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back; but the single narrow road was effectually blockaded by the cavorderly retreat was impossible. Soon all was "Let every man take care of himself!" beRansom made the most heroic efforts to rally
alry wagon train. An in the utmost confusion. came the universal cry. his men, but in vain.
The wagon train was abandoned to the enemy, and twenty guns fell into the rebels' hands. Among these captures was the Chicago Mercantile Battery. The army was saved from demolition by the timely arrival of re-enforcements from the Nineteenth Corps and the darkness of approaching night. This engagement is known by the name of the Battle of Mansfield. Banks's loss was estimated at two thousand out of eight thousand men on the field. He was largely outnumbered by the enemy. The army retreated during the night, and at dawn of the 9th succeeded in gaining Pleasant Hill, where it was concentrated. General A. J. Smith, with the Sixteenth Army Corps, held the right; Franklin, with the Nineteenth Corps, held the left. The Thirteenth Corps, exhausted and almost destroyed by the previous day's fighting, was unable to participate in the anticipated battle. At four P. M. in the afternoon of the 9th, the enemy arrived in pursuit, and immediately advanced in overwhelming numbers against the division of General Emory of the Nineteenth Corps, which, after an obstinate resistance, retreated slowly up a hill, on the slopes of which it had been formed. Behind the crest of this hill the Sixteenth Corps lay in reserve, and as the rebels rushed on with every expectation of an easy victory, they were met by a withering fire of artillery and musketry, from which they recoiled in confusion. At this moment the Sixteenth Corps charged with fixed bayonets, driving the enemy in utter rout into the neighboring woods, and recapturing eight of the guns lost on the previous day, besides five hundred prisoners. Early on the 10th, Banks, leaving his dead unburied, continued his retreat to Grand Ecore. By this timely victory the enemy suffered severely, and were compelled to abate somewhat the ardor of their pursuit.
Meantime, the fleet under Porter,* comprising the Cricket, Eastport, Mound City, Chillicothe, Carondelet, Pittsburg, Ozark, Neosho, Osage, Lexington, Fort Hindman, and Louisville, and a fleet of thirty transports, ascended the river to Grand Ecore. On the 7th of April, the river rising very slowly, the admiral sent up the Cricket, Fort Hindman, Lexington, Osage, Neosho, and Chillicothe, with the hope of getting the rest of the vessels along when the usual rise came. Twenty transports were sent along filled with army stores, and with a portion of General A. J. Smith's Division on board. It was intended that the fleet should reach Springfield Landing on the third day, and then com
David D. Porter was born in Philadelphia about 1815. He is the youngest son of Commodore David Porter, distinguished as a naval officer in the last war with England, and was appointed a midshipman in 1829. In 1861 he was promoted to be a commander, and put in command of the steam sloop Powhattan.one of the Gulf Blockading Squad ron. In the spring of 1862 he received command of the mortar flotilla, which co-operated in the reduction of the forts on the Lower Mississippi and the capture of New Orleans. He subsequently ❘
repaired with his fleet to the James River, and in October, 1862, was placed in command of the Mississippi gunboat flotilla, which he retained for two years, participating in the most important operation occurring during that interval on the Western waters. In October, 1864, having been previously promoted to be a full rear-admiral, he was ap pointed to command the North Atlantic Squadron, in which capacity he conducted the two memorable bombardments of Fort Fisher, N. C., in December, 1864, and January, 1865.
municate with the army, a portion of which expected to be at Springfield at that time.
At Springfield, serious obstacles were encountered in the river; but before they could be removed, news came to Porter that Banks was defeated, and the army falling back to Pleasant Hill, sixty miles in the rear of the fleet. The prompt return of the fleet was imperative, as the high banks of the river swarmed with enemies, who could not be reached by the guns of the fleet. On the 12th, a portion of the enemy who had defeated Banks opened fire from the right bank on the Osage, Lieutenant-Commander F. O. Selfridge (iron-clad), she being hard aground at the time, with a transport (the Black Hawk) alongside of her, towing her off. The rebels opened with two thousand muskets, and soon drove every one out of the Black Hawk to the safe casemates of the monitor. Lieutenant Bache had just come from his vessel (the Lexington), and fortunately was enabled to pull up to her again, keeping close under the bank, while the Osage opened a destructive fire on the enemy, whose efforts were vain against an iron vessel. Meantime, some troops were sent up from Grand Ecore to clear the river from guerrillas. The river now began to fall rapidly, and above the bar at Alexandria the fleet was caught by the low water, and for a time considerably imperilled. It was rescued from this position by a series of dams across the rocks at the falls, which raised the water high enough to let the vessels pass over. These were designed and superintended by Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey, acting engineer of the Nineteenth Army Corps.
The work was commenced on May 1st by running out from the left bank of the iver a tree dam, made of the bodies of very large trees, brush, brick, and stone, cross-tied with other heavy timber, and strengthened in every way which ingenuity could devise. This was run out about three hundred feet into the river; four large coal-barges were then filled with brick and sunk at the end of it. From the right bank of the river cribs filled with stone were built out to meet the barges. All of which was successfully accomplished, notwithstanding there was a current running of nine miles an hour, which threatened to sweep every thing before it. The dam had nearly reached completion in eight days' working time, and the water had risen sufficiently on the upper falls to allow the Fort Hindman, Osage, and Neosho to get down and be ready to pass the dam. Unfortunately, on the morning of the 9th, the pressure of water became so great that it swept away two of the stone barges, which swung in below the dam on one side.
The Lexington, however, succeeded in getting over the upper falls just in time-the water rapidly falling as she was passing over. She then steered directly for the opening in the dm, through which the water was rushing so furiously that it seemed as if nothing but destruction awaited her. Thousands of beating hearts looked on anxious for the result. The silence was so great as the Lexington approached the dam that a pin might almost be heard to fall. She entered the gap with a full head of steam on, pitched down the roaring torrent, made two or three spasmodic rolls, hung for a moment on the rocks below, was then swept into deep water by the current, and rounded to safely
into the bank. Thirty thousand voices rose in one deafening cheer, and universal joy seemed to pervade the face of every man present. The Neosho followed next, all her hatches battened down, and every precaution taken against accident. She did not fare as well as the Lexington, her pilot having become frightened as he approached the abyss, and stopped her engine; the result was that for a moment her hull disappeared from sight under the water. Every one thought she was lost. She rose, however, swept along over the rocks with the current, and fortunately escaped with only one hole in her bottom, which was stopped in the course of an hour. The Hindman and Osage both came through beautifully, without touching a thing.
The damage done the dam was repaired, and the whole fleet brought off. On the 14th of May the army retreated from Alexandria under protection of the gunboats, and the city was consumed by fire. On the 16th, the enemy, who escorted the army a long way, and harassed its rear, attacked in force at Avoyelles Prairie, but, after a severe fight, were driven off. On the 18th, under Polignac, they attacked again at Yellow Bayou, but were repulsed with a loss of three hundred prisoners, besides as many killed and wounded. This final check was administered by General Mower, under the command of General A. J. Smith. Yellow Bayou unites with the Bayou de la Glaise, and empties into the Atchafalaya a short distance above Semmesport. On the 19th, the army reached and pontooned the Atchafalaya. On the 20th, it crossed at Semmesport, and moved towards the Mississippi. The next evening it reached Morganzia.
While these operations were going on upon the Red River, a strong auxiliary expedition, under General Steele, had set out from Little Rock, Arkansas, with the design of uniting with Banks's column at Shreveport. On approaching Camden, the enemy was encountered behind a series of breast works to dispute the passage of Tate's Ferry. General Steele, however, moved his column forward, as if designing to strike directly for Washington, and leave Camden on his left. Arriv ing within ten miles of the ferry, still keeping the military road, he continued a small body of troops on that road, while a detachment of cavalry was hastened forward to seize and secure Elkin's Ferry, and headed the main column to the southward, breaking off almost at right angles with the former course.
This detachment encountered Marmaduke and Shelby in force, and the latter attacked the rear of the army, under Brigadier-General Rice, who repulsed him. On the 3d of April both banks of the Little Missouri were in our possession, and the army crossed at Elkin's Ferry, McLean's Brigade in advance On the 4th, Marmaduke and Cabell, with between four and five thousand men, made an attack upon our column, but were repulsed after some further skirmishes. Steele's army entered Camden on the 15th of April. The enemy, largely reenforced by Kirby Smith,* now began to swarm upon Steele, and on
* Edmund Kirby Smith was born in Florida, of Connecticut parentage, about 1824, and graduated at West Point in 1845. He was brevetted first lieutenant and captain for gallantry in the Mexi
can war, was subsequently assistant professor of mathematics at West Point, and saw active ser vice in the Indian wars in the West. He resigned his commission at the commencement of the re
the 18th a Union forage train was captured. On the 20th a supply train arrived from Pine Bluff, and on the 22d the empty train was sent back, escorted by a brigade of infantry, four pieces of artillery, and a proper proportion of cavalry. On the 25th news was received that the train had been captured, and Lieutenant-Colonel Drake, of the Thirtysixth Iowa, who was in command, mortally wounded. The loss was nearly two thousand prisoners, four guns, and two hundred and forty wagons.
The defeat of Banks enabled the enemy to strongly re-enforce Kirby Smith. Information reached Steele that Kirby Smith in person, with eight thousand re-enforcements, had made a junction with Price, and that the combined armies were advancing to attack him. Hence retreat was imperative. He, therefore, moved for Little Rock, his retreat being greatly harassed by the enemy, and his main column compelled to destroy trains and bridges. On the 30th of April, while crossing the Saline River, he was attacked by a body of the enemy under General Fagan; but the assault was repulsed. A portion of the enemy's caralry, however, crossed the river above, and hurried on towards Little Rock, hoping to take it by surprise while the Union forces were at a distance; the movement was, however, unsuccessful.
War in Missouri.-Execution of Guerrillas.-Marmaduke's Movements.-HelenaSuccessful Campaign of General Steele in Arkansas.-Capture of Little RockGeneral Gantt.-Sacking of Lawrence by Quantrell.-Price's Last Invasion of Missouri. His Disastrous Defeat and Retreat into Arkansas.
AFTER the withdrawal of General Halleck from command in Missouri in 1862, many operations of minor character took place, and the State was greatly disturbed by guerrillas under Quantrell, Poindexter, Porter, Cobb, and other partisan leaders, aided by more regular organizations. In September, 1862, the States of Missouri, Kansas, aud Arkansas were erected into a military district under the command of General Curtis, and General Schofield* assumed the command of the
bellion, and was commissioned a colonel in the rebel army. He was wounded at Bull Run, where his timely arrival turned the scale against the national troops, and soon afterwards was appointed abrigadier-general. In February, 1862, he was promoted to be a major-general, and sent to take command in East Tennessee. He participated in Bragg's invasion of Kentucky in the same year, fought at Murfreesboro', and early in 18663 was appointed to command the Department west of the Mississippi, which he retained until the close of the war. He conducted the military operations in Louisiana in the campaigns of 1863 and 1864, and had the credit of defeating Banks's costly and unfortunate Red River Expedition. He was the last of the rebel generals holding important commands to surrender to the United States authorities. At that time he held the rank of lieutenantgeneral.
John McAllister Schofield was born in Cha
tauque County, New York, in 1831, and graduated at West Point in 1858. He served for five years as instructor in natural philosophy at West Point, and at the outbreak of the rebellion was filling the chair of moral philosophy at Washington University, St. Louis. He was employed in organizing troops in the West in the early part of 1861, was subsequently General Lyon's chief of staff, and in November, 1861, was commissioned a brigadi. general of volunteers. In June, 1562, he was appointed to the military district of Missouri, and`s few months later received command of the Army of the Frontier, with which he drove the rebei invading force under Hindman into Arkansas He retained this command until the early part of 1864, when he was sent to East Tennessee to relieve General Foster. As commander of the Twentythird Corps, constituting the Army of the Ohio, be participated in Sherman's campaign from Chattsnooga to Atlanta, after which he was dispatched
"Army of the Frontier" in Southern Missouri. In September a party of guerrillas under Colonel Porter made a raid upon Palmyra, and captured among other persons an old and respected citizen named Andrew Allsman, who had been of great service to scouting parties sent out to arrest disloyal persons. As he was not again heard of, the belief gained ground that he had been murdered, particularly as the guerrillas had been recently guilty of several similar acts. Accordingly, General McNeil gave public notice that, unless Allsman should be surrendered within a given time, ten rebel prisoners should be shot. The ten days having elapsed without tidings of Allsman, ten prisoners were shot in literal conformity with McNeil's notice.
Early in 1863, the rebel General Marmaduke, with a force of six thousand men, proceeded down the Arkansas River to Spadry's Bluff, near Clarksville, Arkansas, and thence marched rapidly north towards Springfield, Missouri, with the intention of seizing the large amount of Federal commissary stores accumulated there. The design of Marmaduke in proceeding so far eastward before making a movement northward into Missouri was to avoid all chance of collision or interference with his plans by Generals Blunt and Herron. He hoped to reach Springfield and accomplish his purpose before they could obtain intelligence of his approach, and this once accomplished, these generals and their army, deprived of all supplies, would, almost of necessity, be compelled either to surrender to General Hindman or fly from Northwestern Arkansas.
As Marmaduke approached Springfield, Generals Brown and Holland, who were in command there, collected a force of about twelve hundred men, sent the stores north towards Bolivar, and succeeded in repulsing the enemy, who retreated with the loss of forty-one killed and one hundred and sixty wounded. Meantime, General Porter, who had been detached by Marmaduke with three thousand men to capture Hartsville, reached that point on the 9th of January, 1863, and moved towards Marshfield. General Fitz-Henry Warren, in command of that Federal military district, sent from Houston, on the 9th of January, Colonel Merrill, with eight hundred and fifty men, to Springfield, to reenforce the Federal garrison there. They reached Hartsville on Saturday, the 10th, and learned that Porter had been there the day previous. Leaving Hartsville at three P. M., they marched to Wood's Forks, on the road towards Springfield, by nightfall, and encamped in line of battle. The next morning (January 11th), at daybreak, they encountered Marmaduke's forces marching from Springfield, and inflicted a defeat upon him. Marmaduke, however, formed a junction with Porter, and marched for Hartsville. Colonel Merrill reached the place in time to put himself in defence. The Confederate attack was repulsed, and the rebels fell back upon Houston, and thence to Little Rock, where Marmaduke remained some two months. On the 17th of April,
to Tennessee, under the orders of Thomas, to oppose the invasion of Hood. He checked the advance of the latter at the hard-fought battle of Franklin, November 30th, 1864, and in the succeeding month participated in the series of brilliant victories in front of Nashville. Early in
1865 he accompanied his corps to North Carolina, and co-operated with Sherman in the final overthrow of Johnston. At the close of the war he received command of the Department of North Carolina.