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EDITORIAL ORGANIZATION

EDITOR OF ORIGINAL EDITION AND INVENTOR OF THE SYSTEM

J. N. LARNED
Librarian, Buffalo Public Library (1877-1807)

President, American Library Association (1892-1894)
Author of “History of England for Schools,” “A History of the United States for Secondary Schools,”

"Seventy Centuries,” etc.

REVISION STAFF

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

DONALD E. SMITH, A.B. (CORNELL), Ph.D. (CaliforNIA)

Professor of History, Geography and Economics

Formerly at University of California, Toledo University, etc. Author of "Viceroy of New Spain in 18th Century,” “Diary of the Portolá Expedition” (with F. J. Teggart), “The Geographic Factor in English History” (in "English Leadership”, with J. N. Larned,

W. H. Taft, et al.)

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

CHARLES SEYMOUR, B.A., M. A. (CAMBRIDGE, Eng.), Ph.D. (YALE), Litt.D. (WESTERN RESERVE)

Professor of History at Yale University Chief of Austro-Hungarian division of American Commission to Negotiate Peace Author of "Electoral Reform in England and Wales,” “Diplomatic Background of the War," "How the

World Votes” (with D. P. Frary), “What Really Happened at Paris” (with

Col. C. M. House), “Woodrow Wilson and the World War," etc.

AUGUSTUS H. SHEARER, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. (HARVARD)

Librarian, Grosvenor Library, Buffalo

Lecturer, University of Buffalo Formerly Bibliographer, Newberry Library, Chicago, and Chairman, American Library Association

Committee on Manual of Historical Literature

DANIEL C. KNOWLTON, A.B., Ph.D. (CORNELL)
Head of History and Civics, The Lincoln School of Teachers College, New York

Member of Editorial Board of “The Historical Outlook"
Author of many hooks on teaching of history and (with S. B. Howe) of “ Essentials in Modern European
History,” and (with Professors Hazen and Webster) of a series of wall-charts

on ancient, medieval and modern history

ASSISTANT EDITORS

ALLEN L. CHURCHILL, A.B. (Bowdoin)
On editorial staff of New International Encyclopædia and associate editor, New International Year Book

HENRI F. KLEIN (LONDON)
Formerly librarian “London Times,” on editorial staff “ London Standard” and contributing editor,

“Encyclopedia Americana," etc.
HELENA (DOUGHTY) PETERSON, A.B. (VASSAR), A.M. (Wisconsin)

Formerly high school teacher of history
JAMES R. ROBERTSON, A.B. (Beloit), A.M. (MICHIGAN), Ph.D. (CALIFORNIA)

Professor of History and Political Science, Berea College, Kentucky
Formerly assistant curator, Bancroft Library of University of California

FRED C. WHITE, A.B., A.M. (ALFRED)
First assistant in History, Morris High School, New York City

CRITICAL EDITORIAL READERS AND COMPILERS

MARGARET ALSTON BUCKLEY (CHURCH OF IRELAND TEACHERS' COLLEGE)

WINTHROP A. HAMLIN, A.B. (HARVARD)

ELIZABETH HENDEE, A.B. (Iowa)
MARJORIE B. GREENBIE, A.B. (CORNELL) PH.D. (YALE)

WILLIAM JAFFE, A.M. (COLUMBIA)
JOHN ALDEN KROUT, A.B. (MICHIGAN), A.M., Ph.D. (COLUMBIA)

CHARLES F. ZIMMELE, Ph.B. (LEHIGH)

RESEARCHERS AND COMPILERS

RUTH L. BENJAMIN, A.B. (BARNARD) JULIA V. BOLGER, A.B. (BARNARD), A.M.

(COLUMBIA) JAY B. BOTSFORD, A.B., Ph.D. (COLUMBIA) LOIS CASSIDY, A.B. (WELLESLEY), A.M.

(COLUMBIA)
E. MAUD COLVIN, M.Mus.

HANA (GEFFEN) JOSEPHSON MARION (WARREN) FRY, A.B. (BARNARD)

ANNA COOK, A.B. (MT. HOLYOKE)

ISADOR GINSBURG, A.B. (COLUMBIA) PHILIP A. GREENBERG (UNIVERSITY OF KIEV)

FELICE H. JARECKY, A.B. (BARNARD)
LINA KAHN, A.M., Ph.D. (COLUMBIA)
ETHEL A. KOSSMAN, A.B. (BARNARD)

EDITH LACY
DAVID LINDENAUER, B.Sc.

M. M. LOURENS
LEAH L. LOWENSOHN, A.B., A.M. (CORNELL)

ROSE LOWENSOHN MERCEDES I. MORITZ, A.B. (BARNARD) JAMES F. MORTON, JR., A.B., A.M. (HARVARD)

RICHARD P. READ, A.B. (CORNELL) VICTOR RIGHETTI (NEUCHÂTEL AND FLORENCE)

JANET H. ROBB, A.B. (BARNARD)
CORNELIA SHAW, A.B. (WELLESLEY)

LUELLA (GAFFNEY) SMITH
ERNA (GUNTHER) SPIER, A.B. (BARNARD) A.M.

(COLUMBIA)
JEAN WICK, A.B. (BARNARD)

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MARJORIE FISHER (N. Y. Public Library SCHOOL)

GRACE K. HAVILAND (CHICAGO UNIVERSITY)
KATHERINE KELLOGG, A.B. (CALIFORNIA), (CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY SCHOOL)

DORIS LITTMAN, A.B. (WESTERN RESERVE)

ROSE LOWENSOHN
FRANCES MORTON, A.B. (NEBRASKA), (Iowa UNIVERSITY LIBRARY TRAINING)

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Note: It will be understood that in building a work with the quoted words of the best authorities, it was a prerequisite that, in addition to other special qualifications, each member of the editorial organization should have specialized in the field of history and historical literature - the broadest interpretation being given to the term history. We give the full list of names, with selections from available data as to some, though all bave taught, written or lectured on, or devoted years of study to, history, civics, government, economics, etc. etc. Each of the indexers had extended experience in library work also. See Publishers' Foreword and Editors' Preface.

THE PUBLISHERS.

PUBLISHERS' FOREWORD

With confident expectation of a well-nigh universal welcome and approval, we are pleased to introduce THE NEW LARNED HISTORY FOR READY REFERENCE, READING AND RESEARCH.

THE NEW LARNED HISTORY, as it will be familiarly called, is the culmination of long-cherished hopes and plans. For several years there has been an increasing demand from thousands of owners and users of the older Larned work, and others, for the later historical material—later, ir respect to modern scholarship, as well as chronology-not found in our publication or any other. And, in consequence, soon after the outbreak of the World War, we determined to meet the need in the most adequate way. First of all, and as a proper service to former patrons, a painstaking expert examination of the existing work was made to determine the practicability of adding a third “recent-history,” supplemental volume. As the War continued, however, it became apparent that "recent history” was rapidly attaining such proportions that it would not be possible to present it in a single volume. Moreover, we were convinced that a mere supplemental volume, or volumes, bringing the work up to date chronologically, would only partially solve the problem. There would still be lacking the indispensable new historical knowledge needed to correct, amend, and supplement certain portions of the old Larned text. And, furthermore, we realized that a set with three supplemental volumes would involve four indexes to be consulted and would therefore not be in accord with the Larned ideal of “ready reference.”

Our conclusion therefore was that only through a complete revision and large extension of the old work, could we provide, for the benefit of old and new patrons, the following subs-antial additions and improvements:

Elimination of material which, though previously accepted as authorita

tive, had, as a result of modern research and interpretation, become

obsolete, valueless and, in some cases, even harmful.
2. Addition of an important array of newly available and indispensable ma-

terial of distinct value in portraying certain events and movements of

history treated in the old work.
3. Inclusion of the most reliable records and descriptions of events and move-

ments since 1910 --- a period that may hereafter be considered the most

important in all time.
4. Organization of, and welding together into one harmonious whole, all this

world-history, by application of Larned's unique and unexcelled alpha-
betical-chronological system of arrangement, with interwoven index,
references and cross-references, citations, bibliographies, etc. (For

fuller explanation of system, see page xxi.
5. Illumination of the text by authentic and artistic illustrations, charts, maps,

etc. THE NEW LARNED HISTORY was begun in August, 1916, and besides the above named important objects, it was decided to increase still further the usefulness and value of the work by (a) Broadening its scope, through an interpretation of History as embracing

practically everything that has affected the life of mankind since time

began.
(b) Adding thousands of new entries, for the purpose of defining historical

words and terms and of locating places and people, historically (not

to provide substitutes for dictionaries, gazeteers, biographies).
(c) Largely increasing the number of historical and other maps.
(d) Providing frontispieces in color and numerous inserts in duotone, to illus-

trate scenes, things and persons of distinct historical importance and

interest. Further explanation of the reasons for, and scope of, the revision will be found in the Editors' preface.

To accomplish all these objects required historical, bibliographical, editorial and other knowledge and skill of a high order, and we sought the advice of some of the leading historical scholars and librarians before choosing our Editor-in-chief and his associates. We were confident that those selected possessed the necessary special qualifications and felt that we were fortunate in securing the advantages of the varied points of view of trained students and teachers of history in university, college and school, the experienced librarian, and the publicist. And, with the purpose of achieving results as nearly perfect as humanly possible, we devised an elaborate system of research, compilation, critical reading, and review by each editor of all manuscripts, with amplification, modification or change in accord with the final concensus of editorial opinion. These processes, and the indexing, cross-referencing, proof-reading and arranging of bibliographies were entrusted to individuals who were well qualified by education and experience and who also enjoyed our own special training. We are pleased to record on page v the names of these valued coadjutors.

The entire undertaking necessarily rested upon the coöperation of authors and publishers, for we could not quote from their copyrighted works without permisson and did not purpose, without acquiescence, even to make extracts from books not so protected. The 'golden rule" of observing all the rights of those concerned has been consistently obeyed; we have been allowed to draw from a “golden fountain" of historical literature and we value among our most prized possessions the hundreds of letters most generously and cordially granting us the desired permissions. These permissions are quite exceptional and we are confident the owners and users of THE NEW LARNED HISTORY will be fully appreciative and will join us in grateful acknowledgment of the great service thus rendered by our brother publishers and authors of the English-speaking world and elsewhere. More detailed acknowledgments will be found on page xiii.

Perhaps it is needless to say that our procedure in this respect has been in strict accord with the Larned practice, as stated in the preface to the original edition, written by Larned himself, from which we quote as follows: — “But the extensive borrowing which the work represents has not been done in an unlicensed way. I have felt warranted, by common custom, in using moderate extracts without permit. But for everything beyond these, in my selections from books now in print and on sale, whether under copyright or deprived of copyright, I have sought the consent of those, authors or publishers, or both, to whom the right of consent or denial appears to belong. ... The authors of books have other rights beyond their rights of property, to which respect has been paid. No liberties have been taken with the text of their writings. ... In the matter of different spellings, it has been more difficult to preserve for each writer his own. As a rule this is done, in names, and in the divergencies between English and American orthography; but, since much of the matter quoted has been taken from American editions of English books, and since both copyists and printers have worked under the habit of American spellings, the rule may not have governed with strict consistency throughout."

The dimensions of the new work considerably exceed those of its predecessor, which had 5600 pages. Roughly speaking, seventy percent of the old has been retained in the new work, which totals about 10,000 pages, approximating 12,000,000 words. Thus sixty percent of the new work comprises additional material supplied by the present editorial organization. The entire work is new mechanically. The plates are made from linotype composition. The format and type faces were specially designed to insure readability, attractive appearance and, withal, economy.

THE NEW LARNED HISTORY, to an even greater degree than the old work, offers to the casual reader the opportunity of discovering quickly and easily the established facts concerning any historical event or movement: to the scholar it constitutes a technical guide, providing him at once with the conclusions of the most eminent historians, and an indication as to where further information may be obtained. In addition to its encyclopedic and bibliographical uses the work serves as a compendium of the best historical literature, since the more important historical articles are not, as in the case of some historical dictionaries and encyclopedias, the work of so-called hack writers, but are composed of careful selections from the writings of the world's leading historians. They include some of the finest passages from Herodotus, Froissart, Machiavelli, Voltaire, Gibbon, Macaulay, Ranke, Treitschke, Stubbs, Rénan, Lavisse, Aulard, Ferrero, Breasted, Parkman, Rhodes, and a host of other famous writers. The student will thus find in the revised Larned work, not merely the most authoritative statement of facts, but also unlimited examples of the best historical writing.

Those of us who were privileged to plan the undertaking and to observe at close range the labors of the Editors and their assistants, can testify to the difficulties of the task. It demanded broad vision and the most delicate sense of proportion. The high degree of suc

cess achieved by the earlier edition, while it supplied a stimulus, did not remove the necessity of gathering a vast collection of new material, some of it to describe the events of the past three decades, much to supplant material in the unrevised edition which might fairly be regarded as out of date. There was necessary the meticulous weighing of the meriis of different accounts of the same subject; a close acquaintance with the sources and materials of history in all generations, and the scrupulous investigation of the most recent and most authoritative output of historical literature. Finally, it required a sense of imagination, unusually acute, which would enable the Editors to place themselves in the positions of people in various walks of life so as to visualize the sort of information these people were likely to seek. Only thus, indeed, could the work possibly justify itself and supply the incomparable Larned service to all who would apply to it for aid.

The extent to which those demands have been met and the success with which the accompanying difficulties have been overcome will be demonstrated in the actual experience of those who use the work, and theirs will be the final words of appreciation. As constant observers and critics, we confidently promise that THE NEW LARNED HISTORY will be for this generation what the “Old Larned" was for the past — than which there can be no higher praise.

The familiarity with history, histories and historians, resulting from use of these volumes, should prove a constant stimulus to the acquisition and reading of some of the older standard books and many of the worthy new books as they are published. In this connection our carefully prepared bibliographies and lists of books, selections from which have been made, will prove a valuable guide, especially when supplemented by our established “Editorial Service" which may be freely called upon at all times.

Finally, it is our earnest hope and expectation, as publishers for more than seventy years and as producers of the former editions and supplemental volumes of the Larned work, that the further knowledge and understanding of world-history made available in THE NEW LARNED HISTORY FOR READY REFERENCE, READING AND RESEARCH will constitute a genuine public service and contribute appreciably towards the raising of the standard of citizenship and government in our own country and elsewhere. For, as Burke said:

"In History a great volume is unrolled for our instruction, drawing the materials

of future wisdom from the past errors and infirmities of mankind." And, when mortals thus turn their errors into stepping stones leading to the Divine Way of Life, they will share what Cervantes evidently visioned when he wrote:

"History is like sacred writing because Truth is essential to it, and where
Truth is, there God himself is."

C. A. NICHOLS PUBLISHING COMPANY

F. C. H. GIBBONS, Managing Director.

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