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port. Lovely islands frequently lay fronting these, while through depressions in the wooded highlands are seen the snow-clad peaks of distant mountain ranges. Many small streams put into the Columbia from either side, their waters supporting


myriads of the piscatorial tribe, especially trout. Here the angler can revel in his favorite pastime, and load himself down with the speckled-sided beauties. As we near the mouth of the Willamette, the abruptness of the shores disappears, and in plare thereof is found level land back for a

considerable distance. From here to Portland, twelve miles up the last-named river, the shore formation is the same, consisting of alluvial lowlands of great richness.

What San Francisco is to California, Portland is to Oregon and the Territories of Washington and Idaho. She is the mart of the great Northwest. To this city as a centre converge the many and far-reaching lines of inland commerce, pouring into her lap the combined products of hill and mountain, vale and valley, diverse climate and diverse soil, while lying at anchor are numerous sailingvessels waiting to bear her exports forth and distribute them among the markets of the world. So long as Portland continues to be the chief commercial centre, she will remain, as she is now, the wealthiest and most powerful city of this northwestern region. But to her lasting claim for this, at least two points, Astoria and Yaquina Bay, are striving to practically disprove. What effect branch railroads will have toward accomplishing this it is difficult to determine; but it seems evident that the interests of the now metropolis will not be materially affected.

Portland is situated upon the right bank of the Willamette, mostly upon a gently-sloping hillside and is backed by deeplywooded ridges, the timber extendingdown to, and even into, its suburbs. In fact, where the town now stands was once a dense forest fir, and smaller growths reaching down to the water's edge. But being at the head of ocean steam navigation, commercial interests seemed to demand a city here, and Nature's handiwork has been supplanted by the cunning workmanship of man. East Portland, a neat and well-built rival town of three thousand inhabi tants, stands on the left bank, and has considerable open country neighboring. Portland proper, the largest town in Oregon, has a population of twenty-two thousand, the inhabitants being industrious and enterprising. Her capitalists are farsighted to an unusual degree; and while they have, by their individual efforts, largely increased their personal wealth, they have labored hard for, and been of untold benefit in developing the resources of the northwest coast. In keeping with her circumstances, Portland boasts of many elegant buildings. There is a goodly number of churches, neatly and substantially built, and well supported; the public school buildings and seminaries are large, commodious, and ornaments to the town; hotels are numerous, but, with the exception of two or three which are large and well kept, they are scarcely above average, being conducted on a plan of economy and to accommodate the poorer class of immigrants; the banks and mercantile houses have roomy quarters, but generally occupy portions of the many stately business blocks, the one known as Union being the latest built and finest; many of the private buildings are elegant structures, built in the most modern style, and surrounded with tastefully laid out lawns. Portland, for a business city, looks well towards building up the literary tastes of her people, being supplied with several public libraries; one, called the Portland library, containing twelve thousand volumes. A large number of newspapers are published here, most of which have wide circulations. Truly, after a few days spent here in observation and study, the tourist can scarcely discredit the assertion of her inhabitants that Portland, for its population, is one of the wealthiest cities in the United States.


From the southern portion of the city and the hillsides backing it, Portlanders have as fine a view of varied scenery as is seldom seen. Look

ing eastward, the ever-busy, bustling metropolis, with its high towering domes and steeples, lies at our feet. Opposite is her modest sister city, while between slowly and silently rolls the Willamette, bearing upon her smooth bosom the light-draught steamers, which are loaded with the precious freight of far inland districts. The shriek of the locomotive resounds from either side, and the iron horses,


Cape Horn.

with their trains of cars and coaches, dash fiercely onward, now sweeping around curves, then rumbling over bridges, here along a steep graded hillside, and there on the brink of the flowery-fringed river, until they are lost to sight in the distant woodlands. Farther east are gently rising slopes, whose swelling sides are dotted with towering firs.

'Through their swaying tops are caught glimpses of an occasional valley centre, pierced with a lovely stream cold from mountain fastnesses; while skirting it are groves of classic oak with wide-spread

! branches, furnishing shelter and shade for the

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everlasting memorial of ng iniquity from the

Ji mmnf; in 4w Win the tourist must firs xr.iT ir Ztr.amt. ami &m here can make his acxther up the Willamette Southern Oregon, or and through Washingby steamer continning For this last we em- eJkgaatly-fnrnished river boat, the Willamette to its ininnr. rmrowad a projecting point zed art latnytly east ward. Six miles up the ~:irnncia. as the Washington Territorr site s -Jte sown of Vancouver, the old newa;narr>ess of the Hudson Bay Coin :aai. Jmi sow the chief American mili•SETt -est Jx the interior northwest. Vannmwrr jrwests Joe ot the prettiest natural ::^s ««■: :be neighboring region, and ::.s t'ne siat^ac» nren of Portland realize. A rxT-wd Cog sec ting these two points s T .-v jrcBtcted, and when it shall have iera rsiicttd many will remove from :rc Varx? to the former city to reside. Tie frraser portion of the city, includ:rg tie caces and quarters of the post, is stated on a uniformly rising bench scwae quarter of a mile from the river, viue tie background is filled in with natural groves of fir. The river front is robed in a cloak of meadowy green, and has wide walks leading to the welllaid-out parade ground in the centre. Here were, either stationed or serving apprenticeships, several of our military men who have since won high honors on the battle-field, among them being Grant, McClellan and Hooker. For twenty-five miles above here the banks are generally low and heavily-wooded; then the shores become more elevated, and we are at the foot-hills of the Cascade Range, entering the "Gorge of the Columbia." The scenery now grows picturesque and wild. The banks rise higher and higher, the bluffs grow sharper and steeper, the channel nearrows and the waters runs swifter. We pass now alongside basaltic cliffs so precipitous and high that it almost brings a shudder at thought of

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tenings, and again, by massive boulders torn off
from jutting crags and hurled far out into the
stream. Bold rills of water pour from ehfts,
crevices and bluffs, some in a continuous fall of
from one to three hundred feet, and others in a
succession of falls of various descent. At times
the wind will sweep down the gorge. What frolic
then! The ribbon-like rills are dashed into spray,
mantling the embattled walls with a gauzy robe of
bewitching loveliness; the stunted trees on the
giddy heights menacingly sway their extended
branches; sweeping into
the pockets along the bluffs
rushes the wind, but now
subdued it issues with a
petulant moan and whirls
on and down only to meet
with new barriers. The
farther one here penetrates
into Nature's sanctuaries,
the more he is inspired with
awe. At every bend of the
stream new beauties dis-
close themselves. On one
side rises a bare walled pre-
cipice, clearly mirrored in
the dark-blue waters at its
feet, while opposite is an
occasional nook bordered
with wooded highlands;
here stands a projection,
there nestles a cave; now
flashes in view a maze of
waterfalls, then a pyramidi-
cal rock, stately and grand;

and again, in dizzy sweeps above, lie gently-
sloping ranges.

Sixty miles from Portland brings as to the Lower Cascades, where we are shifted into the can and whirled along the riser back to the Upper Cav cadets, a distance of fire c'.'jtx, the* foard-r.g another steamer are txauportc: "t ;he lti.*%. 1".rt short ride over the pottage, as it « <A.jtrt, 'J/vv/v-* quite a spot of open graed- Here, .s. toe 'eff heart of the Cascade Range, are tan. «m, £'* ■. fields, neat garden patches, and ran. "su*ArV/»t; while sheep and cacue graze '.« *Mt vr. *A */» lands or neighbor if ur-cts. fs\ 'iut *?•, •.'*.

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The fine Tier ;•" M:.-: Kyod w±;zb s obcaised through a •icj' rekindles a somewhat abating emhofitn, T-« eld mountain rises from a seeming lerel plala, its Eighty form so impressive that we gaze :z silent admiration; so near, too, that we can see the glistening of the accumulated myriads of crystal snowflakes. On nearing the Dalles, the country is more open, but often broken by sharp benches of basalt. Neat farms dot the slopes, and the land wears an aspect of more extended civilization. The river embankments continue abrupt, but gradually lower as we steam onward, until, through a ragged depression, we catch glimpses of a nearby city, and, rounding a bluff, are soon at the entrepot of Eastern Oregon

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