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into the batteries, which opened upon the advancing vessel with a shot that disabled her. The pilot jumped over in the confusion and gained the shore. The steamer drifted ashore, and was captured, with eighteen of her men. She was soon repaired and placed in the rebel service. Meantime, on the 14th of February, the gunboat Indianola ran the batteries in order to join the Queen of the West. Unfortunately, however, she was almost immediately captured by the Queen of the West, and both were subsequently destroyed by the Union gunboats. The operations on the canal were prolonged until it became evident that it would not succeed, and that even if it could be made passable for the transports, its debouch upon the river was so commanded by the new batteries erected by the enemy that it would not answer the object. Finally, owing to a sudden flood which broke the dam and overflowed the adjacent country, it had to be abandoned.
Attempts were next made to enter the Yazoo River by the old Yazoo Pass, which enters the Mississippi many miles above Vicksburg, and subsequently by a more circuitous route through Steele's Bayou, Black Bayou, Duck Creek, Deer Creek, Rolling Fork, and Sunflower River, none of which succeeded, although abundant resources and energy were expended upon them. It was, however, the opinion of Grant that Vicksburg could only be turned from the south side, and as the canal had proved a failure, attention was turned to the project for cutting a canal from the Mississippi to Lake Providence, in Northeastern Louisiana, whence transports might pass through Bayou Baxter and Bayou Macon, and the Tensas, Wachita, and Red Rivers, into the Mississippi, about a hundred miles below Vicksburg. This also proved impracticable, and, after mature deliberation, Grant determined to adopt the hazardous scheme of running past the Vicksburg batteries with a portion of the gunboats and transports, and marching his troops down the west bank of the Mississippi to a point whence they could be transferred to the opposite shore.
This had been attempted with some success by the fleet of Farragut* from below, which passed Port Hudson the 14th of March, for the purpose of co-operating with Grant. The enemy's batteries extended some four miles at that formidable point, yet the passage was attempted by seven vessels-the Hartford, Albatross, Richmond, Kineo, Monongahela, Genesee, and Mississippi-while a number of mortar-boats kept up a bombardment from the rear. Of the fleet, the Hartford and Albatross succeeded in passing. The Richmond put back with damage, and the Mississippi was destroyed. About eighty
* David G. Farragut was born near Knoxville, Tennesse, in 1801, entered the navy in 1811, and saw much active service in the war of 1812, as a midshipman on the frigate Essex. He subsequently served in all parts of the world, and in 1855 reached the grade of captain. In the latter part of 1861 he was appointed to command the naval part of the expedition against New Orleans, and at the same time assumed command of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. In April, 1562, he successfully accomplished the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, commanding the ap
proaches to New Orleans, and during the next two months he was actively employed in the same waters. In July he was promoted to be a rear-admiral. In March, 1863, he passed the batteries at Port Hudson, on the Mississippi, with two of his vessels, and rendered valuable services to Grant, then besieging Vicksburg. In August of the succeeding year he made his memorable passage of the forts at the entrance of Mobile harbor, for which he was afterwards promoted to be vice-admiral, which grade was specially created by Congress for him.
were killed in the passage. At Grand Gulf the Hartford again encountered the enemy's batteries, and received fourteen shot, and on the 22d she anchored below Vicksburg. Soon after, on the 25th, the Lancaster and Switzerland, of Porter's fleet, attempted to run past Vicksburg and join Farragut. The Lancaster was destroyed, but the Switzerland got down in a disabled condition, but, being taken in tow by the Albatross, was again made serviceable.
On the night of the 16th of April, a portion of Admiral Porter's fleet and the transports Silver Wave, Forest Queen, and Henry Clay, ran the batteries. The boilers of the transports were protected as well as possible with hay and cotton. More or less commissary stores were put on each. All three of these boats were struck, and the Henry Clay, by the explosion of a shell, or by other means, was set on fire and entirely consumed. The other two boats were somewhat injured, but not seriously disabled. No one on board of either was hurt
As these boats succeeded in getting by so well, General Grant ordered six more to be prepared in like manner for running the batteries, viz. : the Tigress, Anglo-Saxon, Cheeseman, Empire City, Horizonia, and Moderator, which left Milliken's Bend on the night of the 22d of April, and got by in a somewhat damaged condition, with the exception of the Tigress, which received a shot in her hull, below the waterline, and sunk on the Louisiana shore soon after passing the last of the batteries. The crews of these steamers, with the exception of that of the Forest Queen, Captain D. Conway, and the Silver Wave, Captain McMillan, were composed of volunteers from the army. Upon the call for volunteers for this dangerous enterprise, officers and men presented themselves by hundreds, anxious to undertake the trip.
The fleet concentrated at New Carthage, where the troops continued to arrive. The roads from Milliken's Bend to that place were intolerably bad. Nevertheless, on the 29th March, the Thirteenth Army Corps, McClernand commanding, was directed to take up its line of march thither, to be followed by the Seventeenth Corps, McPherson, moving no faster than supplies and ammunition could be transported to them. The Fifteenth Army Corps, W. T. Sherman commanding, was left to protect the communications and supplies and deceive the enemy. To prevent heavy re-enforcements going from Vicksburg to the assistance of Grand Gulf, where Grant intended to land, he directed Sherman to demonstrate against Haines's Bluff, and to make all the show possible. From information afterwards received from prisoners captured, this ruse succeeded admirably. Arriving at Smith's plantation, two miles from New Carthage, it was found that the levee of Bayou Vidal was broken in several places, thus leaving New Carthage an island.
It became necessary to march around Vidal to Perkins's plantation, a distance of twelve miles more, making the whole distance to be marched from Milliken's Bend to reach water communication on the opposite side of the point, thirty-five miles. Ultimately the march was prolonged to Hard Times, seventy miles from Milliken's Bend. Over this distance, with bad roads to contend against, supplies of ord
nance stores and provisions had to be hauled by wagons, with which to commence the campaign on the opposite side of the river.
On the 29th April, the Thirteenth Army Corps got on board the transports and barges, and were moved to the front of Grand Gulf. It was intended that the navy should silence the guns of the enemy, and the troops land under cover of the gunboats, and carry the place by storm. The position of Vicksburg would thus be effectually turned, and the garrison compelled either to evacuate or stand a siege, with the hope of succor from Bragg in Tennessee.
The Flank Movement against Vicksburg.--Battles of Raymond, Jackson, and Champion Hills.--Investment of the City.-Obstinate Defence.-Surrender.-Chronology of Events.-Grierson's Raid.
THE Federal Army was now below Vicksburg, supported by the fleet; and those formidable defences, which had so often defied the efforts directed from the North, were no longer of any avail. The southern side of the position was now to be approached, with much better hopes of success.
The troops were soon concentrated and formed for a lodgment on the Mississippi side, which was effected at Bruinsburg, sixty-five miles below Vicksburg, on the 30th April. On the same day the gunboats attacked Grand Gulf, without effect. The Thirteenth Corps immediately advanced, followed by the Seventeenth, upon Port Gibson, held by the Confederates, under General Bowen, who were defeated, on the 1st of May, with heavy loss. The Union loss was five hundred and fifty killed and wounded. This placed Grant in the rear of Grand Gulf, which was consequently abandoned by the enemy. Admiral Porter, two days after the engagement at Port Gibson, returned to Grand Gulf, and found it abandoned. He reported it to have been the strongest place on the Mississippi. Had the enemy succeeded in finishing the fortifications, no fleet could have taken them. General Grant then made Grand Gulf his base of operations.
In the afternoon the army was again in motion in the direction of Raymond. It had been Grant's original intention to effect a junction with Banks, and reduce Port Hudson, and then co-operate upon Vicksburg. The state of affairs on landing, however, induced him to advance at once upon Jackson. Simultaneously with the movement just described, Sherman had made a demonstration against Haines's Bluff on the Yazoo, to distract the attention of the enemy, after which he marched rapidly down the river and crossed over to Grand Gulf.
On the 7th of May an advance commenced, McPherson's Corps keeping the road nearest Black River to Rocky Springs, McClernand's the ridge road from Willow Springs, and Sherman following with his corps divided on the two roads. All the ferries were closely guarded until our troops were well advanced. It was the intention of General
Grant here to follow the Black River as closely as possible with McClernand's and Sherman's Corps, and get them to the railroad at some place between Edwards's Station and Bolton. McPherson was to move by way of Utica to Raymond, and from there into Jackson, destroying the railroad, telegraph, public stores, &c., and push west to rejoin the main force. Orders were given to McPherson accordingly. Sherman was moved forward on the Edwards's Station road, crossing Fourteen Mile Creek at Dillon's plantation; McClernand was moved across the same creek, further west, sending one division of his corps by the Baldwin's Ferry road as far as the river. At the crossing of Fourteen Mile Creek, both McClernand and Sherman had considerable skirmishing with the enemy to get possession of the crossing. On the morning of the 9th of May, the advance cavalry of the Seventeenth Corps fell in with the enemy's horsemen at Raymond, and reported to General McPherson the presence of a large infantry force in front. The force proved to be four thousand men, under General Gregg, of Texas. In consequence of this report, the Second Ohio Brigade, of Logan's Division, was ordered to advance in column of regiments towards the heavy timber which concealed the enemy, who opened upon them on overwhelming fire. The first and third brigades were ordered forward in support, but could not dislodge the enemy, and were compelled to give ground when the artillery of the enemy opened upon them. This was replied to by the Eighth Michigan Battery. The enemy then made an attempt to take the battery by a charge, but were repulsed with loss, and fell back to a position in the rear of Farnden's Creek. The brigades of Dennis and Smith then renewed the attack, but were taken in flank by the enemy, and a terrible struggle ensued, in which the Union loss was heavy. The Twentieth Ohio and Twenty-third Indiana narrowly escaped annihilation, and the enemy was rapidly gaining ground, when the opportune arrival of Stevenson's Brigade restored the battle, and finally compelled the enemy to give ground, leaving to the Union troops a dearly-bought victory. The enemy, being mostly under cover, suffered much less than the Union troops. General McPherson moved on the 13th to Clinton, destroyed the railroad and telegraph, and captured some important dispatches from General Pemberton to General Gregg, who had commanded the day before in the battle of Raymond. Sherman moved to a parallel position on the Mississippi Springs and Jackson road; McClernand moved to a point near Raymond.
On the same day Crocker's Division of McPherson's Corps left Clinton to encounter the enemy under Johnston, who had just ar rived at Jackson with a force of nine thousand. It was necessary for Grant to defeat this force before turning upon Vicksburg, in order to clear his rear. He therefore assailed it promptly and vigorously. Crocker's Division leading the advance, soon fell in with the enemy's pickets, which fell back to within three miles of Jackson, where the main body of the enemy was in position on high ground. The rest of the corps of McPherson supported the division of Crocker. The first brigade, Sanborne, and the second brigade, Holmes, of Crocker's