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TED IL-6, 1861. }


"SIR:-Upon my arrival before your city, I had the honor to send to your honor Captain Bailey, United States Navy, second in command of the expedition, to demand of you the surrender of New Orleans to me as the representative of the Government of the United States. Captain Bailey reported the result of an interview with yourself and the military authorities.

"It must occur to your honor that it is not within the province of a naval officer to assume the duties of a military commandant. I came here to reduce New Orleans to obedience to the laws of, and to vindicate the offended majesty of, the Government of the United States. The rights of persons and property shall be secured.

"I therefore demand of you, as its representative, the unqualified surrender of the city, and that the emblem of the sovereignty of the United States be hoisted over the City Hall, Mint, and Custom-House, by meridian this day, and all flags and other emblems of sovereignty other than this of the United States be removed from all the public buildings by that hour.

"I particularly request that you shall exercise your authority to quell disturbances, restore order, and call upon all the good people of New Orleans to retire at once to their avocations, and I particularly demand that no person shall be molested in person or property, or for sentiments of loyalty to their Government. I shall speedily and severely punish any person or persons who shall ccmmit such outrages as were witnessed yesterday by armed men firing upon helpless women and children for giving expression to their pleasure at witnessing the 'old flag.'

"I am, very respectfully,

D. C. FARRAGUT, "Flag-Officer Western Gulf Squadron.”



"FLAG-OFFICER D. C. FARRAGUT, United States Flag-Ship Hartford:

"SIR:-In pursuance of a resolution which we thought proper to take, out of regard for the lives of the women and children, who still crowd the metropolis, General Lovell bas evacuated it with his troops, and restored back to me the administration of its govern ment and the custody of its honor. I have, in council with the City Fathers, considered the demand you made of me yesterday of an unconditional surrender of the city, coupled with a requisition to hoist the flag of the United States on the public edifices, and haul down the flag that still floats upon the breeze from the dome of the Hall. It becomes my duty to transmit to you an answer which the universal sentiment of my constituents, no less than the prompting of my own heart, declares to me on this sad and solemn occasion. The city is without the means of defence, and is utterly destitute of the force and material that might enable it to resist an overpowering armament displayed in sight of it.

"I am no military man, and possess no authority beyond that of executing the muni cipal laws of the city of New Orleans. It would be presumptuous in me to attempt to lead an army to the field, if I had one at command; and I know still less how to surrender an undefended place, held, as this is, at the mercy of your gunners and your mortars. To surrender such a place were an idle and unmeaning ceremony. The city is yours by the power of brutal force, not by my choice or the consent of its inhabitants. It is for you to determine what will be the fate that awaits us here. hoisting any flag not of our own adoption and allegiance, let me say to you that the man lives not in our midst whose hand and heart would not be paralyzed at the mere thought of such an act; nor could I find in my entire constituency so desperate and wretched a renegade as would dare to profane with hand the sacred emblem of our aspirations.

As to

"Sir, you have manifested sentiments which would become one engaged in a better cause than that to which you have devoted your sword. I doubt not that they spring from a noble though deluded nature, and I know how to appreciate the emotions which inspired them. You have a gallant people to administrate during your occupancy of this city-a people sensitive to all that can in the least affect their dignity and self

respect. Pray, sir, do not fail to regard their susceptibilities. The obligations which I shall assume in their name shall be religiously complied with. You may trust their honor, though you might not count on their submission to unmerited wrong.

"In conclusion, I beg you to understand that the people of New Orleans, while unable to resist your force, do not allow themselves to be insulted by the interference of such as have rendered themselves odious and contemptible by their dastardly desertion of our cause in the mighty struggle in which we are engaged, or such as might remind them too forcibly that they are the conquered and you the conquerors. Peace and order may be preserved without resort to measures which I could not prevent. Your occupying of the city does not transfer allegiance from the government of their choice to one which they have deliberately repudiated, and they yield the obedience which the conqueror is entitled to extort from the conquered.

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After the city had surrendered to Commodore Farragut, and was completely under the guns of the fleet, General Butler, with a force composed of eight regiments, two batteries, and two companies of cavalry, commenced landing on the 1st of May, and established his head-quarters at the Custom-House. He subsequently ordered the St. Charles Hotel, which was closed, to be opened for the accommodation of himself and staff. He then prepared a proclamation, which the papers refused to publish, whereupon he placed Northern printers in the True Delta office, by whom the document was put in type. It stated that the laws of the United States would be enforced, but to a certain extent, and for a limited period, proclaimed martial law. The payment of municipal taxes, with some exceptions, was suppressed, and the circulation of Confederate money forbidden. The telegraph was placed under the command of an army officer. For opposition to the new Government, General Butler sent the provost guard to arrest the mayor and common council, and bring them before him at the St. Charles Hotel. Pierre Soulé, formerly United States senator, attended, at the invitation of the common council. General Butler read his proclamation to them and addressed them. He was replied to by Mr. Soulé, on whose representations he was induced to modify a portion of it, and to permit the boats and railroads to bring in supplies of food to the inhabitants. Mr. Soulé also asked that the soldiers might be withdrawn to the suburbs of the city, since their presence was a continual source of irritation to the people. This was naturally enough denied, and Soulé was subsequently arrested, and sent to Fort Lafayette, New York. The administration of General Butler, though somewhat severe, was on the whole admirably adapted to the city and its inhabit

Benjamin Franklin Butler was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, in 1818; graduated at Waterville College, Maine, in 1838; and practised law at Lowell, Massachusetts, from 1841 to 1861. During this period he was a prominent member of the Democratic party in Massachusetts, and was for several years a State senator. In 1860 he was the candidate of the Breckinridge Democrats for Governor. As brigadier-general of Massachusetts militia, he accompanied the first three-months volunteers of that State to the seat of war, was placed successively in command of Baltimore and Fortress Monroe, and in May, 1861, was commissioned major-general of volunteers. He took part in the expedition to Fort Hatteras, and in the early

part of 1862 commanded the expedition which, with the aid of Farragut's fleet, opened the Lower Mississippi and captured New Orleans. He presided over the Gulf Department until relieved by General Banks at the close of 1862, and was particularly distinguished by his administration of affairs in New Orleans. In the latter part of 1868 he was appointed to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina; and during the campaign of 1864 he participated in the military operations before Petersburg and Richmond, as commander of the Army of the James. In January, 1865, ho was relieved of his command, and in the succeeding spring he resigned his commission.

ants, and, considering the circumstances in which he was placed, was eminently successful.

Meantime, Algiers was occupied by the Union troops, the Opelousas and Jackson Railroad seized, and General Phelps occupied Carrollton, about five miles up the river. When the city of New Orleans had surrendered to the fleet, and the troops had landed to occupy it, the gunboats proceeded up the river, and the troops under General Williams occupied Baton Rouge. On the 12th, they reached Natchez, and surrounded the place. The mayor replied that they were a defenceless people, and could make no opposition to the force brought against them, and that there was no Confederate property in the place. Four gunboats remained, and the others proceeded up the river and landed troops at Grand Gulf and Port Gibson. Farragut's fleet had been re-enforced with heavy mortar-boats, and he was instructed to open the Mississippi River from one end to the other. The enemy, in the mean time, after the retreat from Corinth, had concentrated a force under Van Dorn at Vicksburg, which is situated on the Mississippi River, three hundred and ninety-five miles above New Orleans, and seven hundred and ninety-nine below St. Louis. It is distant by water from Cairo about six hundred and thirty miles, and from Memphis nearly four hundred miles. It is also over a hundred miles above Natchez. The city is on elevated ground, on the east bank of the river, which just above it makes a sharp turn to the northeast, rounds a point and returns on its course southwest, thus forming a tongue of land twelve miles long and one wide, with intersections between Tuscumbia and Vicksburg. The enemy had made the most of the natural advantages of the place; a bluff below the town was surrounded with a fort, mounting eight guns, and the defences were otherwise formi- • dable. The bank of the river rises gradually for a couple of miles back, and on this curved slope lies the town, imbedded in a natural cradle. Above and below the city, on the sides of the slope, lay the batteries. Above was a three-banked battery, with tiers rising one above the other, from a point half-way down the slope to the summit. Four heavy guns were in each tier. On the 26th of June, the fleet attacked the batteries, and continued to bombard them all day, with little result. On the 27th, the fire was resumed, and Commodore Porter ordered the town shelled. The women and children had been removed previously. On the 28th, Commodore Farragut, whose fleet was then lying about five miles below the city, got word to the mortars to open fire upon the batteries at four o'clock in the morning, and he would endeavor to run some of his vessels past the batteries. Accordingly, the bombardment was recommenced at the hour named, and during its continuance, Farragut succeeded in passing the entire Confederate batteries with eight vessels, viz.: three men-of-war, two sloops-of-war, and three gunboats. The Federal loss in passing the batteries was four killed, twenty wounded. The fleet passed up, and was joined by that of Commodore Davis, descending from Memphis. Finding that Vicksburg would hold out, Farragut determined to open the Mississippi in another way, namely, by cutting a canal across the tongue of land opposite Vicksburg, thus opening a new channel for

the river, and leaving Vicksburg far to one side. Instantly the work commenced. Negroes were gathered from every plantation around, and three or four hundred of them set to work. The canal was finally cut with much labor, but was found to be of no avail. The river was fast falling, and the water would not enter the ditch. General Williams, with about three thousand troops, occupied the west bank of the river, and greatly aided the digging operations.

Meantime the fleet occupied the river above Vicksburg, near the mouth of the Yazoo River, up which stream there were in process of construction some Confederate vessels. On the 26th June, Colonel Ellet, with the rams Monarch and Lancaster, proceeded sixty-five miles up the Yazoo, with a view of destroying three new boats lying there, and of getting information of the iron-clad steamer Arkansas being built. On his approach the boats were set on fire and cast adrift, compelling Colonel Ellet to leave the river in haste. The enemy now erected heavy batteries at Grand Gulf, and Ellis Bluff, below Vicksburg, supported by infantry under Generals Bragg and Gustavus W. Smith, and several vessels on their way to New Orleans failed to get past the batteries. On the morning of 15th July, the gunboats Carondelet and Tyler and the ram Queen of the West got under way, steamed up the river a short distance, turned, and headed up the Yazoo. Upon entering the river the Queen shot up ahead of the rest, the Carondelet following, while the Tyler brought up the rear. They had proceeded about five miles only, when the Arkansas was encountered on her way down. The Carondelet met her with a full broadside, but the shot glanced harmless from her plated sides. The ram ran into the Carondelet, receiving another harmless broadside as she struck her opponent on the quarter, at the same time delivering her fire. Captain Walker boarded his enemy, but could find no entrance. He returned to his guns, but his vessel was a wreck, and a shot cut away the steam-pipe, scalding many men. The Arkansas then left her and steered for the Tyler, which made the best of her way out of the river, closely followed by the enemy, into the midst of the fleet, several of the vessels of which, by some fatality, had not sufficient steam to move. The Louisiana shore was lined with our transports, ordnance boats, &c., while directly opposite them, three or four abreast, lay Farragut's and Davis's fleet, scarcely two of which could fire without pouring their broadsides into some of their own vessels. The ram, keeping her guns busy, passed all the vessels in succession. The Richmond, the J. H. Dickey, the Champion, and the Hartford, were all fired into. The eleven-inch shot of the Oneida fell harmless from her sides, as did the smaller missiles of others of the fleet, and she finally reached her destination unharmed, under the guns of Vicksburg. The Union loss was thirty-four killed, sixty-six wounded, and twenty-three missing.

The Arkansas was an iron-clad vessel of one thousand three hundred tons, and was built at Memphis, but was removed from that point, in an unfinished condition, previous to the evacuation by our troops. She was completed in the Yazoo River. Her commander reported:

"VICKSBURG, July 16. "We engaged to-day, from six A. M., with the enemy's fleet above Vicksburg, consisting of four or more iron-clad gunboats and two heavy sloops-of-war, and four gunboats and seven or eight rams. We drove an iron-clad ashore with colors down and disabled, blew up a ram, burned one vessel, and damaged several others. Our smoke stack was so shot to pieces that we lost steam and could not use our vessel as a ram. We were otherwise cut up, as we engaged at close quarters. Loss ten killed and fifteen wounded, others with slight wounds.


"ISAAC N. BROWN, Lieutenant-Commanding.”

The insult thus sustained by the fleet, so similar to that which the navy in the waters of the Hampton Roads, sustained four months previous, prompted the two commanders-in-chief to destroy her at all hazards. It was determined in council that the fleet under Commodore Davis should attack the batteries above Vicksburg, and the vessels of Farragut the lower batteries, and that, during these attacks, the Essex, under Commodore W. D. Porter, should run in and attack the Arkansas. On the morning of the 23d this plan was put in execution, but failed from want of combined action. The Essex, in running into the ram, missed her blow and ran ashore, exposed to all the guns of the place, numbering, as reported by Porter, seventy in battery, and twenty field-pieces. His vessel, he reported, hit forty-two times, and the armor penetrated twice. She drew off and went down the river, whence she could not return to join Davis's fleet.

The fleet was now in a critical position; there was but eighteen feet of water in the river between New Orleans and Vicksburg, and the flag-ships and others drew sixteen feet; as the water was still subsiding, there were fears of grounding, until the fall rains. It was therefore necessary to abandon Vicksburg and to go down the stream. The vessels of Farragut, above the city, passed down amidst a shower of shot of two hours' duration, and joined the lower fleet without important loss. The Arkansas took no part in this movement, inasmuch as she was undergoing repairs. The force of General Williams was taken down and landed at Baton Rouge.

On the 5th of August, the Confederates, under Generals Breckinridge and Ruggles, attacked the Union force, under General Williams, with great vigor. There were in the river five Union gunboats, which aided the defence of Williams. The Confederates expected the ram Arkansas and her guns to aid the attack of Breckinridge, whose object was to possess the arsenal. After a severe struggle of five hours' duration, he fell back without accomplishing that object, but with much loss, including General Clarke. While the enemy's column was advancing to the attack, it received a volley of musketry from a wood, where was retired a body of partisan rangers, who fired upon their friends by mistake. The Union loss was also large, including General Williams, who was shot through the heart. During the night, Farragut left New Orleans with the Brooklyn and four gunboats, and arrived at Baton Rouge at noon on the 6th. The cause of the failure of the enemy's attack was an accident to the ram Arkansas. On her way down, under Lieutenant Stevens, one of her engines was disabled, and she anchored fifty miles above the town. On the 6th, she was attacked by the Union gunboats, when her commander ran her ashore and led.

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