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P.m., April ist, and ordered to march to Ninevah Junction, embark, and proceed to Philadelphia."

In April, 1875, tne coa' regions in the neighborhood of Hazelton were disturbed by the dissatisfaction existing among the miners, and the First Regiment was again ordered into active service (Major-General Osborne, commanding gth Division, N.G.P., making a special request to the Governor that this regiment might be assigned to him for duty).

Its tour of duty on this occasion occupied about three weeks, the substantial particulars of which are also detailed in the official report of the Colonel commanding:

"Colonel:—I beg leave to report that, in compliance with S. O. No. 14, Headquarters ist Division, N.G.P., dated April yth, 1875, received at noon on same date, I immediately took measures to place my command under arms, and ordered the proper staff officers to provide subsistence and ammunition, as called for in the order. About an hour later I received the folIVhnng telegraphic order through Headquarters 2cl Brigade, ist Division, N.G.P.:

"' Major-General C. M. Prevost :—Direct Colonel Benson to move with his regiment at jonce, by rail, to Hazelton, via N.P.R.R. He will immediately place himself in communication, by wire, with General E. S. Osborne at that point. Advise him also to communicate here the hour of his departure and his progress along the route.

"'By command of John F. Hartranft.

"' J. W. Latta.'

"R. R. Campion, Captain and Quartermaster, at I.iof.m. telegraphed Major-General Osborne, at Hazelton, that I could move my command at 2 o'clock P.m., without rations, receiving a reply that General Osborne had not reached Hazleton; the providing of subsistence was prosecuted with all dispatch; upon being advised by the Brigadier-General commanding brigade that transportation would be in readiness at 5 o'clock P.m., at depot N.P.R.R., moved my command from its armory at 3.30 P.m., provided with subsistence and ammunition, as ordered, and proceeded to the depot named. At 4 45 P.m., in accordance with instructions, advised the Adjutant-General of the State, at Harrisburg, by telegraph, that my regiment was on train and would proceed at once to Hazelton. Left the depot at 5 o'clock

P.m., reached Bethlehem at 7.15 P.m., Mauri Chunk at 9 P.m., reporting at each point to General Latta, as instructed. Reached Hazleton at 11.7 P.m., immediately reporting in person to the Major-General commanding. Quarters were assigned the regiment at Hazle Hall. On the morn- ing of the 8th of April, in accordance with S. 0. No. 2, Headquarters 3d Division, N.G.P., same date, I ordered a battalion, consisting of companies A, B, D, H, and I, under Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, to proceed and garrison the mining towns of Jeddo, Eckley, Ebervale, and Highland, with Headquarters at Jeddo; Assistant-Surgeon Lwch and Commissary-Sergeant Elder were detailed for duty with this battalion. Colonel Clark wasdirected to report the disposition of his command, to place himself in communication at once with Captain Post, gth Infantry, commanding at Buck Mountain, with two companies of the Qth Infantry, that post having been placed under his command. He was instructed to report daily to my Headquarters the situation within his command, which orders he promptly and regularly complied with.

"The battalion of the regiment remaining in Hazleton, consisting of companies C, F, G, and E, held as a reserve, was placed under the command of Major Ide, still occupying the quote" at Hazle Hall. Major Ide was instructed to inaitute garrisgn duty in every detail, to carry out the same with exactness and strict discipline, and to drill his command constantly, with which he faithfully complied.

"The weather being quite severe during the first two weeks, this tour of duty proved very trying to the entire command, being unprovided with blankets, especially in the battalion under Lieutenant-Colonel Clark. No application was made direct from my Headquarters to the State authorities for blankets, as^ was informed it had been done from superior Headquarters, and they were unable to furnish the same. But the liberality of the citizens and corporations that, on the mho! April, forwarded, as a gift to the command, blankets for the entire regiment, added materially Id the comfort of my men, who were actually suffering for such protection, and, I have no doubt, «u the means of preserving the health of the enure regiment, which, from the Assistant Surgeon in charge of official report, was, under the arenastances, considered excellent.

"I constantly visited all the posts under mylicited action, they take occasion to assure the subscribers to the fund, that their substantial recognition of a body of citizens, hitherto somewhat neglected, has done much to sustain the spirit, encourage the hopes, and revive the. pride of the volunteer organizations of this city.

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"Resolved, That the First Regiment, as their representatives in part in the city of Boston, make special acknowledgment for the honor of selection, and are grateful that, through their liberality, they were permitted to appear in column on the I yth of June, 1875, w*tn some of the best disciplined regiments from Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, and other States."

In July, 1877, when the disaffected and riotous spirit of strikers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad had extended into Pennsylvania, inoculating thousands of violent men with the resolution to take their remedy for grievances (imaginary or real) into their own hands, and when these thousands of turbulent rioters were supported by the sympathy and encouragement of scores of thousands of so-called "citizens" of Pittsburgh, where the first demonstration of this extensive conspiracy was to be made in force, and when this immense and powerful throng began to feel its power, and turbulence had given place to violence, mere threats to mad destruction, and robbery, murder, and confusion reigned, the First was again called upon. When law and order were defied, and the spirit of a peaceful strike was lost in the fierce ardor for a destroying communistic war, the services of the First were again required to stem what seemed to be the gathering tidal-wave that was to sweep over us as over fair France, in one overwhelming flood of ruin.

And lest this picture should appear as overdrawn, it is necessary to recall the times when the slumbering volcano of communism was threatening to burst upon us—when and where no man could say. Is it not within the memory of us all, how in those sleepless nights and watchful days stern, repressive. measures were found absolutely necessary even in our own peaceful city to smother the rising of a threatened emeute t

We would also recall how that true and tried commander on many a field, then Governor of the State, though a thousand miles away, considering the magnitude and significance of these uprisings, hurried back on lightning trains to do his duty and maintain the law.

The gallant part which the First took dprinj; these eventful days may be gathered in some innsure from the modest report of the Colonel, R. Dale Benson, then commanding:

"In compliance with the verbal instructionsot the Brigadier-General commanding brigade, I have the honor to report that verbal instructions were given the ist Regiment Infantry to be placed under arms the evening of July zoth. Being absent from the city, the communication of the acting Assistant Adjutant-General of division, advising that the troops of this division were ordered to be held in readiness to proceed to Pittsburgh, Pi, did not reach me until 10.27 P-M- lnat date.' immediately repaired to the armory of my command, and found that Lieutenant-Colonel Clark and the officers of the regimental staff had, with commendable promptness, placed the command in marching order. By verbal orders of the Brigadier-General commanding brigade, the regimeci marched from its armory at about 12.45 A.m., fully equipped, numbering 268 total, with 1500 rounds'ammunition, and proceeded to depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Thirty-second and Market streets; embarked in train there in waiting, Icav ing depot about 2 o'clock A.m., July aist By order of Major-General commanding, about one half my ammunition was distributed to other commands. At Harrisburg ammunition was distributed to my regiment, allowing an average pi about twenty rounds per man. At Altoona sand Witvivi of bread and ham, also coffee, were issued to my regiment. Afived at Pittsburgh {.30 P.m., July 21, when the same rations issued. Stacked arms in Union Depot until 3 o'clock P.m.; when ordered under arms, pvceeded upon right of brigade, in column of fcan, along the line of Pennsylvania Railroad tracks The column was constantly halted, owing, I un informed, to difficulty in moving battery of Gat ling guns. While on march, a party of thirty of forty citizens moved directly in my front, preventing me from observing what should take place I ordered them to disperse; a citizen, mucb«F tated, since ascertained to be Sheriff Fife, of Alle gheny County, approached me, stating the Uh".« of citizens referred to was a sheriff's posse, tb.troops were to support them in making and inquiring, 'Would my men do their duty? I informed him I had received no such orders, n>)' front must be cleared, and it was not his

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roofs of the cars standing upon the tracks on both flanks, the column was halted at Twenty-eighth street crossing, in the midst of an immense crowd. My command, being still in column of fours, was, when halted, entirely surrounded by the mob, those composing it standing shoulder to shoulder and breast to breast with my troops. The sheriff's posse being upon my right, I was unable to observe what took place in my immediate front. Upon receipt of the order of General commanding brigade to clear the railroad tracks the length of my battalion, I informed the mob on my left flank of the order, that I proposed to execute it, and that there was no necessity for violence;

of Brigadier-General commanding, through a staff officer, directing 'my front rank to stand where it was, and with rear rank to clear the other track,' to which order I replied that 'I must protest; is it not a mistake?' Staff officer replied, 'Those are General Matthews' instructions.' I replied, 'They will then have to be executed.' It seemed in my judgment extremely hazardous to expose a single line to the crowd bearing against it in such compact masses ; and having but one officer to a company, except in two instances, it left my rear rank without officers to command it, and to move the crowd from the other tracks exposed it in the same manner as front rank, and more so, all the files not being filled, to be broken by the pressure of the mob, if not by attack. The order was executed; the crowd not being as heavy on that flank, now my rear, gave way, and the tracks were cleared and held open by my command until relieved; the distance between my two ranks was about fifteen to eighteen paces. Through my ranks I observed other troops were brought forward and placed upon my right, covering the space between my ranks. A few moments afterward I saw some of the men in those commands open fire; receiving no order, I gave the order to my battalion 'to load,' as a matter of military precaution, and awaited the order to 'fire,' which was not communicated to me, and which I did not consider I was authorized to give, superior officers being present. Pistol-shots were frequent from the mob, and stones were thrown in large quantities at the troops; two men in my right company were shot, one disabled by a blow in the head from a stone, and some of the muskets of the men were grasped by the mob before my battalion fired; then file-firing commenced in my right company, and I immediately gave the order to 'cease firing' The yelling of the mob and the musketry firing prevented my order from being heard through the entire command at once, but, as soon as heard, it was obeyed. The firing, confined almost entirely to the right wing, had dispersed the crowd. As to the firing of my command without an order from the commandant of battalion, whether the situation of the troops justified it, or self-defense on the part of the men required it, or whether the order to fire should have been given, probably is not my province to decide or express an opinion officially.

"My battalion was then, by order of the Brigadier-General commanding the brigade, moved to the right to more fully cover Twenty-eighth street, where the mob was still in large numbers; and upon the mob refusing to keep back to a line indicated, I brought my three right companies to a ' ready,' when they scattered. By order, a company was thrown across the entrance to the grounds of West Penn Hospital to protect the rear, and my battalion remained in the position last indicated until about 7 o'clock P.m., several men fainting and others made sick by the extreme heat and want of water.

"The battalion about that hour was relieved, and with the brigade proceeded to the 'Round

House,' farthest from Twenty-eighth street, (ms line and stacked arms; guards were druid :>' posted, and the entrances covered bymybttuij as directed. Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, of i»| regiment, was detailed as brigade officer o! day.

"During the night I was ordered to send i< pany to the windows of the Round House, at Liberty street, to support the two companies. the 3d Regiment, as the mob had placed > of artillery in position. Company D, Wiedersheim, was detailed for that duty, perfo: ing the same in an admirable manner, and rei ing on duty until the troops left the buikir Later in the morning, being ordered to relieve detachment of the 3d Regiment, I ordered t" panics F, Captain Huffington, and K, Cromelien, to relieve that command, which promptly done; they remaining on duty until brigade moved out of the building. Considc: exchange of shots took place between the irW and the mob during the night, but the mob unable to fire the piece of artillery or remo« owing to the skillful and effective manner in «hi the men on duty kept it covered, and a numb:: the mob lost their lives in attempting to gain tb piece. Rifle-firing, from the cover of a board" opposite the Round House, which was drawn:* and constant, was trying to the men, but was it-effective, as they were instructed to keep tbatrj selves covered, and my command lost Do men ill that building. During the night, hearing vollctfj of musketry, my command was placed under n as a precautionary measure, and perfect discipline was maintained.

"About 8 o'clock A.m., July sad, the order was received to move, and the regiment proceed^ on the right of the division, through the carpet shop to Liberty street, by direction of the dier-General commanding brigade ; before the building, I detailed twelve men and one srgeant from my right (E) company, as skirmishers and upon reaching the street, ordered Lieutenttt Filley, E Company, to assume command of Column marched, without opposition, on out Penn avenue, and, when near Arsenal ing, firing that had been heard in the tear increased rapidly, and, being dismounted, before I was aware of it, most of the other corps of 4* division came rushing through my column indiscriminately, knocking some of my men

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