conducted studies on school desegregation and private employment in Omaha. This study was not prompted by complaints of police brutality or abuse.

When the study began in May 1981, E.L. Stokes was Acting Chief of Police. Late in 1981 he was replaced by Jack Swanson who remained Acting Chief of Police until Robert Wadman became the Chief of Police on March 1, 1982. Advisory Committee staff, assisted by members of the police-community relations subcommittee, met with these men as well as other members of the police division, city officials, community leaders and citizens. In all, about fifty individuals were interviewed. Additional data was obtained from the police division and the city's personnel department.

After reviewing the setting, the city of Omaha and crime patterns, the Advisory Committee examines affirmative action efforts by the police division, including efforts to comply with the 1980 consent decree between the city, Midwest Guardians (an organization of black police officers), and the U.S. Department of Justice. The use of force, an important issue in police-community relations, the community perceptions of the police division, the past and current police-community relations programs, the complaint process and the police disciplinary policies are discussed.

A draft report was circulated for comments in April 1982. All persons who participated in the study were supplied with copies and encouraged to tell the Committee what errors or omissions they found. Where appropriate, all

responses have either been used to correct errors, incorporated into the text or used as footnotes.

CHAPTER 2

SETTING

The City of Omaha had a population in 1980 of 311,681, 10.2 percent less than it had in 1970. It is located in the Omaha SMSA which includes Douglas and Sarpy couties in Nebraska and Pottawattamie County in Iowa. The black population in Omaha rose 9.9 percent in the decade, to 37,852 according to census data (but may be higher; undercounts of minorities are not unusual). That population is concentrated in the northeast sector of the city; less than five percent live west of 72nd Street, less than eight percent live south of Dodge. The center of the black population, the Center for Applied Urban Research estimates, is 34th and Pratt Streets. In fact, over half the black population lives in 15 of the 105 tracts in the SMSA. But the black population has been moving in a northwesterly direction throughout the decade. There has been a slight, but significant decline in segregation over the decade. 1

The American Indian population increased 58.4 percent in Omaha during the decade but still remained a small portion (.06) of the total population. The American Indian population is less concentrated than other minorities in Omaha, in only one census tract were as many as five percent of the inhabitants identified as American Indian.2

Hispanics in Omaha account for over one-quarter of all Hispanics in Nebraska and make up 2.3 percent of the city's population. They are increasingly concentrated in southeast Omaha.

The city was incorporated on Feb. 12, 1857. A city marshall appointed on Mar. 5, 1857 became the first city law enforcement officer. Chiefs of Police were appointed beginning in 1887. From 1912 to 1957 the city had a commission form of government, one of the commissioners serving as police commissioner. A 'Mome rule" city charter was adopted in 1957 and the city is now governed by

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a mayor and council. The Department of Public Safety administers the police, fire, permits and inspections and civil defense divisions.4

Crime statistics for 1980 show that there were 38 murders, 213 rapes, 1,053 robberies, 679 aggravated assaults, 5,351 burglaries, 15,138 larcenies and 958 motor vehicle thefts reported to the police.5

The Uniform Code Statistics for Omaha show that the proportions of crimes committed by whites and blacks were essentially the same in most categories of crime. Blacks were somewhat more likely than whites to be arrested for murder, rape, robbery and burglary. The proportions of white persons arrested for death by negligence, theft, motor vehicle theft and in most other categories of crime were larger than were the proportions of black persons arrested for those crimes (as a proportion of all arrested). Overall, about 63 percent of arrested persons were white, about 35 percent were black and most of the rest were American Indian or Alaskan Natives. No separate figures were provided by the Omaha Police Division for Hispanic arrested persons.

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Table 2-1 shows the size of the police forces in 16 cities that are similar in size or crime rate to Omaha or that are in the central region.

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Omaha has the third lowest ratio of population to police force. It has the seventh highest ratio of officers to crime index. This means it has somewhat fewer officers per 1,000 inhabitants than most cities and a somewhat higher number of crimes are reported for each officer.

The size of the department has been a source of controversy. The city council provided funds for an additional 17 officers for the 1981 fiscal year. Bernie Simon, president of the Omaha city council, told staff the authorized maximum strength for the division would be 588 in Fiscal Year 1982.8 George Ernce, president of the police union, maintains that most authorities recommend two officers per 1,000 population. If that recommendation were followed in Omaha, he said, the police division would have 600 officers. 9

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Table 2-1

Ratio of Size of Police Force to Population and Crime in Selected Cities

Police

No. of Offcrs. 1980 Crime Crime Index Force Population Per 1,000 Index Total No. of Offcrs

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Tulsa, Ok. Wichita, Ks.

531

279,272

1.90

11,126

20.95

Sources: U.S. Department of Justice, Community Relations Service; FBI; Bureau

of the Census.

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