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of the public debt, and during those inter- by him with reference to new objects, vals when the purposes of war shall not call for them? Shall we suppress the impost and not to those already provided for. give that advantage to foreign over domestic Had these required such enlargement, manufactures ? On a few articles of more the duties should have been repealed general and necessary use, the suppression, in due season, will doubtless be right; but

or reduced at once, to be reimthe great mass of the articles on which im- posed whenever Congress should be post is paid is foreign luxuries, purchased by clothed with the requisite constituthose only who are rich enough to afford themselves the use of them. Their patriot

tional power. ism would certainly prefer its continuance and application to the great purposes of the public education, roads, rivers, canals, and

HENRY CLAY entered Congress such other objects of public improvement as under Jefferson, in 1806, and was it may be thought proper to add to the constitutional enumeration of federal powers.

an earnest, thorough, enlightened By these operations, new channels of com- Protectionist from the start. Mr. munication will be opened between the Calhoun first took his seat in 1811, States; the lines of separation will disap, when the question of war with Great pear; their interests will be identified, and their Union cemented by new and indissolu- Britain dwarfed all others; and his ble ties." “Education is here placed among the arti

zealous efforts, together with those cles of public care, not that it would be pro- of Clay, Felix Grundy, and other posed to take its ordinary branches out of ardent young Republicans, finally the hands of private enterprise, which man

overbore the reluctance of Madison ages so much better all the concerns to which it is equal; but a public institution and his more sedate councilors, and can alone supply those sciences which, secured a Declaration of War on the though rarely called for, are yet necessary to complete the circle, all the parts of which 18th of June, 1812. At the close of contribute to the improvement of the coun- that war, a revision of the existing try, and some of them to its preservation. Tariff was imperatively required; The subject is now proposed for the consideration of Congress, because, if approved, by and no man did more than John C. the time the State Legislatures shall have Calhoun—then, for his last term, a deliberated on this extension of the federal trusts, and the laws shall be passed, and leading member of the House —to other arrangements made for their execu- secure the efficient Protection of tion, the necessary funds will be on hand Home Manufactures, but especially and without employment. I suppose an amendment to the Constitution, by consent of the Cotton Manufacture, by the of the States, necessary, because the objects Tariff of 1816; which Massachusetts, now recommended are not among those enumerated in the Constitution, and to which and most of New England, opposed, it permits the public moneys to be applied." precisely because it was Protective,

Mr. Jefferson, it will be seen, sug- and therefore, in the short-sighted gests an amendment to the Constitu- view, hostile to the interests of Comtion, to give Congress power to raise merce and Navigation. Internal Imand appropriate money to the "great provements, and all other features of purposes of education, roads, rivers, what was termed the National in canals," etc.; but he betrays no sus contradistinction to the Radical or picion that the incidental Protec- strict-construction theory of the nation then confessedly enjoyed by our

ture and functions of our Federal Home Manufactures was given in Government, found in Mr. Calhoun defiance of the Constitution as it and his personal adherents their is.” On the contrary, an enlarge- most thorough-going champions: and ment of federal power was suggested South Carolina was, about 1820, the

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THE TARIFF OF 1828.

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arena of a stirring conflict between by most of the members from the Cother - National” school of politicians, ton States, and by a majority of those headed by Calhoun and McDuffie, from New England—some provisions and the “Radicals,” whose chief was having been engrafted upon it with the William H. Crawford, of Georgia. alleged purpose and the certain effect Repeated duels between Mr. McDuffie of making it obnoxious to Massachuand Colonel William Cuming, of Geor- setts and the States which, on either gia, in one of which McDuffie was se- side, adjoined her. On the other verely wounded, were among the in- hand, the members from the Middle cidents of this controversy. Yet but and Western Free States, without few years elapsed before Mr. Calhoun distinction of party, supported, it aland his trusty henchman, McDuf- most unanimously. This Tariff imfie, appeared in the novel character posed high duties on Iron, Lead, of champions of “ State Rights," and Hemp, Wool, and other bulky starelentless antagonists of Protection, | ples, and was very generally popular. and all the “National” projects they | Under it, the industry of the Free had hitherto supported! Mr. Calhoun States, regarded as a whole, was attempted, some years afterward, to more productive, more prosperous, reconcile this flagrant inconsistency; better rewarded, than ever before, but it was like “arguing the seal off and the country exhibited a rapid the bond”—a feat to which the sub-growth in wealth, intelligence, and tlest powers of casuistry are utterly general comfort. inadequate. He did prove, howev- The South-that is, the cottoner, that his change did not follow, growing region – for

for Louisiana, but preceded, his quarrel with Gen- through her sugar-planting interest, eral Jackson—his original, though sustained the Protective policy, and then unacknowledged, demonstration shared in the prosperity thence resultagainst Protection as unconstitutional, ing—now vehemently opposed the and in favor of Nullification as a re- Tariff, declaring herself thereby served right of each State, having plundered and impoverished. There been embodied in an elaborate docu- is no evidence that her condition was ment known as “ The South Carolina less favorable, her people less comExposition," adopted and put forth fortable, than they had been ;, but by the Legislature of his State near the contrast between the thrift, prothe close of 1828. The doctrines gress, and activity of the Free States, therein affirmed were those propound- and the stagnation, the inertia, the ed by Hayne and refuted by Webster poverty, of the cotton region, was in the great debate already noticed. very striking. And, as the South

was gradually unlearning her RevoThe Tariff of 1828--the highest lutionary principles, and adopting and most protective ever adopted in instead the dogma that Slavery is this country—was passed by a Jack- essentially right and beneficent, she pson Congress, of which Van Buren, could not now be induced to appreSilas Wright, and the Jacksonian hend, nor even to consider, the real Beaders in Pennsylvania and Ohio, cause of her comparative wretchedwere master-spirits. It was opposed ness; though she was more than once

kindly and delicately reminded of it. | Senators not to suppose that I do it in the Mr. George M. Dallas, 16 of Pennsyl- spirit of taurt, of reproach, or of idle de

clamation. Regarding it as a misfortune vania—a life-long

a life-long Democrat and merely, not as a fault—as a disease inherited, anti-Abolitionist, cautious, conserva

not incurred-perhaps to be alleviated, but tive, conciliatory-replying to one of not eradicated—I should feel self-condemned

were I to treat it other than as an existing Mr. Hayne's eloquent and high- fact, whose merit or demerit, apart from the wrought portrayals of the miserable question under debate, is' shielded from

commentary by the highest and most just state to which the South and her in- considerations. I refer, Sir, to the character dustry had been reduced by the Pro- of Southern labor, in itself, and in its intective policy, forcibly and truthfully to the ever-varying changes of human socie

fluence on others.' Incapable of adaptation said:

ty and existence, it retains the communities

in which it is established, in a condition of What, Sir, is the cause of Southern distress? Has any gentleman yet ventured to lights of Science and the improvements of

apparent and comparative inertness. The designate it? I am neither willing nor

Art, which vivify and accelerate elsewhere, competent to flatter. To praise the honora

cannot penetrate, or if they do, penetrate ble Senator from South Carolina would be

with dilatory inefficiency, among its opera"To add perfume to the violet

tives. They are not merely instinctive and Wasteful and ridiculous excess.'

passive. - While the intellectual industry of But, if he has failed to discover the source other parts of this country springs elastically of the evils he deplores, who can unfold it? forward at every fresh impulse, and manual Amid the warm and indiscriminating denun- laboris propelled and redoubled by countciations with which he has assailed the less inventions, machines, and contrivances, policy of protecting domestic manufactures instantly understood and at once exercised, and native produce, he frankly avows that the South remains stationary, inaccessible to he would not deny that there are other such encouraging and invigorating aids. causes, besides the Tariff, which have con

Nor is it possible to be wholly blind to the tributed to produce the evils which he has moral effect of this species of labor upon depicted. What are those other causes ?' those freemen among whom it exists. A In what proportion have they acted? How disrelish for humble and hardy occupation; much of this dark shadowing is ascribable to a pride adverse to drudgery and toil; a each singly, and to all in combination ? dread that to partake in the employments Would the Tariff be at all felt or denounced, allotted to color may be accompanied also if those other causes were not in operation ? | by its degradation, are natural and inevitaWould not, in fact, its influence, its discrimi- ble. The high and lofty qualities which, in nations, its inequalities, its oppressions, but other scenes and for

other scenes and for other purposes, characfor those "other causes,' be shaken, by the terize and adorn our Southern brethren, are elasticity, energy, and exhaustless spirit of fatal to the enduring patience, the corporal the South, as "dew-drops from the lion's exertion, and the painstaking simplicity, by mane ?' These inquiries must be satisfac- which only a successful yeomanry can be torily answered before we can be justly formed. When, in fact, Sir, the Senator required to legislate away an entire system. from South Carolina asserts that “Slaves are If it be the root of all evil, let it be exposed too improvident, too incapable of that miand demolished. If its poisonous exhalations nute, constant, delicate attention, and that be but partial, let us preserve such portions persevering industry which are essential to as are innoxious. If, as the luminary of manufacturing establishments,' he himself day, it be pure and salutary in itself, let us admits the defect in Southern labor, by not wish it extinguished, because of the which the progress of his favorite section shadows, clouds, and darkness, which ob- | must be retarded. He admits an inability scure its brightness, or impede its vivifying to keep pace with the rest of the world. He power.

admits an inherent weakness; a weakness “That other causes' still, Mr. President, neither engendered nor aggravated by the for Southern distress, do exist, cannot be Tariff-which, as societies are now constidoubted. They combine with the one. I tuted and directed, must drag in the rear, have indicated, and are equally unconnected and be distanced in the common race. with the manufacturing policy. One of these it is peculiarly painful to advert to; and when I mention it, I beg honorable

South Carolina did not heed these

16 Speech in the Senate, February 27, 1832.

NULLIFICATION MADE PRACTICAL.

93

second

and

most

gentle admonitions. The convictions | States against the validity of said of her leading men were, doubtless, act should be permitted; no copy of Pro-Slavery and Anti-Tariff; but the proceedings should be taken for their aspirations and exasperations the purpose of making such appeal; likewise tended to confirm them in and any attempt to appeal to the Juthe course on which they had resolved diciary of the United States from any and entered. General Jackson and decision of a State court affirming and Mr. Calhoun had become estranged upholding this Ordinance, should be and hostile not long after their joint "dealt with as for a contempt of the election as President and Vice-Presi- court” thus upholding and affirming. dent, in 1828. Mr. Calhoun's san- Every office-holder of the State, and guine hopes of succeeding to the “every juror” was required expressly Presidency had been blasted. Mr. to swear to obey this Ordinance, and Van Buren supplanted him as Vice- all legislative acts based thereon. President in 1832, sharing in Jack Should the Federal Government unson's

decided dertake to enforce the law thus nullitriumph. And, though the Tariff of fied, or in any manner to harass or 1828 had been essentially modified obstruct the foreign commerce of the during the preceding session of Con- State, South Carolina should theregress, South Carolina proceeded, di- upon consider herself no longer a rectly after throwing away her vote member of the Federal Union : in the election of 1832, to call a Con

“ The people of this State will thenceforth vention of her people, which met at hold themselves absolved from all further her Capitol on the 19th of Novem- obligation to maintain or preserve their poliber. That Convention was composed States, and

will forth with proceed to organ

tical connection with the people of the other of her leading politicians of the Cal- ize a separate government, and do all other houn school, with the heads of her acts and things which sovereign and inde

pendent States may of right do." great families, forming a respectable and dignified assemblage. The net

Thus was Nullification" embodied result of its labors was an Ordinance in an Ordinance preparatory to its of Nullification, drafted by a grand reduction to practice. The LegislaCommittee of twenty-one, and adopt- ture, in which the Nullifiers were an ed with entire unanimity. By its overwhelming majority, elected Mr. terms, the existing Tariff was form- Webster's luckless antagonist, Robert ally pronounced “null, void, and no Y. Hayne, Governor of the State; law, nor binding on this State, its and the Governor, in his Message, officers, or citizens,” and the duties thoroughly indorsed the action of the on imports imposed by that law were nullifying Convention, whereof he forbidden to be paid within the State had been a member. of South Carolina after the 1st day “I recognize," said he, "no allegiance as of February ensuing. The Ordinance paramount to that which the citizens of

South Carolina owo to the State of their contemplated an act of the Legisla- birth or their adoption. I here publicly ture nullifying the Tariff as afore- declare, and wish it to be distinctly undersaid ; and prescribed that no appeal highest of all obligations, to carry into

stood, that I shall hold myself bound, by the to the Supreme Court of the United effect, not only the Ordinance of the Con

17 November 24, 1832.

upon

the

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18

more,

vention, but every act of the Legislature, maintain the Constitution, as if unand every judgment of our own courts, the conscious of the tempest he had exenforcement of which may devolve executive. I claim no right to revise their cited, and which was now preparing acts. It will be my duty to execute them; ' to burst

to burst upon his head. and that duty I mean, to the utmost of my

General Jackson had already power, faithfully to perform." He proceeded:

made provision for the threatened “ If the sacred soil of Carolina should be emergency. Ordering General Scott polluted by the footsteps of an invader, or to proceed to Charleston for the purbe stained with the blood of her citizens, shed in her defense, I trust in Almighty God pose of “superintending the safety that no son of hers, native or adopted, who of the ports of the United States in has been nourished at her bosom, or been that vicinity," and making the requicherished by her bounty, will be found rais- site disposition of the slender military ing a parricidal arm against our common mother. And even should she stand ALONE

and naval forces at his command, the in this great struggle for constitutional President sent confidential orders to liberty, encompassed by her enemies, that there will not be found, in the wide limits

the Collector for the port of Charlesof the State, one recreant son who will not ton, whereof the following extract fly to the rescue, and be ready to lay down sufficiently indicates the character not be drawn down from the proud emi- and purpose : nence on which she has now placed herself, “Upon the supposition that the measures of except by the hands of her own children. the Convention, or the acts of the Legislature Give her but a fair field, and she asks no may consist, in part, at least, in declaring

Should she succeed, hers will be the laws of the United States imposing glory enough to have led the way in the duties unconstitutional, and null and void, noble work of REFORM. And if, after mak- and in forbidding their execution, and the ing these efforts due to her own honor, and ) collection of the duties within the State of the greatness of the cause, she is destined South Carolina, you will, immediately after utterly to fail, the bitter fruits of that failure, it shall be formally announced, resort to all not to herself alone, but to the entire South, | the means provided by the laws, and particnay, to the whole Union, will attest her vir- ularly by the act of the 2d of March, 1799,

to counteract the measures which may be The Legislature proceeded to pass adopted to give effect to that declaration .

“For this purpose, you will consider the acts requisite to give practical yourself authorized to employ the revenue effect to the Ordinance, and the Gov- cutters which may be within your district, ernor to accept the services of volun- and provide as many boats and employ as

many inspectors as may be necessary for the teers, who were not mustered into execution of the law, and for the purposes service, but directed to hold them- of the act already referred to.

You will, selves in readiness for action at a

moreover, cause a sufficient number of offi

cers of cutters and inspectors to be placed moment's notice. Mr. Calhoun re- on board, and in charge of every vessel signed the Vice-Presidency when he arriving from a foreign port or place, with

goods, wares, or merchandise, as soon as had three months still to serve, and practicable after her first coming within was chosen to the Senate to fill the your district, and direct them to anchor her seat vacated by Mr. Hayne's accept- she may be secure from any act of violence,

in some safe place within the harbor, where ance of the governorship. Leaving and from any unauthorized attempt to dishis State foaming and surging with charge her cargo before a compliance with

the laws; and they will remain on board of preparations for war, Mr. Calhoun, her at such place until the reports and enin December, calmly proceeded to tries required by law shall be made, both of Washington, where he took his seat secured to be paid, to your satisfaction, and

vessel and cargo, and the duties paid, or in the Senate, and swore afresh to until the regular permit shall be granted for

tue.

18 November 6th.

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