Toward Free Trade in the Americas

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José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs, Maryse Robert
Brookings Institution Press, 2004 M05 13 - 352 páginas

In the past 15 years, the nations of the Western Hemisphere have staged a remarkable revolution—in the way they trade with their neighbors. First, after decades of restrictive import policies, several countries began to liberalize their trade and investment regimes. Then, beginning a decade ago, numerous bilateral and sub-regional trade agreements were achieved, to serve as vital complements to domestic reforms and to foster trade flows among member countries. At the Second Summit of the Americas in 1998, negotiations among 34 democracies were launched to establish the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). This report takes stock of the remarkable progress to date in the development of free trade in the Western Hemisphere. It examines trade flows between countries in the same regional groupings and between members of different sub-regional arrangements. The report describes the main characteristics of the trade arrangements signed between countries of the Hemisphere and explores the development of trade rules in these arrangements. Finally, the report details recent advances in the construction of the FTAA.

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Contenido

Introduction
1
Trade and Investment Flows Hemispheric Trends
7
Trade and Investment Flows in the Americas
9
Regional Trade Arrangements
43
Customs Unions
45
Free Trade Agreements
87
Preferential and Partial Scope Trade Agreements
108
Trade in Goods and Agriculture
125
Investment
186
Intellectual Property Rights
207
Competition Policy
230
Government Procurement
244
Dispute Settlement
255
The Road Ahead The Free Trade Area of the Americas
277
The FTAA Process From Miami 1994 to Quebec 2001
279
Integration and Interdependence in the Americas
303

Standards and Technical Barriers to Trade
141
Services
163

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Página 245 - The provisions of this Article shall not apply to laws, regulations or requirements governing the procurement by governmental agencies of products purchased for governmental purposes and not with a view to commercial resale or with a view to use in the production of goods for commercial sale.
Página 118 - Treaty (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela...
Página 204 - ... measures. Accordingly, a Party should not waive or otherwise derogate from, or offer to waive or otherwise derogate from, such measures as an encouragement for the establishment, acquisition, expansion or retention in its territory of an investment of an investor. If a Party considers that another Party has offered such an encouragement, it may request consultations with the other Party and the two Parties shall consult with a view to avoiding any such encouragement.
Página 204 - Nothing in this Chapter shall be construed to prevent a Party from adopting, maintaining or enforcing any measure otherwise consistent with this Chapter that it considers appropriate to ensure that investment activity in its territory is undertaken in a manner sensitive to environmental concerns.
Página 198 - Nothing in paragraph 3 shall be construed to prevent a Party from conditioning the receipt or continued receipt of an advantage, in connection with an investment in its territory of an investor of a Party or...
Página 66 - The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas on August 1, 1973.
Página 193 - ... real estate or other property, tangible or intangible, acquired in the expectation or used for the purpose of economic benefit or other business purposes...
Página 109 - Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago.

Acerca del autor (2004)

José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs is the chief trade advisor at the Organization of American States. Maryse Robert is a senior trade specialist with the Trade Unit of the OAS.

Información bibliográfica