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The Confederate General Price, in his official report, stated the results as follows:
"Our entire loss in this series of engagements amounts to twenty-five killed and seventy-two wounded. The enemy's loss was much greater. The visible fruits of this almost bloodless victory are great. About three thousand five hundred prisoners, among whom are Colonels Mulligan, Marshall, Peabody, and Whitigrover, Major Van Horn and one hundred and eighteen other commissioned officers, five pieces of artillery, and two mortars, over thirty-three thousand stand of infantry arms, a large number of sabres, about seven hundred and fifty horses, many sets of cavalry equipments, wagons, teams, ammunition. more than one hundred thousand dollars worth of commissary stores, and a large amount of other property. In addition to all this, I obtained the restoration of the great seal of the State and the public records, which had been stolen from their proper custodian, and about nine hundred thousand dollars in money, of which the bank at this place had been robbed, and which I have caused to be returned to it."
There is good reason to believe that Price's return of killed and wounded was much greater than he has stated. His return of prisoners captured is grossly inaccurate.
The force of Colonel Mulligan had been weakened by the desertion of many of the home guard, and at the time of his surrender the number of officers and men was actually only two thousand six hundred and forty. The Confederate force was about twenty-one thousand five hundred. The loss of men snstained on the Federal side, in the course of the siege, was forty-two killed and one hundred and eight wounded. General Fremont learned of the surrender on the 23d, and immediately forwarded to Washington the following dispatch :
"HEAD-QUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT, "ST. LOUIS, September 23d, 1861.
"Colonel E. D. TOWNSEND, Adjutant-General:
"I have a dispatch from Brookfield that Lexington has fallen into Price's hands, he having cut off Mulligan's supply of water. Re-enforcements, four thousand strong, under Sturgis, by the capture of ferry-boats, had no means of crossing the river in time. Lane's forces, from the southwest, and Davis's, from the southeast, upwards of eleven thousand in all, could also not get there in time. I am taking the field myself, and hope to destroy the enemy either before or after the junction of the forces under McCulloch. Please notify the President immediately.
"J. C. FREMONT, "Major-General Commanding."
There was considerable excitement throughout the country at the intelligence of General Mulligan's surrrender, and there were not wanting those who bestowed severe censure upon General Fremont for not re-enforcing him; but when the circumstances were fully understood, it appeared that these censures were unjust. Colonel Mulligan himself declared that General Fremont was not in fault. The troops he had ordered to Lexington to aid the besieged were more than threefourths of his entire available force at this time.
Pursuant to his telegraphic dispatch to the Government, under date of September 23d, General Fremont, on the 27th of September, left St. Louis for Jefferson City, and soon concentrated there twenty thousand men, preparatory to an advance on Lexington. Price, at Lexington, had meantime been preparing for an offensive
movement. His effective force was about twenty thousand. On
The charges against General Fremont had led the Secretary of War, Hon. Simon Cameron, to visit Missouri in person, taking with him Adjutant-General Thomas. They made a rapid visit to St. Louis, and to the camp of the general at Tipton, and on their return to St. Louis transmitted to General Fremont the following order :
"ST. LOUIS, Mo., October 14th, 1861. "GENERAL:-The Secretary of War directs me to communicate the following, as his instructions for your government.
In view of the heavy sums due, especially in the quartermaster's department in this city, amounting to some $4,500,000, it is important that the money which may Low be in the hands of the disbursing officers, or be received by them, be applied to the current expenses of your army in Missouri, and these debts to remain unpaid until they can be properly examined, and sent to Washington for settlement: the disbursing officers of the army to disburse the funds, and not transfer them to irresponsible agents -in other words, those who do not hold commissions from the President, and are not under bonds. All contracts necessary to be made, to be made by the disbursing officers. The senior quartermaster here has been verbally instructed by the Secretary as above. "It is deemed unnecessary to erect field-works around this city, and you will direct their discontinuance; also those, if any, in course of construction at Jefferson City. In this connection it is seen that a number of commissions have been given by you. No payments will be made to such officers, except to those whose appointments have been
approved by the President. This, of course, does not apply to the officers with volunteer troops. Colonel Andrews has been verbally so instructed by the Secretary; also, not to make transfers of funds except for the purpose of paying the troops.
"The erection of barracks near your quarters in this city to be at once discontinued. "The Secretary has been informed that the troops of General Lane's command are committing depredations on our friends in Western Missouri. Your attention is directed to this, in the expectation that you will apply the corrective.
"Major Allen desires the services of Captain Turnley for a short time, and the Secretary hopes you may find it proper to accede thereto. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Major-General J. C. FREMONT,
"Commanding Department of the West, Tipton, Mo."
"L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.
This order indicated that his removal was intended, but he still pushed on after the enemy, resolved, if possible, to achieve a victory before laying down his command. On the 2d of November, however, he received at Springfield an order to transfer his command to MajorGeneral Hunter, with which he promptly complied, and after issuing a farewell order, taking leave of his troops, he left for St. Louis, his staff and body-guard accompanying him. On the day previous to his removal, he had entered into an agreement with the Confederate General Price, by which both parties bound themselves to break up the practice of arrests for the mere entertainment or expression of political opinions, and to protect peaceable citizens in their houses. This agreement General Hunter repudiated on the 7th of November, The Federal force in Missouri at that time was estimated at twentyseven thousand men, of whom five thousand were under the immediate command of General Hunter, four thousand under General Sigel, four thousand five hundred under General Asboth, five thousand five hundred under General McKinstry, four thousand under General Pope, two thousand five hundred under General Lane, and one thousand five hundred under General Sturgis. It was understood that General Price was at Cassville with twenty-five thousand men, and that McCulloch, with ten thousand more, was advancing with the intention of offering battle at Wilson's Creek, the scene of their former victory. The Union army was concentrating. Generals Lane, Sturgis, Pope, and McKinstry reached Springfield November 2d, and General Asboth, who accompanied General Fremont to St. Louis, left his division in charge of General Carr.
Kentucky-Vote of the State.-Meeting of Legislature.-Message of Governor.Kentucky for the Union.-Breckinridge's Proclamation-Military Movements.Cairo. Columbus, its Position and Strength.-Paducah.-Concentration of Troops.Mill Spring.-Defeat and Death of Zollicoffer.-Construction of Gunboats.-Capture of Fort Henry.-Bowling Green Evacuated.-Fort Donelson.-Escape of Pillow and Floyd.-Fall of Nashville.-Columbus Evacuated.-Missouri under General Halleck. THE State of Kentucky attempted to maintain her neutrality for several months after her Governor, Magoffin, had peremptorily refused
HISTORY OF THE GREAT REBELLION.
to supply troops at the call of the President, when the fall of Sumter had aroused the North. The address already alluded to, which was issued in May, to the people of Kentucky, while advising that she should remain true to the Constitution and the Union, and insist upon her constitutional rights in the Union, defended neutrality in the following language:
"Your State, on a deliberate consideration of her responsibilities-moral, political, and social-has determined that the proper course for her to pursue is to take no part in the controversy between the Government and the seceded States but that of mediator and intercessor. She is unwilling to take up arms against her brethren residing either north or south of the geographical line by which they are unhappily divided into warring sections. This course was commended to her by every consideration of patriotism, and by a proper regard for her own security. It does not result from timidity; on the contrary, it could only have been adopted by a brave peopleso brave that the least imputation on their courage would be branded as false by their written and traditional history.
"Kentucky was right in taking this position-because, from the commencement of The this deplorable controversy, her voice was for reconciliation, compromise, and peace. She had no cause for complaint against the General Government, and made none. injuries she sustained in her property from a failure to execute laws passed for its protection, in consequence of illegal interference by wicked and deluded citizens of the Free States, she considered as wholly insufficient to justify a dismemberment of the Union. That she regarded as no remedy for existing evils, but an aggravation of them all She witnessed, it is true, with deep concern, the growth of a wild and frenzied fanaticism in one section, and a reckless and defiant spirit in another, both equally threatening destruction to the country, and tried earnestly to arrest them, but in vain. We will not stop to trace the causes of the unhappy condition in which we are now placed, or to criminate either of the sections to the dishonor of the other, but can say that we believed both to have been wrong, and, in their madness and folly, to have inaugurated a war that the Christian world looks upon with amazement and sorrow; and that liberty, Christianity, and civilization stand appalled at the horrors to which it will give rise."
The address was signed by J. J. Crittenden, President; James Guthrie, R. K. Williams, Archibald Dixon, F. M. Bristow, Joshua F. Bell, C. A. Wickliffe, G. W. Dunlap, C. S. Morehead,* J. F. Robinson, John B. Huston, Robert Richardson. Ex-Governor Morehead, who signed this document, was subsequently arrested and confined in Fort Lafayette on a charge of treason.
So restricted had the intercourse between the North and South now become, that communication was to a great extent closed, except by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. It had been long manifest that the blockade of the South could not be complete until the transit of supplies by this route was cut off. The doubtful position of Kentacky, however, made this interference with her internal trade a deliThe road in question is one hundred and eighty-five miles long, of which only forty-seven miles are in the State of Tennessee; and the greater part of the cost of building and equipping it had been sustained by citizens of Kentucky. On the 1st of July, a Tennessee general, Anderson, ordered the company to keep more rolling
Mr. Morehead appended to the address the following explanation: "I have signed the foregoing address, because I approve of the policy therein indicated, of refusing to furnish troops to the
General Government to prosecute the civil war
stock in Nashville. To this James Guthrie, of Kentucky, president of the road, replied that he was not under the military orders of Tennessee. General Anderson consequently seized two trains going out of Nashville, and one that came in, and then demanded a fair division of the rolling stock. Mr. Guthrie, in response, implied assent, if he could have a guarantee against further interference. This brought out Governor Harris, of Tennessee, as the real mover in the matter. Mr. Guthrie then refused assent, whereupon Governor Harris immediately closed the road; an act of great folly, since it stopped supplies, of which the South was much in need, coming from Louisville, and not only effected that completion of the blockade which the Federal Government sought, but decided Kentucky in favor of the Union, by placing the Confederates clearly in the wrong. All further questions in relation to the blockade were thus disposed of. There were, indeed, other routes for supplies through Kentucky, but the closing of that road gave such a turn to affairs as to decide the whole question.
Towards the close of the summer a small encampment of Union troops, called "Camp Dick Robinson," was formed in Garrard County, which was complained of as an infringement of neutrality. It was stated, however, in reply, that the troops were assembled at the call of the Union men of Kentucky to defend the State in case of invasion. Commissioners were sent to President Lincoln in August to remonstrate against the presence of the force and demand its removal from the State, in order that peace might be preserved. The President refused to comply with this demand, stating that citizens of Kentucky had requested the troops to remain. A similar letter was sent to Jefferson Davis, in consequence of the invasion of Kentucky by a Tennessee force, and the fact that the Confederate Congress had, August 18th, passed an act authorizing the enlistment of troops in Kentucky. Davis replied, to the effect that neutrality, to be entitled to respect, must be strictly maintained towards both parties. The Legislature of Kentucky met September 3d, and a large barbecue was held on the 5th. These events caused great alarm among Unionists, the more so that the State Guard was invited to attend. They were about fifteen thousand strong, and under the control of the secessionists of the State. Their fears, however, proved to be groundless. The Legislature stood-Senate, twenty-seven Union, eleven secession; House, seventy-six Union, twenty-four secession. The message of the Governor asserted the right of Kentucky to a neutral position, and that she had not approved of the sectional party in the Free States, or of the secession of the Southern States. He complained that Kentucky had suffered outrages from both sides; that a Federal camp had been organized in the State without the State authorities being consulted, and declared that troops in Kentucky should be obtained under authority of its constitution only. He therefore advised the passage of resolutions requesting the disbanding of the military bodies not under State authority. About the same time a body of Confederate troops, under General Leonidas Polk, entered the State, and intrenched themselves at Hickman and Columbus. Governor Magoffin immediately received a dispatch from General Grant, com