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19. And next to them, fimple modes.

20. The most doubtful, are the names of very compounded mixed modes. and fubftances. 21. Why this imperfection charged upon words. 22, 23. This fhould teach us moderation in impofing our own fenfe of old authors.


Of the abufe of words.


1. Abuse of words. 2, 3. First, words without any, or without clear ideas. 4. Occafioned by learning names, before the ideas they belong to.

5. Secondly, a steady application of them.

6. Thirdly, affected obfcurity, by wrong application.

7. Logic and difpute have much contributed to this.

8. Calling it fubtilty.

9. This learning very little benefits fociety.

10. But deftroys the inftruments of knowledge and communication.

11. As ufeful as to confound

the found of the letters. 12. This art has perplexed religion and juftice.

13. And ought not to pass for learning.

14. Fourthly, taking them for things.

15. Inftance in matter. 16. This makes errours lafting. 17. Fifthly, fetting them for

what they cannot fignify. 18. V. g. putting them for the

seal effences of fubftances. 19. Hence we think every change of our idea in ful

ftances, not to change the fpecies.

20. The cause of this abuse, a fuppofition of nature's working always regularly. 21. This abufe contains two falfe fuppofitions.

22. Sixthly, a fuppofition that words have a certain and evident fignification.

23. The ends of language: firft, to convey our ideas. 24. Secondly, to do it with quicknefs.

25. Thirdly, therewith to convey the knowledge of things.

26-31. How men's words fail in all these.

32. How in fubftances.
33. How in modes and rela-

34. Seventhly, figurative speech
alfo an abufe of language.


Of the remedies of the foregoing imperfections and abuses.


1. They are worth feeking. 2. Are not eafy.

3. But yet neceffary to phi lofophy.

4. Mifufe of words, the cause of great errours. 5. Obftinacy.

6. And wrangling.

7. Inftance, bat and bird. 8. First remedy, to use na word without an idea. 9. Secondly, to have diftinct ideas annexed to them in modes.

10. And diftin&t and conformable in fubftances. 11. Thirdly, propriety. 12. Fourthly, to make known their meaning. 13. And that three ways. 14. Firft,

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Of knowledge in general. SECT.

1. Our knowledge converfant about our ideas.

2. Knowledge is the perception of the agreement, or difagreement, of two ideas.

3. This agreement fourfold.
4. First, of identity, or di-

5. Secondly, relation.
6. Thirdly, of co-existence.
7. Fourthly, of real exiftence.
8. Knowledge actual or ha-

9. Habitual knowledge, two-


Of the degrees of our knowledge.


1. Intuitive.

2. Demonftrative. 3. Depends on proofs, 4. But not fo eafy,

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4. Fourthly, not demonftrative knowledge. 5. Fifthly, fenfitive knowledge, narrower than either.

6. Sixthly, our knowledge, therefore, narrower than our ideas.

7. How far our knowledge


8. First, our knowledge of
identity and diverfity, as
far as our ideas.
9. Secondly, of co-existence,
a very little way.

10. Because the connexion be-
tween moft fimple ideas
is unknown.

11. Efpecially of fecondary qualities.

12-14. And farther, because all connexion between any fecondary and primary qualities is undiscoverable.

15. Of repugnancy to co-exist, larger.

16. Of the co-existence of way.

powers, a very little 17. Of fpirits yet narrower. 18. Thirdly,cfother relations, it is not easy to say how far. Morality capable of demonftration.

19. Two things have made moral ideas thought in-. capable of demonftration. Their complexedness and want of fenfible reprefentations.

20. Remedies of thofe difficul-

21. Fourthly, of real exift-
ence; we have an intui-
tive knowledge of our
own, demonftrative of
God's, fenfitive of fome
few other things,
22. Our ignorance great.
23. Firft, one caufe of it, want

of ideas, either fuch as we
have no conception of, or

fuch as particularly we

have not.

24. Because of their remotenefs, or,

25. Because of their minutenefs.

26. Hence no fcience of bodies.

27. Much lefs of fpirits. 28. Secondly, want of a difcoverable connexion, between ideas we have. 29. Inftances.

30. Thirdly, want of tracing our ideas.

31. Extent in refpect of univerfality.


Of the reality of our knowledge. SECT.


. Objection, knowledge placed in ideas, may be all bare vifion.

2, 3. Answer, not fo, where
ideas agree with things.
4. As, firft, all fimple ideas

5. Secondly, all complex ide-
as, except of fubitances.
6. Hence the reality of ma
thematical knowledge.
7. And of moral.

8. Exiflence not required to
make it real.

9. Nor will it be less true,

or certain, because moral ideas are of our own mak ing and naming. 10. Mi-naming disturbs not the certainty of the knowledge.

11. Ideas of fubftances have their archetypes without


12. So far as they agree with thefe, fo far our knowledge concerning them is real.

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