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Second. For example, the capacity in cubic feet of a boat, calculated by the aid of Stirling's rule, may be considered as given by the following formula:

1

Capacity = 1(4A+2B +40),

1 being the length of the boat in meters (or feet) from the inside of the planking or plating at the stem to the corresponding point at the stern post; in the case of a boat with a square stern, the length is measured to the inside of the transom.

A, B, C denote, respectively, the areas of the cross sections at the quarter length forward, amidships, and the quarter length aft, which correspond to the three points obtained by dividing l'into four equal parts. (The areas corresponding to the two ends of the boat are considered negligible.)

The areas A, B, C shall be deemed to be given in square feet by the successive application of the following formula to each of the three cross sections:

h Area

12 h being the depth measured in meters (or in feet) inside the planking or plating from the keel to the level of the gunwale, or, in certain cases, to a lower level, as determined hereafter.

a, b, c, d, e denote the horizontal breadths of the boat measured in feet at the upper and lower points of the depth and at the three points obtained by dividing h into four equal parts (a and e being the breadths at the extreme points, and c at the middle point, of h).

Third. If the sheer of the gunwale, measured at the two points situated at a quarter of the length of the boat from the ends, exceeds one per centum of the length of the boat, the depth employed in calculating the area of the cross sections A or C shall be deemed to be the depth amidships plus one per centum of the length of the boat.

Fourth. If the depth of the boat amidships exceeds forty-five per centum of the breadth, the depth employed in calculating the area of the midship cross section B shall be deemed to be equal to forty-five per centum of the breadth; and the depth employed in calculating the areas of the quarter-length sections A and C is obtained by increasing this last figure by an amount equal to one per centum of the length of the boat, provided that in no case shall the depths employed in the calculation exceed the actual depths at these points.

Fifth. If the depth of the boat is greater than four feet, the number of persons given by the application of this rule shall be reduced in proportion to the ratio of four feet to the actual depth, until the boat has been satisfactorily tested afloat with that number of persons on board all wearing life jackets.

Sixth. The Board of Supervising Inspectors shall impose, by suitable formulæ, a limit for the number of persons allowed in boats with very fine ends and in boats very full in form.

Seventh. The Board of Supervising Inspectors may by regulation assign to a boat a capacity equal to the product of the length, the breadth, and the depth multiplied by six-tenths if it is evident that this formula does not give a greater capacity than that obtained by the above method. The dimensions shall then be measured in the following manner:

Length. From the intersection of the outside of the planking with the stem to the corresponding point at the sternpost or, in the case of a square-sterned boat, to the afterside of the transom.

Breadth. From the outside of the planking at the point where the breadth of the boat is greatest.

Depth. Amidships inside the planking from the keel to the level of the gunwale, but the depth used in calculating the cubic capacity may not in any case exceed forty-five per centum of the breadth.

In all cases the vessel owner has the right to require that the cubic capacity of the boat shall be determined by exact measurement.

Eighth. The cubie capacity of a motor boat is obtained from the

gross capacity by deducting a volume equal to that occupied by the motor and its accessories.

DECK AREA OF PONTOON BOATS AND OPEN BOATS OF THE

SECOND CLASS.

First. The area of the deck of a pontoon boat of type 1C, 2B, or 2C shall be determined by the method indicated below or by any other method giving the same degree of accuracy. The same rule is to be applied in determining the area within the fixed bulwarks of a boat of type 2A.

Second. For example, the surface in square feet of a boat may be deemed to be given by the following formula:

1
Area= (2a +1.5b+40+1.5d+2e),

12 1 being the length in feet from the intersection of the ontside of the planking with the stem to the corresponding point at the sternpost.

a, b, c, d, e denote the horizontal breadths in feet outside the planking at the points obtained by dividing ! into four equal parts and subdividing the foremost and aftermost parts into two equal parts (a and e being the breadths at the extreme subdivisions, c at the middle point of the length, and b and d at the intermediate pcints).

MARKING OF BOATS AND PONTOON, RAFTS. The dimensions of the boat and the number of persons which it is authorized to carry shall be marked on it in clear, permanent characters, according to regulations by the Board of Supervising Inspectors, approved by the Secretary of Commerce. These marks shall be specifically approved by the officers appointed to inspect the ship.

Pontoon rafts shall be marked with the number of persons in the same manner.

EQUIPMENT OF BOATS AND PONTOON RAFTS.

First. The normal equipment of every boat shall consist of

(a) A single banked complement of oars and two spare oars; one set and a half of thole pins or crutches; a boat hook.

(b) Two plugs for each plug hole (plugs are not required when proper automatic valves are fitted); a bailer and a galvanized-iron bucket.

(c) A tiller or yoke and yoke lines.
(d) Two hatchets.
(e) A lamp filled with oil and trimmed.

(f) A mast or masts with one good sail at least, and proper gear for each. (This does not apply to motor lifeboats or lifeboats on the Great Lakes or other inland waters.)

(g) A suitable compass.

Pontoon lifeboats will have no plug hole, but shall be provided with at least two bilge pumps.

In the case of a steamer which carries passengers in the North Atlantic, all the boats need not be equipped with masts, sails, and compasses, if the ship is provided with a radiotelegraph installation.

Second. The normal equipment of every approved pontoon raft shall consist of

(a) Four oars. (b) Five rowlocks. (c) A self-igniting life-buoy light. Third. In addition, every boat and every pontoon raft shall be equipped with

(a) A life line becketed around the outside.
(b) A sea anchor.
(c) A painter.

(d) A vessel containing one gallon of vegetable or aniinal oil. The vessel shall be so constructed that the oil can be easily distributed on the water and so arranged that it can be attached to the sea anchor,

(e) A water-tight receptacle containing two pounds avoirdupois of provisions for each person, except on vessels navigating fresh water.

(f) A water-tight receptacle containing one quart for each person, except on vessels navigating fresh water.

(g) A number of self-igniting red lights” and a water-tight box of matches.

Fourth. All loose equipment must be securely attached to the boat or pontoon raft to which it belongs.

STOWAGE OF BOATS-NUMBER OF DAVITS.

The minimum number of sets of davits is fixed in relation to the length of the vessel; provided that a number of sets of davits greater than the number of boats necessary for the accommodation of all the persons on board may not be required.

HANDLING OF THE BOATS AND RAFTS.

All the boats and rafts must be stowed in such a way that they can be launched in the shortest possible time and that, even under unfavorable conditions of list and trim from the point of view of the handling of the boats and rafts, it may be possible to embark in them as large a number of persons as possible.

The arrangements must be such that it may be possible to launch on either side of the vessel as large a number of boats and rafts as possible.

STRENGTH AND OPERATION OF THE DAVITS.

The davits shall be of such strength that the boats can be lowered with their full complement of persons and equipment, the vessel being assumed to have a list of fifteen degrees.

The davits must be fitted with a gear of sufficient power to insure that the boat can be turned out against the maximum list under which the lowering of the boats is possible on the vessel in question.

OTHER APPLIANCES EQUIVALENT TO DAVITS.

Any appliance may be accepted in lieu of davits or sets of davits if the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, is satisfied after proper trials that the appliance in question is as effective as davits for placing the boats in the water.

DAVITS.

Each set of davits shall have a boat of the first class attached to it, provided that the number of open boats of the first class attached to davits shall not be less than the minimum number fixed by the table which follows.

If it is neither practicable nor reasonable to place on a vessel the minimum number of sets of davits required by the rules, the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, may authorize a smaller number of sets of davits to be fitted, provided always that this number shall never be less than the minimum number of open boats of the first class required by the rules.

If a large proportion of the persons on board are accommodated in boats whose length is greater than fifty feet, a further reduction in the number of sets of davits may be allowed exceptionally, if the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, is satisfied that the arrangements are in all respects satisfactory.

In all cases in which a reduction in the minimum number of sets of davits or other equivalent appliances required by the rules is allowed, the owner of the vessel in question shall be required to prove, by a test made in the presence of an officer designated by the Supervising Inspector General, that all the boats can be efficiently launched in a minimum time.

The conditions of this test shall be as follows:
First. The vessel is to be upright and in smooth water.

Second. The time is the time required from the beginning of the removal of the boat covers, or any other operation necessary to prepare the boats for lowering, until the last boat or pontoon raft is afloat.

Third. The number of men employed in the whole operation must not exceed the total number of boat hands that will be carried on the vessel under normal service conditions.

Fourth. Each boat when being lowered must have on board at least two men and its full equipment as required by the rules.

The time allowed for putting all the boats into the water shall be fixed by the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce.

MINIMUM NUMBER OF DAVITS AND OF OPEN BOATS OF THE

FIRST CLASS-MINIMUM BOAT CAPACITY.

The following table fixes, according to the length of the vessel

(A) The minimum number of sets of davits to be provided, to each of which must be attached a boat of the first class in accordance with this section.

(B) The minimum total number of open boats of the first class, which must be attached to davits, in accordance with this section.

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