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ACT OF 1922. SEC. 514. PROTEST.-All decisions of the collector, including the legality of all orders and findings entering into the same, as to the rate and amount of duties chargeable, and as to all exactions of whatever character (within the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Treasury), and his decisions excluding any merchandise from entry or delivery, under any provision of the customs revenue laws, and his liquidation of any entry, or refusal to pay any claim for drawback, or his refusal to reliquidate any entry for a clerical error discovered within one year after the date of entry, or within sixty days after liquidation when liquidation is made more than ten months after the date of entry, shall be final and conclusive upon all persons, unless the importer, consignee, or agent of the person paying such charge or exaction, or filing such claim for drawback, or seeking such entry or delivery, shall, within sixty days after, but not before such liquidation or decision, as well in cases of merchandise entered in bond as for consumption, file a protest in writing with the collector setting forth distinctly and specifically, and in respect to each entry, payment, claim, or decision, the reasons for the objection thereto, and if the merchandise is entered for consumption shall pay the full amount of duties, charges, and exactions ascertained to be due thereon. Under such rules as the Board of General Appraisers may prescribe, and in its discretion, a protest may be amended at any time prior to the first docket call thereof.

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ACT OF 1909. SEC. 28. *

“SEC. 14. That the decision of the collector as to the rate and amount of duties chargeable upon imported merchandise, including all dutiable costs and charges, and as to all fees and exactions of whatever character (except duties on tonnage) shall be final and conclusive against all persons interested thereis

unless the owner, mporter, consignee, or agent of such merchandise, or the person paying such fees, charges, and exactions other than duties, shall, within fiiteen days after but not before such ascertainment and liquidation of duties, as well in cases of merchandise entered in bond as for consumption, or within fifteen days after the payment of such fees, charges, and exactions, if dissatisfied with such decision, give notice in writing to the collector, setting forth therein distinctly and specifically, and in respect to each entry or pay; ment, the reasons for his objections thereto, and if the merchandise is entered for consumption shall pay the full amount of the duties and charges ascertained to be due thereon.

ACT OF 1913.
SEC. III. A. * * *

“N. That the decision of the collector as to the rate and amount of duties chargeable upon imported merchandise, or upon merchandise on which duty shall have been assessed, including all dutiable costs and charges, and as to all fees and exactions of whatever character (except duties on tonnage), shall be final and conclusive against all persons interested therein, unless the owner, importer, consignee, or agent of such merchandise, or the person paying such fees, charges, and exactions other than duties, shall, within thirty days after but not before such ascertainment and liquidation of duties, as well in cases of merchandise entered in bond as for consumption, or within fifteen days after the payment of such fees, charges, and exactions, if dissatisfied with such decision imposing a higher rate of duty, or a greater charge, fee, or exaction, than he shalí claim to be legally payable, file a protest or protests in writing with the collector, setting forth therein distinctly and specifically and in respect to each entry or payment, the reasons for his objections thereto, and if the merchandise is entered for consumption shall pay the full amount of the duties and charges ascertained to be due thereon. Such protest shall be deemed to be finally abandoned and waived unless within thirty days from the date of filing thereof the person who filed such notice or protest shall have deposited with the collector of customs a fee of $1 with respect to each protest. Such fee shall be deposited and accounted for as miscellaneous receipts, and in case the protest in connection with which such fee was deposited shall be finally sustained in whole or in part, such fee shall be refunded to the importer, with the duties found to be collected in excess, from the appropriation for the refund to importers of excess of deposits. No agreement for a contingent fee in respect to recovery or refund under protest shall be lawful. Compliance with this provision shall be a condition precedent to the validity of the protest and to any refund thereunder, and a violation of this provision shall be punishable by a fine not exceeding $500, or imprisonment for not mure than one year, or both.

ACT OF 1922.

Sec. 515. SAME.-Upon the filing of such protest and payment of duties and other charges the collector shall within sixty days thereafter review his decision, and may modify the same in whole or in part and thereafter refund any duties, charge, or exaction found to have been collected in excess, or pay any drawback found due, of which notice shall be given as in the case of the original liquidation, and against which protest may be filed within the same time and in the same manner and under the same conditions as against the original liquidation or decision. If the collector shall, upon such review, atlirm his original decision, or, upon the filing of a protest against his modification of any decision, the collector shall forthwith transmit the entry and the accompanying papers, and all the exhibits connected therewith, to the Board of General Appraisers for due assignment and determination, as provided by law. Such determination shall be final and conclusive upon all persons, and the papers transmitted shall be returned, with the decision and judgment order thereon, to the collector, who shall take action accordingly, except in cases in which an appeal shall be filed in the United States Court of Customs Appeals within the time and in the manner provided by law. ACT OF 1909.

ACT OF 1913. SEC. 28. * * *

SEC. III. A. * * “SEC. 14. * * * Upon such notice and pay

“N. * *

* Upon such payment of duties, ment the collector shall transmit the invoice and protest, and deposit of protest fee, the collector all the papers and exhibits connected therewith to shall transmit the invoice and all the papers and the board of nine generalappraisers, for due assign- exhibits connected therewith to the board of nine ment and determination as hereinbefore provided; general appraisers, for due assignment and detersuch determination shall be final and conclusive mination as provided by law; such determination upon all persons interested therein, and the record shall be final and conclusive upon all persons intershall be transmitted to the proper collector or ested therein, and the record shall be transmitted

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person acting as such, who shall liquidate the to the proper collector or person acting as such, entry accordingly, except in cases where an appli- who shall fiquidate the entry accordingly, except cation shall be filed in the United States Court of in cases where an appeal shall be filed in the United Customs Appeals within the time and in the man- States Court of Customs Appeals within the time ner provided for in this Act.

and in the manner provided for by law.

ACT OF 1922. SEC. 516. APPEAL OR PROTEST BY AMERICAN PRODUCERS.–(a) Whenever an American manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler believes that the appraised value of any imported merchandise of a class or kind manufactured, produced, or sold at wholesale by him is too low, he may file with the Secretary of the Treasury a complaint setting forth the value at which he believes the merchandise should be appraised and the facts upon which he bases his belief. The Secretary shall thereupon transmit a copy of such complaint to the appraiser at each port of entry where the merchandise is usually imported. Until otherwise directed by the Secretary, the appraiser shall report each subsequent importation of the merchandise giving the entry number, the name of the importer, the appraised value, and his reasons for the appraise ment. If the Secretary does not agree with the action of the appraiser, he shall instruct the collector to file an appeal for a reappraisement as provided in section 501 of this Act, and such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler shall have the right to appear and to be heard as a party in interest under such rules as the Board of General Appraisers may prescribe. The

Secretary shall notify such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler of the action taken by such appraiser giving the port of entry, the entry number, and the appraised value of such merchandise and the action he has taken thereon. If the appraiser advances the entered value of merchandise upon the information furnished by the American manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler, and an appeal is taken by the consignee, such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler shall have the right to appear and to be heard as a party in interest, under such rules as the Board of General Appraisers may prescribe. If the American manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler is not satisfied with the action of the Secretary, or the action of the appraiser thereon, he may file, within ten days after the date of the mailing of the Secretary's notice, an appeal for a reappraisement in the same manner nd with the same effect as an appeal by a consignee under the provisions of section 501 of this Act.

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury shall, upon written request by an American manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler, furnish the classification of and the rate of duty, if any,

imposed upon designated imported merchandise of a class or kind manufactured, produced, or sold at wholesale by him. If such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler believes that the proper rate of duty is not being assessed, he may file a complaint with the Secretary of the Treasury setting forth a description of the merchandise, the classification, and the rate or rates of duty he believes proper, and the reasons for his belief. If the Secretary believes that the classification of or rate of duty assessed upon the merchandise is not correct, he shall notify the collectors as to the proper classification and rate of duty and shall so inform such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler, and such rate of duty shall be assessed upon all merchandise imported or withdrawn from warehouse after thirty days after the date of such notice to the collectors. If the Secretary believes that the classification and rate of duty are correct, he shall so inform such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler. It dissatisfied with the action of the Secretary, such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler may file with him a notice that he desires to protest the classification or the rate of duty imposed upon the merchandise, and upon receipt of such notice the Secretary shall furnish him with such information as to the entry, the consignee, and the port of entry as will enable him to protest the classification of or the rate of duty imposed upon the merchandise when liquidated at any port of entry. Upon written request therefor by such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler, the collector of such port of entry shall notify him immediately of the date of liquidation. Such manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler may file, within sixty days after the date of liquidation, with the collector of such port a protest in writing setting forth a description of the merchandise and the classification and the rate of duty he believes proper, with the same effect as a protest of a consignee filed under the provisions of sections 514 and 515 of this Act. (c) A copy ofevery appealand every

protest filed by an American manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler under the provisions of this section shall be mailed by the collector to the consignee or his agent within five days after the filing thereof, and such consignee or his agent shall have the right to appear and to be heard as a party in interest before the Board of General Appraisers. The collector shall transmit the entry and all papers and exhibits accompanying or connected therewith to the Board of General Appraisers for due assignment and determination of the proper value or of the proper classification and rate of duty. The decision of the Board of General Appraisers upon any such appeal or protest shall be final and conclusive upon all parties unless an appeal is taken by either party to the Court of Customs Appeals, as provided in sections 501 and 515 of this Act. (d) In proceedings instituted under the provisions of this section an American manufacturer, producer,

holesaler shall not have the right to inspect any documents or papers of the consignee or importer disclosing any information which the general appraiser or the Board of General Appraisers shall deem unnecessary or improper to be disclosed to him.

SEC. 517. FRIVOLOUS PROTEST OR APPEAL.–Upon motion of the counsel for the Government, it shall be the duty of the Board of General Appraisers to decide whether any appeal for reappraisement or protest filed under the provisions of section 501, 514, 515, or 516 of this Act is frivolous, and if said board shall so decide, a penalty of not less than $5 nor more than $250 shall be assessed against

the person filing such appeal for reappraisement or protest: Provided, That all appeals for reappraisement or protests filed

by the same person and raising the same issue shall, if held frivolous by said board, be consolidated and deemed one proceeding for the purpose of imposing the penalty provided in this section: Provided further, that the person against whom such penalty is assessed may have a review by the Court of Customs Appeals of the decision of said board by filing an appeal in said court within the time and in the manner provided by, section 198 of an Act entitled " An Act to codify, revise, and amend the laws relating to the judiciary," approved March 3, 1911. ACT OF 1909.

ACT OF 1913. [No corresponding provisions.)

[No corresponding provisions.)

ACT OF 1922. Sec. 518. BOARD OF GENERAL APPRAISERS.-The Board of General Appraisers shall consist of nine members as now constituted, and all vacancies in said board shall be filled by appointment by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, not more than five of whom shall be appointed from the same political

party and each of whom shall receive a salary of $9,000 a year. They shall not engage in any other business, vocation, or employment, and shall hold their office during good behavior, but may, after due hearing, be removed by the President for the following causes and no other: Neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, or inefficiency. The office of said board shall be at the port of New York, and the board and

each member thereof shall have and possess all the powers of a district court of the United States for preserving order, compelling the attendance of witnesses, the production of evidence, and in pun

ing for contempt. Said board shall have power to establish from time to time such rules of evidence,

or

practice, and procedure, not inconsistent with law, as may be deemed necessary for the conduct of its proceedings, in securing uniformity in its decisions and in the proceedings and decisions of the members thereof, and for the production, care, and custody of samples and of the records of said board. One of the

members of said board designated for that purpose by the President of the United States shall act as president of the Board of General Appraisers, and in his absence the member of the board then present who is senior as to the date of his commission shall act as president. The president of the board, or the acting president in his absence, shall have control of the fiscal affairs and of the clerical force of the board, making all recommendations for appointment, promotions, or otherwise affecting such clerical force; hé may at any time before trial, under the rules of the said board, assign or reassign any case for hearing or determination, or both, and shall designate a general appraiser or board of three general appraisers and such clerical assistants as may be necessary to proceed to any port within the jurisdiction of the United States for the purpose of hearing or of hearing and determining cases assigned for hearing at such port, and shall cause to be prepared and promulgated dockets therefor. General appraisers, stenographic clerks, and Government counsel shall each be allowed and paid his necessary expenses of travel and his reasonable expenses, not to exceed $10 per day, in the case of general appraisers and Government counsel, and $8 per day in the case of stenographic clerks, actually incurred for maintenance while absent from New York on official business. Said general appraisers shall be divided into three boards of three members each for the purpose of hearing and deciding appeals for the review of reappraisements of merchandise, and of hearing and deciding protests against decisions of collectors. A board of three general appraisers or a general appraiser shall have power to order an analysis of imported merchandise and reports thereon by laboratories or bureaus of the United States. The president of the board shall assign three of the general appraisers to each of the said boards and shall designate which member shall be chairman thereof. The president of the board shall be competent to sit as a member of any board or to assign one or two other members to any of such boards in the absence or disability of any one or two members of such board. A majority of any board shall have full power to hear and decide all cases and questions arising therein or assigned thereto. The board of three general appraisers deciding a case or a general appraiser deciding an appeal for a reappraisement may, upon the motion of either party made within thirty days next after such decision, grant a rehearing or retrial of said case when, in the opinion of said board or said general appraiser the ends of justice so require.

The members of the Board of General Appraisers are hereby exempted from so much of section 1790 of the Revised Statutes as relates to their salaries.

When any of the general appraisers of merchandise resigns his office, having held his commission as such at least ten years, and having attained the age of seventy years, he shall during the residue of his natural life receive the same salary which was by law payable to him at the time of his resignation.

ACT OF 1909.

ACT OF 1913.

[See Sec. IV. S. Page 220.)

Sec. 28. * * * "SEC. 12. That there shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, nine general appraisers of merchandise. Not more than five of such general appraisers shall be appointed from the same political party. They shall not be engaged in any other business, avocation, or employment. That the office of said general appraisers shall be at the port of New York, and three of them shall be on duty at that port daily as a board of general appraisers.

“All of the general appraisers of merchandise heretofore or hereafter appointed under the author. ity of said Act shall hold their office during good behavior, but may, after due hearing, be removed by the President for the following causes, and no other: Neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, or inefficiency:

“That hereafter the salary of each of the general appraisers of merchandise shall be at the rate of nine thousand dollars per annum.

“That the boards of general appraisers and the members thereof shall have and possess all the powers of a circuit court of the United States in preserving order, compelling the attendance of witnesses, and the production of evidence, and in punishing for contempt.

“All notices in writing to collectors of dissatisfaction of any decision thereof, as to the rate or amount of duties chargeable upon imported mer. chandise, including all dutiable costs and charges, and as to all fees and exactions of whatever character (except duties on tonnage), with the invoice and all papers and exhibits, shall be forwarded to the board of nine general appraisers of merchandise at New York to be by rule thereof assigned for hear. ing or determination, or both. The President of the United States shall designate one of the board of nine general appraisers of merchandise as president of said board and others in order to act in his absence. Said general appraisers of merchandise shall be divided into three boards of three members each, to be denominated respectively Board 1, Board 2, and Board 3. The president of the board shall assign three general appraisers to each of said boards and shall designate

one member of each of said boards as chairman thereof, and such assignment or designation may be by him changed from time to time, and he may assign or designate all boards of three generalappraisers where it is now or

heretofore was provided by law that such might be assigned or designated by the Secretary of the Treasury. The president of the board shall be competent to sit as a member of any board, or assign one or two other members thereto, in the absence or inability of any one or two members of such board. Each of the boards of three general appraisers, or a majority thereof, shall have full power to hear and determine all cases and questions arising therein or assigned thereto; and the general board of nine general appraiser each of the boards of three general appraisers, and each of the general appraisers of merchandise, shall have all the jurisdiction and powers and proceed as now, heretofore, and herein provided. The said board of nine general appraisers shall have power to establish from time to time such rules of evidence, practice and procedure, not inconsistent with the statutes, as may be deemed necessary for the conduct and uniformity of its proceedings and decisions and the proceedings and decisions of the boards of three thereof; and for the production, care, and custody of samples and records of said board. The president of the board shall have control of the fiscal affairs and the clerical force of the board, make all recommendations for appointment, promotion, and otherwise affecting said clerical force; he may at any time before trial under the rules of said board assign or reassign any case for hearing, determination, or both, and shall designate a general appraiser or a board of general appraisers, and, if necessary, a clerk thereto, to proceed to any port within the jurisdiction of the United States for the purpose of hearing, or determining if authorized by law, causes assigned for hearing at such port, and shall cause to be prepared and duly promulgated dockets therefor. No member of any of said boards shall sit to hear or decide any case on appeal in the decision of which he may have previously participated. The board of three general appraisers, or a majority of them, who decided the case, may, upon motion of either party made within thirty days next after their decision, grant a rehearing or retrial of said case when in their opinion the ends of justice may require it.

ACT OF 1922.

SEC. 519. RECORD OF DECISIONS.-All decisions of the general appraisers shall be preserved and filed and shall be open to inspection, and it shall be the duty of the said Board of General Appraisers to forward a copy of each decision to the collector of customs for the district in which the merchandise affected thereby was imported and to forward an additional copy to the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall cause such decisions as he or the Board of General Appraisers shall deem sufficiently important to be published in full, or, if they shall not deem a full publication thereof necessary, then the board shall cause abstracts of such decisions to be made for publication, and such decisions and abstracts thereof shall be published from time to time and at least once each week for the information of customs officers and the public.

ACT OF 1909.

ACT OF 1913.

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SEC. 28. *

“SEC. 17. That all decisions of the general appraisers and of the boards of general appraisers, respecting values and rates of duty, shall be preserved and filed, and shall be open to inspection under proper regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury. All decisions of the general appraisers shall be reported forthwith to the Secretary of the Treasury and to the board of general appraisers on duty at the port of New York, and the report to the board shall be accompanied, whenever practicable, by samples of the merchandise in question, and it shall be the duty of the said board, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, to cause an abstract to be made and published of such decisions of the appraisers as they may deem important, and of the decisions of each of the general appraisers and boards of general appraisers, which abstract shall contain a general description of the merchandise in question,

and of the value and rate of duty fixed in each case, with reference, whenever practicable, by number or other designation, to samples deposited in the place of samples at New York, and such abstract shall be issued from time to time, at least once in each week, for the information of customs officers and the public.

SEC. III. A. * * *

"Q. That all decisions of the general appraisers and of the boards of general appraisers, respecting values and rates of duty, shall be preserved and filed, and shall be open to inspection under proper regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury. All decisions of the general appraisers shall be reported forth with to the Secretary of the Treasury and to the Board of General Appraisers on duty at the port of New York, and the report to the board shall be accompanied, whenever practicable, by samples of the merchandise in question, and it shall be the duty of the said board, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, to cause an abstract to be made and published of such decisions of the appraisers as they or he may deem important, to be published either in full, or if full publication shall not be requested by the Secretary or by the board, then by an abstract containing a general description of the merchandise in question, a statement of the facts upon which the decision is based, and of the value and rate of duty fixed in each case, with reference, whenever practicable, by number or other designation, to samples deposited in the place of samples at New York, and such abstracts shall be issued from time to time, at least once in each week, for the information of customs officers and the public,

ACT OF 1922.

SEC. 520. REFUND OF EXCESSIVE DUTIES.-(a) The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized to refund duties and correct errors in liquidation of entries in the following cases:

(1) Whenever it is ascertained on final liquidation or reliquidation or an entry that more money has been deposited or paid than was required by law to be so deposited or paid; (2) Whenever it is determined in the manner required by law that:any fees, charges, or exactions, other than duties, have been erroneously collected;

(3) Whenever a manifest clerical error is discovered in any entry or liquidation within one year after the date of entry, or within sixty days after liquidation when liquidation is made more than ten months after the date of entry; and

(4) Whenever duties have been paid on household or personal effects which by law were not subject to duty, notwithstanding a protest was not filed within the time and in the manner prescribed by law.

(b) The necessary moneys to make such refunds are hereby appropriated, and this appropriation shall be deemed a permanent and indefinite appropriation.

ACT OF 1909.

ACT OF 1913.

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SEC. 28. * * *

“SEC. 23. That whenever it shall be shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that, in any case of unascertained or estimated duties, or payments made upon appeal, more money has been paid to or deposited with a collector of customs than, as has been ascertained by final liquidation thereof, the law required to be paid or deposited, the Secretary of the Treasury shall direct the Treasurer to refund and pay the same out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. The necessary moneys therefor are hereby appropriated, and this appropriation shall be deemed a permanent indefinite appropriation; and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized to correct manifest clerical errors in any entry or liquidation, for or against the United States, at any time within one year of the date of such entry, but not afterwards: Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall, in his annual report to Congress, give a detailed statement of the various sums of money refunded under the provisions of this Act or of any other Act of Congress relating to the revenue, together with copies of the rulings under which repayments were made.

SEC. III. A. * *

“Y. That whenever it shall be shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that, in any case of unascertained or estimated duties, or payments made upon appeal, more money has been paid to or deposited with a collector of customs than, as has been ascertained by final liquidation thereof, the law required to be paid or deposited, the Secretary of the Treasury shall direct the Treasurer to refund and pay the same out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. The necessary moneys therefor are hereby appropriated, and this appropriation shall be deemed a permanent indefinite appropriation; and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized to correct manifest clerical errors in any entry or liquidation for or against the United States, at any time within one year of the date of such entry, but not afterwards: Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall, in his annual report to Congress, give a detailed statement of the various sums of money refunded under the provisions of this Act or of any other Act of Congress relating to the revenue, together with copies of the rulings under which repayments were made.

ACT OF 1922.

in each year,

SEC. 521. RELIQUIDATION OF DUTIES. Whenever any merchandise has been entered and passed free of duty, and whenever duties upon any imported merchandise have been liquidated and paid, and the merchandise has been delivered to the consignee, or his agent, such entry and passage free of duty and such settlement of duties shall, after the expiration of one year from the date of entry, or after the expiration of sixty days after the date of liquidation when liquidation is made more than ten months after the date of entry, in the absence of fraud and in the absence of protest by the consignee, or his agent, or by an American manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler, be final and conclusive upon all parties. If the collector finds probable cause to believe there is fraud in the case, he may reliquidate within two years after the date of entry, or after the date of liquidation when liquidation is made more than ten months after the date of entry.

SEC. 522. CONVERSION OF CURRENCY.-(a) That section 25 of the Act of August 27, 1894, entitled "An Act to reduce taxation, to provide revenue for the Government, and for other purposes," as amended, is reenacted without change as follows:

"SEC. 25. That the value of foreign coin as expressed in the money of account of the United States shall be that of the pure metal of such coin of standard value; and the values of the standard coins in circulation of the various nations of the world shall be estimated quarterly by the Director of the Mint and be proclaimed by the Secretary of the Treasury quarterly on the 1st day of January, April, July, and October

(b) For the purpose of the assessment and collection of duties upon merchandise imported into the United States on or after the day of the enactment of this Act, wherever it is necessary to convert foreign currency into currency of the United States, such conversion, except as provided in subdivision (c), shall be made at the values proclaimed by the Secretary of the Treasury under the provisions of section 25 of such Act of August 27, 1894, as amended, for the quarter in which the merchandise was exported. (c) If no such value has been proclaimed, or if the value so proclaimed varies by 5 per centum or more

: from a value measured by the buying rate in the New York market at noon on the day of exportation, conversion shall be made at a value measured by such buying rate. For the purposes of this subdivision such buying rate shall be the buying rate for cable transfers payable in the foreign currency so to be converted; and shall be determined by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and certified daily to the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall make it public at such times and to such extent as he deems necessary. In ascertaining such buying rate such Federal Reserve bank may in its discretion (1) take into consideration the last ascertainable transactions and quotations, whether direct or through the exchange of other currencies, and (2) if there is no market buying rate for such cable transfers, calculate such rate from actual transactions and quotations in demand or time bills of exchange.

SEC. 523. COMPTROLLERS OF CUSTOMS.-Naval officers of customs now in office and their successors shall hereafter be known as Comptrollers of Customs.

Comptrollers of Customs shall examine the collector's accounts of receipts and disbursements of money and receipts and disposition of merchandise and certify the same to the Secretary of the Treasury for transmission to the General Accounting Office. They shall perform such other duties as the Secretary of the Treasury may from time to time prescribe, and their administrative examination shall extend to all customs districts assigned to them by the Secretary of the Treasury. Comptrollers of Customs shall verify all assessments

of duties and allowances of drawbacks made by collectors in connection with the liquidation thereof. In cases of disagreement between a collector and à comptroller.of customs, the latter shall report the facts to the Secretary of the Treasury.for instructions.

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