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throwing the whole column into confusion. The retiring troops were drawn to the right of the road, in order that the artillery might play upon the advancing enemy. This it did with such effect that he soon retired. This seems to have been a feint, however, since, during the night, the enemy had cut a road through the woods which covered the right front of Howard, at Wilderness Church, fifteen miles southwest of Fredericksburg, and while the attack was going on in front, wagons were moving to the left of the enemy, and it was assumed that he was in retreat. To ascertain the state of affairs, a reconnoissance by Sickles's Corps was made, resulting in the capture of some troops, who stated that the wagons were ordnance following General Jackson and staff. General Sickles then advanced, in the hope of cutting the enemy in two, but at five o'clock in the afternoon, while the movement was in progress, a terrific crash of musketry announced Jackson's appearance in force on the extreme right, where was Schurz's Division of the Eleventh Corps. With wild yells the Confederates rushed on in overwhelming numbers, and the Germans, overborne, broke and fled in helpless confusion. In vain officers stormed and entreated; the men sullenly made their way to the river, followed by portions of Devens's and Steinwehr's Divisions. The brigades of Bushbeck and McLean held their ground for a time, but were compelled to fall back before the irruption of the enemy, who like a whirlwind rushed in at the opening left by the retreating Germans. At this crisis, Captain Best rapidly got his batteries into position on a ridge in a cornfield, and Berry's Division of the Third Corps, throwing itself into the gap, stayed the torrent which had threatened to roll up the line in disastrous confusion. Manfully the small band bore up against the fierce assault of the desperate foe, and by dint of endurance succeeded in keeping the foe at bay until supports arrived The enemy's force comprised the three strong divisions, A. P. Hill's, Trimble's, and Rhodes's, of Jackson's Corps, and greatly outnumbered the troops to whom they were opposed.
In this affair the enemy sustained the irreparable loss of General "Stonewall" Jackson, whose left arm was broken by a shot, while another passed through his right hand. These wounds caused his death a few days later. General A. P. Hill succeeded him in command of his corps. It became necessary to order a night attack, in order to restore the connection of the Union lines. This was performed by Ward's Brigade of Birney's Division, at eleven o'clock, with some degree of success, and the line fell back upon Chancellorsville, where the exhausted men slept on their arms, awaiting the events of a new day.
In these operations, the enemy had completely turned the Union right, compelling a complete change of position, which would throw him out of the rear into the front. Early on the 3d, the line of battle was soon formed. The left of the new position lay a little to the west and south of Chancellorsville, and was occupied by the Third and Twelfth Corps. Next, on the right, came the Fifth, and Reynolds's First Corps held the extreme right. The Second Corps lay in the rear of the Fifth, and behind the former was the Eleventh, which had finally been rallied,
though still too much shattered for use. At half-past five A. M. of the 8d, the advance became engaged in the ravine, just beyond the ridge where Captain Best's guns had made their terrific onslaught the night before. General Berry's Division, which had then checked the enemy's advance, engaged him again. In vain he advanced his infantry in overwhelming numbers, as if determined to crush our forces; the brave men of Sickles and Slocum, who fought their columns with desperate gallantry, held him in check. The engagement lasted, without the slightest intermission, from half-past five A. M. to forty-five minutes past eight A. M., when there was a temporary cessation on our part, occasioned by getting out of ammunition. Somewhat later, the enemy, with the divisions of A. P. Hill, McLaws, and Anderson, added to those of Jackson's Corps, pressed in front with wonderful persistence, although the batteries of the Third Corps did terrible execution. The rebel batteries replied with great effect, shelling and setting on fire the Chancellor mansion, a large brick structure occupied by General Hooker as head-quarters. The Union troops held the position for nearly an hour with the bayonet, and then, as Hooker did not wish to bring his fresh troops into action at that time, an order was given to fall back towards the river, where a good position was taken behind intrenchments. This left the line of battle lying on the edge of the woods, three-quarters of a mile north of Chancellorsville, parallel with the Ely Ford road, and crossing the main road leading to the United States Ford. This line was maintained through the 4th. In these movements General Berry was killed, Generals Devin and Mott wounded.
It now became evident that the enemy were augmenting in force; and as nothing had been heard from Stoneman, it was inferred that his expedition had failed. The rations taken by the army for eight days were nearly exhausted, and the ammunition was getting short, since, for celerity of movement, only the caissons had been brought over to supply the guns. The men had taken forty rounds of cartridges in their cartouches, and forty rounds extra in their knapsacks, most of which was expended. One of those heavy easterly storms, common to the month of May on the Atlantic coast, now set in with copious rains, and the river rose rapidly behind the army, covering the fords, and threatening the pontoon bridges, of which there were three. The rapid rise in the water made it necessary to take up one to prolong the other two. General Hooker, under these circumstances, called a council, at which a retreat was decided upon. The heavy guns and wagons were sent over on Monday night, the 4th, and the troops began to follow, the Fifth Corps covering the retreat. The terrible storm and the darkness of the night favored the retreat. One by one the various corps left the intrenchments, filed to the rear, and passed the river, standing once more on the north bank amid the mud that had so long held Burnside fast. The number of wounded left behind was large, and General Hooker sent over a flag offering to send surgeons, rations, and medicines. General Lee accepted the surgeons, but declined the rations and medicines.
Meanwhile, Sedgwick's Sixth Corps remained a short distance be
low Fredericksburg, and on the same side of the river, awaiting the withdrawal of rebel troops to oppose Hooker, when it was proposed to carry the heights so fruitlessly attacked in the previous December. A reconnoissance at dawn of the 3d showed that Marye's Hill, the position selected for assault, was held by a considerable body of troops, which proved to be a part of Early's Division. With a view of diverting the attention of the enemy from his movement, Sedgwick directed one of his divisions, under Howe, and Gibbon's Division of the Second Corps, which had been left to garrison Falmouth, to attempt the works lying to the east of Marye's Hill. Newton's Division was selected to storm the last-named position, and at about noon accomplished the task in the most gallant manner, though with heavy loss. Howe's attack was equally successful, and the two divisions captured seventeen guns, including the famous Washington Artillery's battery, and nearly a thousand prisoners. Sedgwick then pushed forward his whole corps in pursuit of the flying enemy, and in the afternoon came up with him at Salem Heights, about four miles west of Fredericksburg, occupying a position of considerable strength. Lee by this time had been enabled to send re-enforcements towards Fredericksburg, so that the enemy now probably equalled his pursuers in numbers, and had also the advantage of position. Neverthe less, by resolute fighting, the gallant troops of Sedgwick carried the hill at dusk, and, not wishing to press their advantage in the darkness through the wooded country extending westward, bivouacked for the night on the battle-field.
At dawn of the 4th, Sedgwick re-formed his lines, extending his right to the Rappahannock, in the neighborhood of Banks's Ford. Soon afterwards he learned that Lee had sent a force to reoccupy the heights back of Fredericksburg. This placed him in a critical position. His retreat to Fredericksburg was cut off, and the experience of the previous day had shown him the difficulty, not to say the impossibility, of cutting his way through to Chancellorsville, to form a junction with Hooker. He therefore fell back towards Banks's Ford, where his command was soon confronted by an overwhelming force under Lee. From four o'clock in the afternoon until dusk, the Sixth Corps, single-handed, stood at bay on the river-bank against double their numbers, losing in the unequal combat one-third of their whole force, but at the same time inflicting fearful loss upon the enemy. At length Lee retired from what he termed the "bloodiest battle of the war," and, at two o'clock in the morning of the 5th, Sedgwick led his exhausted and shattered columns safely across the river.
The column of Stoneman, on passing the river at Kelly's Ford, was divided into two columns, under Stoneman and Averill. The main column under Stoneman moved upon Richmond by Louisa CourtHouse and Montpelier, crossing the South Anna at Squirrel Bridge. Averill's pushed on to Brandy Station, where it met the enemy's pickets, and drove them back in a short skirmish. It then advanced to Culpepper Court-House, where Generals Fitzhugh and William Henry Lee were found with a rebel force of perhaps five hundred cavalry, which fled precipitately back across Cedar Mountain.
At Culpepper Court-House, General Averill pushed on after the retreating Lees, following them to Rapidan Station, where they burned the railroad bridge, over which they retreated after a smart fight, in which they lost Colonel Rosser (late of the United States Army), who commanded one of the brigades. Our loss there was inconsiderable, and they lost several killed besides Colonel Rosser, and also thirtyone prisoners, whom General Averill brought back with him. The object of Averill's expedition seems to have been to destroy this (Rapidan) bridge, which the enemy in their panic did for him. After proceeding as far as Orange Court-House, he returned with his force to the main army, joining it at Chancellorsville on Sunday. One column of Stoneman's force, under General Buford, pushed on directly towards Gordonsville, cutting the Central Railroad between Gordonsville and Charlotteville.
The column under Stoneman, divided into several expeditions, proceeded through Hanover Court-House to within five miles of Richmond, causing great alarm in and about the Confederate capital, and returned either to the Rapidan or made good its escape into the Federal lines on the Peninsula. Numerous bridges and large portions of the track of the railroad between Richmond and Fredericksburg were destroyed. Thus the general plan of the cavalry expedition was carried out, but was barren of results. It did not materially interrupt the enemy's communications. The small force was not only divided, but remained so; and Averill on his return was ordered under arrest by General Hooker for not carrying out his instructions and opening communication with Stoneman.
Thus the experiment of an advance upon Richmond by way of Fredericksburg ended in failure.
The whole plan of campaign seemed to have been, on the part of the general, a grasping after great effects, without comprehending the situation or the means of execution. The dividing of the army was an error, unless it was to be combined in attack. It was done to deceive the enemy, and did not deceive him at all. The enemy, having an inside line of communication, held Sedgwick in check, while by a rapid flank march he assaulted Hooker on his extreme right, while that general was expecting him on his extreme left. This attack was made at 5 P. M. on Saturday, the 2d, and the army retired from its line making every preparation to attempt the hazardous experiment of a forced change of front in face of the enemy. Sedgwick did not carry the works behind Fredericksburg until 10 A. M. Sunday, and, in attempting to communicate with Hooker, was checked at Salem Heights. At the same time the main Union Army retired to a new line of defence, where it did nothing all day Monday, while the enemy turned upon Sedgwick in full force, Hooker making no attempt to succor him, although the two armies were but four miles distant. Had Stoneman's cavalry been with the main army at its accustomed duty, the surprise and defeat of the Eleventh Corps on the right could not have occurred, and the defeat of the enemy would have possibly resulted. Hooker commenced the campaign to open the road to Richmond. He intended to surprise the enemy, to force him to fight on his (Hooker's) ground, to
defeat him in battle, to cut his communication, and capture his army. The only thing attained was to cause the enemy to fight on the ground chosen by Hooker. The enemy was not surprised, nor defeated, nor captured, nor were his communications permanently injured, since he received all his re-enforcements and supplies. The grand result was a severe check to the Union arms.
The losses in this brief campaign probably exceeded fifteen thousand, including nearly five thousand prisoners. The rebels estimated their losses at sixteen to eighteen thousand. Among the Federal killed were MajorGeneral Berry, who died gallantly leading his men in a repulse of the enemy on Sunday night; also General Whipple, who was shot by one of the enemy's sharpshooters. The enemy had to deplore General Jackson (Stonewall), who lost his left arm on Saturday, and to that accident was ascribed the diminished vigor of the enemy's attacks during the remainder of the battles. The death of Jackson, who had earned the foremost military reputation of the war, was a severe blow to the Confederate cause, and one for which the victory illy compensated.
Second Invasion of Maryland.-Defeat of Milroy at Winchester.-Meade appointed to Command the Army of the Potomac.—Battle of Gettysburg.-Retreat of Lee.
AFTER the return of the Army of the Potomac to the north side of the Rappahannock, early in May, a period of apparent quiet ensued. The army of Hooker was largely composed of nine-months and two-years men, whose time would expire in June, and as yet no means had been taken by the Federal Government to supply their places under the Conscription Law which had passed Congress in February. The act itself was far from popular, but its enemies made the most strenuous objections to the clause which permitted a conscript to commute for a sum of three hundred dollars. This, and other reasons connected with the enrolment, prevented any speedy arrangements for the procurement of men; and as the month of June approached, the army of
Major-General Hiram Gregory Berry, of the battles, June 25th to July 1st. On the 15th of United States Volunteers, was born in Thomaston August, General Berry moved with his brigade to (now Rockland), Maine, August 27, 1824. He was Yorktown, and thence to Alexandria; thence by a carpenter some years; afterwards engaged in navi-rail to Warrenton Junction, from which point they gation; was mayor of Rockland, and held various marched to the Rappahannock, and on the 29th offices in the Maine militia. Under the call for and 30th of August participated with Kearny's troops in the spring of 1861, he was made colonel Division in the battles of Manassas or Second Bull of the Fourth Maine Volunteers, and participated Run. September 1st he took part in the battle in the battle of Bull Run, where it fought in of Chantilly, where Kearny lost his life. At the Howard's Brigade. Subsequently the command battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Berwas in one of the brigades commanded by General ry's Brigade drove back a rebel force, thereby saving Bedgwick. The regiment was afterwards trans- a good portion of Birney's Division from harm. ferred to General Birney's Brigade, Hamilton's Berry was nominated by the President majorDivision, and participated in the siege of York-general of volunteers in January, 1863, with rank town. Upon General Kearny's taking command of the division, Colonel Berry, who had been made brigadier-general of volunteers on the 4th of April, 1862, was placed in charge of a brigade of Heintzelman's Army Corps, which change separated him from his regiment. He participated in the battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862, and the Seven Days'
from November 29, 1862; was renominated on the 7th of March, and confirmed March 9, 1563. He was placed in command of the Second Division of the Third Army Corps, under General Sickles, and in that position fell at the head of his command, near Chancellorsville.