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field, already across at the mouth of Soap Creek, was ordered to march by Cross Keys, and McPherson was to direct his course from Roswell straight against the Augusta road at some point east of Decatur, near Stone Mountain. Garrard's Cavalry acted with McPherson, and Stoneman and McCook watched the river and roads below the railroad. On the 17th, the whole army advanced from their camps, and formed a general line along the Old Peach-tree road. McPherson reached the Augusta Railroad on the 18th. On Tuesday, July 19th, a reconnoissance was pushed forward as far as Peach-tree Creek, an insignificant stream rising five or six miles northwest of Atlanta, and flowing southwesterly to the Chattahoochee, near the railroad bridge northwest of Atlanta. Behind this stream the rebels lay sheltered and awaiting our approach. They sought by stratagem to take General Sherman at a disadvantage. But a show of opposition was made to the passage of Peach-tree Creek, and our whole army were soon across and in line of battle, the Fourteenth Corps, Palmer's, and the Twentieth, Hooker's, on the right; Newton's Division of the Fourth Corps, Howard's, on the right centre; the Twenty-third, Schofield's, on the centre; the Sixteenth, Dodge's, on the left centre; and in reserve, the Fifteenth, Logan's, and the Seventeenth, Blair's, on the right. Our right was carried by Garrard's Cavalry Division.

On the 20th, all the armies had closed in, converging towards Atlanta; but as a gap existed between Schofield and Thomas, two divisions of Howard's Corps of Thomas's Army were moved to the left to connect with Schofield, leaving Newton's Division of the same corps on the Buckhead road. Meantime, the main body of the enemy lay concealed in the woods in front, prepared to assail our columns while changing position and unprepared. They hoped by massing against our weakened centre to break through there, dividing our army in twain, and leaving both wings open to attack. It was a well-laid scheme, and one that seems to have failed as much from fortuitous circumstances as from preparation on our part. At four o'clock, their columns emerged from the concealment of the woods, advancing without skirmishers against our lines.

The attack took Newton by surprise, but, being behind a line of hastily-erected rail-piles, his men were almost instantly rallied, and held the enemy in check, with the assistance of twelve guns which they were fortunately able to get into position on the left, where the rebels were pressing to cut off their retreat. Four guns were also now in position on Newton's right, where they rendered important service. Almost at the instant of the attack on Newton, the advance division of Hooker, under Geary, was struck by the advancing columns of the enemy and hurled back in confusion. But they, too, ultimately rallied and recovered their former position, closing up the gap through which the enemy had entered. On Newton's right, Ward was advancing with his division, when the enemy were discovered charging upon him. With promptitude the order was given to meet the charge with counter-charge, the two columns mingling in battle, and the enemy being finally driven back. Farther to the right, next to Geary, Williams's Division was engaged, and suffered more or less. By nine o'clock in

the evening, the enemy, thoroughly repulsed in every attack, had fallen back to his intrenchments, leaving many of his dead and wounded and a thousand prisoners in our hands. His total loss was estimated by Sherman at five thousand. Our loss is summed up officially as follows: Williams's Division, six hundred and twenty-seven; Geary's Division, four hundred and fifty-one; Ward's Division, five hundred and twenty-seven-total, one thousand six hundred and five. Newton's Division (official), one hundred and two; Fourteenth Corps, two hundred-total loss, one thousand nine hundred and seven.

On the night of the 21st, the day succeeding the assault, the enemy's line on Peach-tree Creek was drawn in and shortened, their forces being massed for a second assault, this time on our left wing, our right having defied their stubborn attempt to turn it. Though the noise of their movement was heard in our lines, its full meaning was not discovered, the withdrawal of the enemy from their main line of fortifications, one and a half miles nearer Atlanta, seeming to follow legitimately from the repulse they had received on our right. But it was soon evident that Hood, determined on another assault, had sought, by retiring, to drag us on farther, that he might again attack our lines before they had opportunity to re-form in their new position nearer Atlanta.

The first impression of General Sherman, when the lines of the ene my were found to be abandoned, on the morning of the 22d, was that it was no longer the intention of Hood to defend Atlanta. Accordingly, our advancing ranks swept across the strong and well-finished parapet of the enemy, and closed in upon Atlanta, until they occupied a line in the form of a circle of about two miles radius, where the enemy was again found, occupying in force a line of finished redoubts, which had been prepared for more than a year, covering all the roads leading into Atlanta, and busy in connecting these redoubts with curtains strengthened by rifle-trenches, abatis, and chevaux-de-frise. McPherson, who had advanced from Decatur, continued to follow substantially the railroad, with the Fifteenth Corps, Logan, the Seventeenth, Blair, on its left, and the Sixteenth, Dodge, on its right; but as the general advance of all the armies contracted the circle, the Sixteenth Corps was thrown out of line by the Fifteenth connecting on the right with Schofield, who held the centre. Meantime, McPherson, on the night of the 21st, had gained a high hill to the south and east of the railroad, whence the Seventeenth Corps had, after a severe fight, driven the enemy, which gave him a commanding position within easy view of the very heart of the city. He had thrown out working parties to it, and was making preparations to occupy it in strength with batteries. The Sixteenth Corps, on the morning of the 22d, was ordered from right to left to occupy this position and make it a strong general left flank, and Dodge moved his men by a diagonal path or wagon track leading from the Decatur road in the direction of Blair's left flank.

While this movement of Dodge was going on, the enemy, under Hardee, had issued out of Atlanta, and, making a wide circuit to the east, enveloped Blair's left flank, and struck Dodge's column in motion. Blair's line was substantially along the old line of rebel

trench, but it was fashioned to fight outward. A space of wooded ground of near half a mile intervened between the head of Dodge's column and Blair's line, through which the enemy had poured, and to fill which Wangelin's Brigade of the Fifteenth Corps was by General McPherson ordered across from the railroad. It came across on the double-quick and checked the enemy, though not in time to prevent the capture of Murray's Battery of regular artillery, which was moving past, unsuspicious of danger. While Hardee attacked in flank, Stewart's Corps was to attack in front, directly out of the main works, but fortunately these two attacks were not simultaneous. The enemy swept across the hill which our men were then fortifying, and captured the pioneer company, its tools, and almost the entire working party, and bore down on our left until he encountered Giles A. Smith's Division of the Seventeenth Corps, who was somewhat "in air," and forced to fight first from one side of the old rifle parapet, and then from the other, gradually withdrawing, regiment by regiment, so as to form a flank to General Leggett's Division, which held the apex of the hill, which was the only part that was deemed essential to hold. The line, thus formed by the connection of Smith by his right with Leggett, was enabled for four hours to meet and repulse all the enemy's attacks, which were numerous and persistent. The obstinacy with which the ground was held discouraged the enemy, and at four o'clock he gave up the attempt. In the mean time, Wheeler's Cavalry fell upon General Sprague at Decatur, where the trains of the Army of the Tennessee were parked. Sprague succeeded in bringing them off, however, with the exception of three wagons.

Meantime, McPherson,* who at ten o'clock in the morning was in consultation with General Sherman at head-quarters, rode to the front on hearing the firing, and having sent off his staff with various orders,

James B. McPherson was born in Sandusky County, Ohio, in November, 1828, and graduated at West Point in 1853, joining the Engineer Corps as brevet seco d lieutenant. Until September, 1354, he was assistant instructor of practical engineering at the Military Academy. From that time till August, 1861, he was engaged, first on the defences of New York Horbor, next in facilitating the navigation of the Hudson, next in constructing Fort Delaware, and finally in fortifying Alcatraz Island, in San Francisco Bay. He be came full second lieutenant in December, 1854, and first lieutenant in December, 1858. In August, 1861, he was ordered from California to attend to the defences of Boston Harbor. Soon after, he got his captaincy, dating from August, 1861. In November, 1861, he became aide-de-camp to General Halleck, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, and was chief engineer of the Army of the Tennessee, under Grant, in the reduction of Forts Henry and Donelson, receiving for his service a nomination as brevet major of engineers, to date February 16th, 1862. He was a Shiloh, and for services there rendered was nominated for a brevet colonelcy of engineers, to date April 7th, 1862. He had, as colonel on Halleck's staff, the chief engineering charge of the approaches to Corinth. which ended in its evacuation. On the 15th of May, 1862, he became brigadier-general of volunteers, and, the next month, superintended with great skill all the military railroads in General Grant's department. He was at luka, and

again at Corinth in October. 1862, acting with so much gallantry as to be promoted to a majorgeneralcy, to date from October 3d. From that time till the close of the siege of Vicksburg, when his engineering powers caine into full play, his career was a course of triumph. At the recommendation of General Grant, he was made a brigadier-general of the regular army, with rank dating from August 1st, 1962. Two months later he conducted a column into Mississippi, and repulsed the enemy at Canton. In February, 1864, he was second in command to Sherman, in the latter's famous movable column, which marched from Vicksburg to Meridian. Finally, in the first Atlanta campaign, his command was the Department of the Tennessee, including the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Corps, constituting the flanking force which, moving rapidly on one or the other wing, was employed to force the enemy back to Atlanta. In some respects, the burden of the campaign, next under Sherman, fell on him. He fought at Resaca, and the battle near Dallas was wholly his. At Allatoona and Culp Farm he was again distinguished, was actively though not hotly engaged at Kenesaw, and on the 17th he ent the line between Lee and Johnston by occupying Decatur on the Augusta Railroad. Three days later he fought a severe battle, from which he came out only to fall, shot through the lungs, early in the day of Friday, July 22d, at the early age of thirty-six years.

the last of which was that to Wangelin, to fill the gap between Dodge and Blair's line, turned into a narrow cross-road leading to the rear of Smith's Division. He had not gone far when a volley from the enemy, whose skirmish line had crept up to this road, struck him from his horse. He was shot through the lungs, and fell dead. General John A. Logan, commanding the Fifteenth Corps, then temporarily assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee.

At four P. M., a pause occurred in the battle, occasioned by Hood's massing troops for an assault on the Fifteenth Corps, which held the right of the Army of the Tennessee behind substantial breast works. At four P. M., while a feigned attack was maintained against the Union left, a heavy force suddenly appeared in front of the left of the Fifteenth Corps, driving before it a couple of regiments of skirmishers, and capturing two guns. Pushing rapidly on, it forced Lightburn, who held this part of the line, back in disorder, taking from him a twenty-pounder Parrott and four guns, and separated Wood's and Harrow's Divisions of the Fifteenth Corps. Sherman, being present, ordered some batteries of Schofield to a position that commanded a flank fire upon the enemy. The Fifteenth Corps was then ordered to regain the lost ground at any cost. This, after a desperate struggle, was successful, and the enemy retired with heavy loss, carrying off only the two guns originally captured. The battle terminated with a Federal loss of three thousand seven hundred and twenty-two, killed, wounded, and prisoners, and ten guns. The enemy's loss equalled, if it did not exceed, twelve thousand, including over three thousand killed and three thousand prisoners. They also lost eighteen stands of colors and five thousand stands of arms.

On the 23d, Garrard, who had been dispatched to Covington, on the Augusta road, forty-two miles east of Atlanta, returned, having succeeded in destroying the bridges at Ulcofauhatchee and Yellow Rivers, besides burning a train of cars, a large quantity of cotton (two thousand bales), and the dépôts of stores at Covington and Conyer's Station.

Sherman now addressed himself to the task of reaching the Macon road, over which of necessity came the stores and ammunition that alone maintained the Confederate army in Atlanta. For this purpose a new movement by the Army of the Tennessee was ordered. It was to proceed by the right towards East Point, a station on the Atlanta and Macon Railroad, southwest of Atlanta, while simultaneously the whole of the cavalry was to strike a blow at the Macon road. The leaders of this raid were Stoneman and McCook, of whom the former had a force of five thousand men, comprising his own division and that of Garrard, and the latter a force of four thousand, comprising his own troopers and the cavalry of Rousseau, just returned from Opelika. Stoneman was to move by the left around Atlanta to McDonough, and McCook by the right on Fayetteville, and both were to meet on the night of July 28th, on the Macon road, near Lovejoy's. It was supposed that this joint force would be equal to any thing that Wheeler could bring against it.

Previous to starting, Stoneman asked permission to extend his raid to Macon and Andersonville, with a view of releasing the Union pris

oners confined there. After some hesitation, Sherman consented, on the condition that Wheeler's Cavalry should first be put hors de combat, and the railroad effectually destroyed. On the 27th the two expeditions started forth, but Stoneman almost immediately pushed for the neighborhood of Macon, ninety miles distant, where he arrived on the 30th; Garrard remaining at Flat Rock to cover the movement. The enemy appear, however, to have been fully apprised of his design, and had sent all the prisoners from Macon to Charleston. Meanwhile, the rebel General Iverson, who had been on Stoneman's track since the 27th, overtook him on the 28th, at the junction of South and Yellow Rivers, some sixty miles northwest of Macon. A spirited fight ensued. Kelley's and Hume's rebel cavalry fought the command that Stoneman detached for the purpose of delaying pursuit. Iverson suspected the manœuvre, and left Kelley and Hume to finish the fight, while he passed around the party and continued the pursuit. Stoneman, when he neared Macon, detached a party to operate on Milledgeville and Eatonton. The country around was very unfavorable for cavalry operations, and it was soon discovered that a brigade of rebel infantry had wheeled from our flank and had taken up position along the main route, thus heading off Stoneman. The rebel Armstrong's Brigade of cavalry, comprising the First and Second Kentucky, had come down on Stoneman's left flank at the same time, thus, with the troops in his rear, completely surrounding him. Here it happened, by a strange coincidence, that the First and Second Kentucky of Adams's Brigade were pitted against their rebel namesakes.

Stonemam now discovered Iverson's command above Clinton, disputing his return. He quickly decided that he could not escape on either flank, and determined to fight through the centre. His command numbered nearly twenty-five hundred men, a portion of whom were dismounted, and sent forward as skirmishers. The enemy continued to press him more closely, and, after various fruitless attempts to make head against them, orders were given to the commanders of regiments to break through the opposing lines and escape in the readiest manner possible. Stoneman himself, with several hundred men and a section of artillery, remained to occupy the attention of the enemy, but was finally overpowered and obliged to surrender. Of his three brigades, one returned uninjured, one was somewhat scattered, but eventually found its way back to the Union lines, and the third was captured with him. Garrard's Division proceeded farther than Covington on the Augusta Railroad. Stoneman's total loss probably exceeded a thousand men, with three guns.

Meantime, McCook with his force reached the rendezvous at the appointed time, after having burned five hundred wagons and gathered up several hundred prisoners. The enemy collecting around him, however, he moved to Newman upon the Atlanta and West Point road. Here he was hemmed in, and was obliged to drop his captures and cut his way out, with the loss of five hundred men. The whole expedition must be considered a costly failure, as the enemy's communications were only temporarily interrupted.

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