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five years.

manufactured into marine boilers as being in full compliance with the requirements of this section regarding the inspection of boiler plates; it being further provided that any person who affixes any false, forged, fraudulent, spurious, or counterfeit of the stamp herein authorized to be put on by an assistant inspector, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars, nor more than five thousand dollars, and imprisoned not less than two years nor more than

Every plate of boiler-iron or steel, made for use in the R. S., 4481. construction of steamboat-boilers, shall be distinctly and permanently stamped by the manufacturer thereof, and, if practicable, in such places that the marks shall be left visible when such plates are worked into boilers, with the name of the manufacturer, the place where manufactured, and the number of pounds tensile strain it will bear to the sectional square inch; and the inspectors shall keep a record in their office of the stamps upon all boiler-plates and boilers which they inspect.

Every person who counterfeits, or causes to be counter- R. S., 4482. feited, any of the marks or stamps prescribed for boiler iron or steel plates, or who designedly stamps, or causes to be stamped falsely, any such plates; and every person who stamps or marks, or causes to be stamped or marked, any such iron or steel plates with the name or trade-mark of another, with the intent to mislead or deceive, shall be fined two thousand dollars, one-half to the use of the informer, and may, in addition thereto, at the discretion of the court, be imprisoned not exceeding two years.

The working steam-pressure allowable on boilers con- R. S., 4483. structed of plates inspected as required by this Title [R. S., 4399–4500], when single-riveted, shall not produce a strain to exceed one-sixth of the tensile strength of the iron or steel plates of which such boilers are constructed; but where the longitudinal laps of the cylindrical parts of such boilers are double-riveted, and the rivet-holes for such boilers have been fairly drilled instead of punched, an addition of twenty per centum to the working pressure provided for single-riveting may be allowed : Provided, That all other parts of such boilers shall correspond in strength to the additional allowances so made; and no split-calking shall in any case be permitted.

No externally fired boiler having its shell constructed of iron or steel plates, exceeding an average thickness of thirty-eight one-hundredths of an inch, shall be employed on any steam vessel navigating the Red River of the North or rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico or their tributaries; and no externally fired boiler employed on any such steam vessel shall have less than three inches space between its shell and any of its internal flues, and not less than three inches space between such flues when any such flues are more than five inches in diameter, the

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R. S., 4434.
Mar. 2, 1909.

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Sec. 2.

measurements to be taken from the center of the length of the tapered section of said flues; and every such externally fired boiler employed on any such steam vessel shall be provided with a manhole in the lower part of the front head thereof, of such dimensions as may be prescribed by the Board of Supervising Inspectors, in all cases where the distance between its internal flues is less than three inches. Externally fired boilers having shells constructed of iron or steel plates not exceeding an average thickness of fifty one-hundredths of an inch may, in the discretion of the Supervising Inspector-General, be authorized and employed on steam vessels navigating the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, or salt-water bays, or sounds, or the Great Lakes, or any of them, and waters flowing to and from the same, or any of them: Provided, That on inspection, no plate that is by this Act limited to a thickness of thirty-eight one-hundredths of an inch and no plate that is by this Act limited to a thickness of fifty one-hundredths of an inch shall be rejected for use if found to exceed those dimensions, respectively, if the approved average thickness thereof does not exceed the limits therein specified, and the amount of steam pressure that will be permitted to be carried in boilers constructed in accordance with the requirements of this Act shall be determined from measurements showing the least thickness of the plates.

All externally fired boilers, constructed of iron or steel, prior to the passage of this Act, and now in use on any such vessels, wherein the space between the shelf and any of its internal fues or between such flues is less than three inches, they shall be deemed lawfully constructed. 139. Loading safety valve.

Every person who intentionally loads or obstructs, or causes to be loaded or obstructed, in any way or manner, the safety-valve of a boiler, or who employs any other means or device whereby the boiler may be subjected to a greater pressure than the amount allowed by the certificate of the inspectors, or who intentionally deranges or hinders the operation of any machinery or device employed to denote the state of the water or stream in any boiler, or to give warning of approaching danger, or who intentionally permits the water to fall below the prescribed low-water line of the boiler, and every person concerned therein, directly or indirectly, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined two hundred dollars, and may also be imprisoned not exceeding five years. 140. Water-tight bulkheads.

Every sea-going steamer, and every steamer navigating the great northern or northwestern lakes, carrying passengers, the building of which shall be completed after the twenty-eighth day of August, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, shall have not less than three water-tight

R. S., 4437.

R. S., 4490.

July 9, 1886.
Sec. 3.

cross-bulk-heads, such bulk-heads to reach to the maindeck in single-decked vessels, otherwise to the deck next below the main-deck; to be made of iron plates, sustained upon suitable frame-work; and to be properly secured to the hull of the vessel. The position of such bulk-heads and the strength of material of which the same shall be constructed shall be determined by the general rules of the board of supervising inspectors.

Steam-vessels of one hundred tons burden or under, engaged in the coastwise bays and harbors of the United States, may be licensed by the United States local inspectors of steam-vessels to carry passengers or excursions on the ocean or upon the Great Lakes of the North or Northwest, not exceeding fifteen miles from the mouth of such bays or harbors, without being required to have the three water-tight cross-bulkheads provided by section fortyfour hundred and ninety of the Revised Statutes for other passenger steamers: Provided, That in the judgment of the local inspector such steamers shall be safe and suitable for such navigation without danger to human life, and that they shall have one water-tight collision bulkhead not less than five feet abaft the stem of said steamer.

141. Lifeboats, lines, and life preservers.

Every steam-vessel navigating rivers only, except ferry- R. 8., 4481. boats, freight-boats, canal-boats, and towing-boats, of less than fifty tons, shall have at least one good substantial boat with lines attached, and properly supplied with oars, and kept in good condition at all times, and ready for immediate use; and in addition thereto, every such vessel carrying passengers shall have one or more metallic lifeboats, fireproof, and in all respects good and substantial boats, of such dimensions and arrangements as the board of supervising inspectors by their regulations shall prescribe, which boats shall be carried in the most convenient manner to be brought into immediate use in case of accident. But where the character of the navigation is such that, in the opinion of the supervising inspector, the metallic lifeboats can be dispensed with, he may exempt any such vessel from carrying the same; or may require a substitute therefor, at his discretion.

Èvery such steam-vessel carrying passengers shall also R. S., 1482. be provided with a good life-preserver, made of suitable material, for every cabin passenger for which she will have accommodation, and also a good life-preserver or float for each deck or other class passenger which the inspector's certificate shall allow her to carry, including the officers and crew; which life-preservers or floats shall be kept in convenient and accessible places on such vessel in readiness for immediate use in case of accident.

Every steamer navigating the ocean, or any lake, bay, R. S., 4488. or sound of the United States, shall be provided with

Mar. 3, 1905.
Sec. 3.

such numbers of lifeboats, floats, rafts, life-preservers, line-carrying projectiles, and the means of propelling them, and drags, as will best secure the safety of all persons on board such vessel in case of disaster; and every seagoing vessel carrying passengers, and every such vessel navigating any of the northern or northwestern lakes, shall have the lifeboats required by law, provided with suitable boat-disengaging apparatus, so arranged as to allow such boats to be safely launched while such vessels are under speed or otherwise, and so as to allow such disengaging apparatus to be operated by one person, disengaging both ends of the boat simultaneously from the tackles by which it may be lowered to the water. And the board of supervising inspectors shall fix and determine, by their rules and regulations, the character of lifeboats, foats, rafts, life-preservers, line-carrying projectiles, and the means of propelling them, and drags that shall be used on such vessels, and also the character and capacity of pumps or other appliances for freeing the steamer from water in case of heavy leakage, the capacity of such pumps or appliances being suited to the navigation in which the steamer is employed. Every vessel subject to the provisions of this title [R. S., 4399-4500] shall, while in operation, carry one life-preserver for each and every person allowed to be carried on said vessel by the certificate of inspection, including each member of the crew: Provided, however, That upon such vessels and under such conditions as are specified in section fortyfour hundred and eighty-two floats may be substituted for life-preservers. Any person who willfully and knowingly manufactures or sells, or offers for sale, or has in his possession with intent to sell, life-preservers containing metal or other nonbuoyant material, for the purpose of increasing the weight thereof, or more metal or other such material than is reasonably necessary for the construction thereof, or who shall so manufacture, sell, offer for sale, or possess with intent to sell any other articles commonly used for preservation of life or the prevention of fire on board vessels subject to the provisions of this title, which articles shall be so defective as to be inefficient to accomplish the purposes for which they are respectively intended and designed, shall upon conviction, be fined not more than two thousand dollars, and may, in addition thereto, in the discretion of the court, be imprisoned not exceeding five years.

The powers bestowed by this section upon the Board of

Supervising Inspectors in respect of lifeboats, floats, beginning rafts, life preservers, and other life-saving appliances and Nov. foreign 1916, equipment, and the further requirements herein as to

4, davits, embarkation of passengers in lifeboats and rafts, men der and the manning of lifeboats and rafts, and the musters

Gen. and drills of the crews, on steamers navigating the ocean, A u gust, or any lake, bay, or sound of the United States, on and

after "July first, nineteen hundred and fifteen, shall be

Mar. 4, 1916.
Sec. 14.

(Effective on
American
sels

sels Mar. 1916, limitations Attorney eral's

1915.)

subject to the provisions, limitations, and minimum requirements of the regulations herein set forth, and all such vessels shall thereafter be required to comply in all respects therewith: Provided, That foreign vessels leaving ports of the United States shall comply with the rules herein prescribed as to life-saving appliances, their equipment, and the manning of same.

REGULATIONS.

LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES.

STANDARD TYPES OF BOATS,

The standard types of boats classified as follows:
Class.

Section. Type.
(A. Open. Internal buoy-

ancy only. I

B. Open. Internal and ex(Entirely rigid sides).

ternal buoyancy. C. Pontoon. Well deck;

fixed water-tight bul

warks. A. Open. Upper part of

sides collapsible.

B. Pontoon. Well deck; II

collapsible water (Partially collapsible sides). tight bulwarks.

C. Pontoon. Flush deck;

collapsible watertight bulwarks.

STRENGTH OF BOATS.

Each boat must be of sufficient strength to enable it to be safely lowered into the water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

ALTERNATIVE TYPES OF BOATS AND RAFTS.

Any type of boat may be accepted as equivalent to a boat of one of the prescribed classes and any type of raft as equivalent to an approved pontoon raft, if the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, is satisfied by suitable trials that it is as effective as the standard types of the class in question, or as the approved type of pontoon raft, as the case

Motor boats may be accepted if they comply with the requirements laid down for boats of the first class, but only to a limited number, which number shall be determined by the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce.

may be.

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