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A determined Union Legislature portion of Kentucky. This movement was having thus been elected but not yet
oto preceded by the active organization of com
panies, regiments, etc., consisting of men assembled, Gov. Magoffin, feeling that sworn into the United States service, under his time was short, and that any fur officers holding commissions from yourself.
Ordnance, arms, munitions, and supplies of ther mischief to the Union cause at
war, are being transported into the State, and his hands must be done quickly, ad placed in large quantities in these camps. In dressed to the President of the Uni
& word, an army is now being organized and
quartered within the State, supplied with all ted States, by the hands of two the appliances of war, without the consent Commissioners,' the following cool or advice of the authorities of the State, and
without consultation with those most proiniepistle:
nently known and recognized as loyal citi
zens. This movement now imperils that “COMMONWEALTI OF KENTUCKY,
peace and tranquillity which, from the be“EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, FRANKFORT,
ginning of our present difficulties, have been “ August 19, 1861.
the paramount desire of this people, and "To His Excellency, ABRAHAM LINCOLN,
which, up to this time, they have secured to “ President of the United States :
the State. . “Sir: From the commencement of the
“Within Kentucky, there has been, and unhappy hostilities now pending in this
is likely to be, no occasion for the presence country, the people of Kentucky have indi
of military force. The people are quiet and
tranquil, feeling no apprehension of any occated an earnest desire and purpose, as far as lay in their power, while maintaining
casion arising to invoke protection from the their original political status, to do nothing
Federal arm. They have asked that their by which to involve themselves in the war.
territory be left free from military occupaUp to this time, they have succeeded in se
tion, and the present tranquillity of their curing to themselves and to the State, peace
communications left uninvaded by soldiers. and tranquillity as the fruits of the policy
They do not desire that Kentucky shall be they adopted. My single object now is to
required to supply the battle-field for the promote the continuance of these blessings
contending armies, or become the theater of to the people of this State.
the war. "Until within a brief period, the people
“Now, therefore, as Governor of the of Kentucky were quiet and tranquil, free
State of Kentucky, and in the name of from domestic strife, and undisturbed by in
the people I have the honor to represent, ternal commotion. They have resisted no
and with the single and earnest desire to law, rebelled against no authority, engaged
avert from their peaceful homes the horrors in no revolution; but constantly proclaimed
of war, I urge the removal from the limits their firm determination to pursue their
of Kentucky of the military force now orpeaceful avocations, earnestly hoping that
ganized and in camp within the State. If their own soil would be spared the presence
such action as is hereby urged be promptly of armed troops, and that the scene of con
| taken, I firmly believe the peace of the peoflict would be kept removed beyond the bor
ple of Kentucky will be preserved, and the der of their State. By thus avoiding all
horrors of a bloody war will be averted from occasions for the introduction of bodies of
la people now peaceful and tranquil.
“B. MAGOFFIN." armed soldiers, and offering no provocation for the presence of military force, the people of Kentucky have sincerely striven to pre The President, declining to receive serve in their State domestic peace, and avert the calamities of sanguinary engage
Magoffin's Commissioners otherwise ments.
than as private citizens, returned this “Recently, a large body of soldiers have
terse and pungent reply to their masbeen enlisted in the United States Army, and collected in military camps in the central ter's request:
inadequate explanation, which attributes the sub large portion of the Kentucky people to the serviency of a large portion of the people of Ken- Northern cause must be attributed to permanent tucky to the views of the Lincoln Government causes; and among these were, first, an essential to the perfidy of a party or the adroitness of its unsoundness on the Slavery question, under the management. However powerful may be the influences of the peculiar philosophy of Henry machinery of party, it certainly has not the power Clay, who, like every great man, left an impress of belying public sentiment for any considerable upon his State, which it remained for future even length of time. The persistent adhesion of a I more than contemporary generations to attest."
“WASHINGTON, D. O., Aug. 24, 1861. I plaining that she had suffered in her “To his Excellency, B. MAGOFFIN, " Governor of the State of Kentucky :
commerce and property from the acts “Sir: Your letter of the 19th inst., in of either; but more especially that a which you 'urge the removal from the lim Federal force had recently been orits of Kentucky of the military force now organized and in camp within that State,' is
ganized and encamped in the heart received.
of that State without the permission "I may not possess full and precisely ac- l of her lawful authorities (Berial curate knowledge upon this subject; but I believe it is true that there is a military Magoffin, to wit;) whereupon he proforce in camp within Kentucky, acting by posed to so amend an act of the late authority of the United States; which force is not very large, and is not now being aug
Legislature as to enable the Military mented.
Board to borrow money for the pur"I also believe that some arms have been
chase of arms and munitions for the furnished to this force by the United States. “I also believe that this force consists ex
defense of the State, etc., etc. He clusively of Kentuckians, having their camp desired the Legislature authoritain the immediate vicinity of their own homes, 1 tively to regtaat 911 Military orrani. and not assailing or menacing any of the good people of Kentucky.
zations within the State, not under "In all I have done in the premises, I her authority, to be disbanded forthhave acted upon the urgent solicitation of many Kentuckians, and in accordance with
with; and complained of the introwhat I believed, and still believe, to be the duction of arms by the Federal Govwish of a majority of all the Union-loving ernment and their distribution among people of Kentucky. “While I have conversed on the subject
private citizens, which-considering with many eminent men of Kentucky, in- that the incipient Rebels obtained a cluding a large majority of her members of
large proportion thereof, and in due Congress, I do not remember that any one of them, or any other person, except your time carried them off to the camps of Excellency and the bearers of your Excel- the Secession forces-was unreasonalency's letter, has urged me to remove the military force from Kentucky or to disband
ble. On the main question at issue, it. One other very worthy citizen of Ken- / he said: tucky did solicit me to have the augmenting of the force suspended for a time.
“Kentucky has meant to await the ex“Taking all the means within my reach
hausting of all civil remedies before she will to form a judgment, I do not believe it is the
reconsider the question of assuming new expopular wish of Kentucky that the force
ternal relations; but I have never undershall be removed beyond her limits; and,
stood that they will tamely submit unconwith this impression, I must respectfully de
ditionally to the aggressions of the North; cline to remove it.
that they renounce their sympathy with the "I most cordially sympathize with your
people of her aggrieved sister States; nor Excellency in the wish to preserve the peace
that they will approve of a war to subjugate of my own native State, Kentucky; but it is
the South. Still can I not construe any of with regret I search for and cannot find, in
their votes as meaning that they will proseyour not very short letter, any declaration or
cute a coërcive war against their Southern intimation that you entertain any desire for
brethren. They meant only that they have the preservation of the Federal Union.
still some hope of the restoration and per“ ABRAHAM LINCOLN."
petuation of the Union; and, until that hope
is blasted, they will not alter their existing The Legislature convened Septem
relations. Their final decision will be law
to me; and I will execute every constituber 3d, but was not fully organized tional act of their representatives as vigitill the 5th, when Magoffin submit- lantly and faithfully as though it originated ted a Message based on the assump- / with myself.” tion of Kentucky's proper and per-| These few words elicited no sympafect neutrality between the belliger-thetic response from the Legislature, ents North and South of her; com- | fresh from the people, andimbued with
their sentiments. On the contrary, the House by 68 to 26, and in the the House, six days thereafter, re- Senate by 26 to 8. . solved—71 to 26--that the Governor Magoffin promptly vetoed them. be directed to order by proclamation The Legislature as promptly passed the Confederate troops encamped on them over his veto by overwhelming the soil of that State to decamp im- | majorities. Gen. Grant, commanding mediately. An attempt so to amend at Cairo, had already telegraphed to the resolution as to require all Union the Legislature, Sept. 5th, that Westas well as Disunion forces to quit the ern Kentucky had been invaded State, was decidedly voted down; and by a large Rebel force, who were then the two Houses united in passing, by holding and fortifying strong posioverwhelming votes, the following: tions on the east bank of the Missis
sippi at Hickman and Chalk Bluffs. " Resolved, That Kentucky's peace and neutrality have been wantonly violated, her
The Legislature referred this dispatch soil has been invaded, and the rights of her to a Special Committee, which telecitizens have been grossly infringed, by the
graphed thereupon to Gov. Harris, of so-called Southern Confederate forces. This has been done without cause: therefore,
Tennessee, who thus responded : “ Be it enacted by the General Assembly
"The Confederate troops that landed at of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, That the | Hickman last night did so without my Governor be requested to call out the mili
knowledge or consent; and, I am confident, tary force of the State to expel and drive out
also without the consent of the President. the invaders.
I have telegraphed President Davis, request" Resolved, That the United States be in
ing their immediate withdrawal." 5 voked to give that aid and assistance, that protection against invasion, which is guaranteed to each one of the States by the 4th
Gen. Grant did not see fit to desection of the 4th article of the Constitution pend on the fair promises of Gov. of the United States.
Harris, nor the amenity of Gen. " Resolved. That Gen. Robert Anderson be, and he is hereby, requested to enter im
Bishop Leonidas Polk, nor yet of mediately upon the active discharge of his President Davis, for the safety of his duties in this military district.
department, but occupied, next morn• Resolved, That we appeal to the people of Kentucky, by the ties of patriotism and ing, Paducah, on the south bank of honor, by the ties of common interest and the Ohio, near the mouth of the Ten-. common defense, by the remembrances of . the past, and by the hopes of future National
nessee, with two regiments and a batexistence, to assist in expelling and driving tery, finding Rebel flags flying over out the wanton invaders of our peace and
many of the buildings in that little neutrality, the lawless invaders of our soil."
city, in anticipation of the speedy apThese resolves were adopted—in pearance of a Confederate force, re5 Gov. Magoffin communicated to the Legisla Richmond, requesting that Gen. Polk be ordered ture, Sept. 9th, a message to him from the four
to withdraw his troops from Kentucky; and that Commissioners of the Governor of Tennessee, in
such order was issued from the War Department
of the Confederacy; that Gen. Polk replied to explanation of the reason why the Confederates
the War Department that the retention of the had not been withdrawn from Kentucky, from
post was a military necessity, and that the rewhich the following is an extract:
tiring from it would be attended by the loss of
many lives. This embraces the message re"The undersigned yesterday received a verbal ceived. message, through a messenger, from Gov. Harris. “The messenger, it is true, in conversation, The message was, that Gov. Harris had, by tele said that he had heard in Nashville that Secregraphic dispatch, requested Gen. Polk to with- | tary Walker had sent a dispatch to Gen. Buckdraw the Confederate troops from Kentucky, and ner, giving Gen. Polk a discretion to hold to or that Gen, Polk had declined to do so; that Gov. withraw from the occupation of the post in KenHarris then telegraphed to Secretary Walker, at | tucky.”
GRANT AT PADUCA I-ZOLLICOFFER IN KENTUCKY. 613
ported 3,800 strong, and but sixteen crossed the Ohio was made an excuse miles distant. He found there large for this invasion. In other words: quantities of prepared rations and of the people of Kentucky, through leather for the expected Rebel army, their then freshly chosen Legislature, and put them to a better use. In his having decided to remain in and be proclamation, thereupon issued, he loyal to the Union, the Confederates said :
regarded this as justifying them in
seizing any portion of that State of “I have come among you not as an enemy, but as your fellow-citizen; not to maltreat which they should deem the occuor annoy you, but to respect and enforce the
pancy advantageous to their cause; rights of all loyal citizens. An enemy, in rebellion against our common Government,
and, in fact, Gen. Zollicoffer, comhas taken possession of and planted his guns manding their forces in East Tenneson the soil of Kentucky, and fired upon you.
see, had already occupied CumberColumbus and Hickman are in his hands. He is moving upon your city. I am here to
re to land Gap, and advanced through that defend you against this enemy; to assist the pass into Kentucky, at least so early authority and sovereignty of your Govern
| as the 5th; though no pretense of ment. I have nothing to do with opinions, and shall deal only with armed Rebellion Federal invasion, accomplished or and its aiders and abettors. You can pur
meditated, was, in that quarter, justisue your usual avocations without fear. The strong arm of the Government is here, to
fied. But East Tennessee was earnprotect its friends and punish its enemies. estly and unchangeably loyal to the Whenever it is manifest that you are able to defend yourselves, maintain the authority of
Union-had so voted by more than the Government, and protect the rights of two to one at the recent State Elecloyal citizens, I shall withdraw the forces tion; and it had become necessary under my command. U. S. GRANT, "Brig. General Commanding."
.." to surround her with Confederate
camps, and cut her off from all comBishop Polk had not then occupied munication with the loyal States, to Columbus, as Gen. Grant supposed; prevent a general uprising of her but he did so next day, with a force hardy mountaineers in defense of the of ten regiments, six batteries, and cause they loved. three battalions of cavalry. Of course, Gen. Robert Anderson assumed the promise of Gov. Harris that he command, at Louisville, of the Deshould be withdrawn was not fulfilled, partment of Kentucky, Sept. 20th; and the fact that Grant had now and the organization of Union volunteers was thenceforth actively pro- | Thomas B. Monroe, sr., U. S. Dismoted. On the 25th, a bill calling trict Judge, Thomas B. Monroe, jr., out 40,000 volunteers for the defense Secretary of State, Col. Humphrey of the State and Union passed the Marshall, late 'American' member of House by a vote of 67 to 13; the Congress, Col. George W. Johnson, Senate concurring by a vote of 21 to Capt. John Morgan, and several 5. On that day, the Senate, by 16 other prominent traitors, escaped to 10, passed a bill providing that about this time to the Rebel camps any and every Kentuckian who shall in Southern Kentucky, and passed have voluntarily joined the Rebel thence into Tennessee or Virginia, force invading the State, shall be in- where they openly gave in their adcapable of inheriting any property in hesion to the Southern Confederacy. Kentucky, unless he shall return to Judge Monroe formally renounced his allegiance within sixty days; and, his office and his allegiance, and was on the next day, the House Judiciary adopted a citizen of the Confederacy Committee, having reported that, in in open court at Nashville, October its judgment, Congress had not tran- 3d. Breckinridge and Humphrey scended its powers in imposing taxes Marshall were promptly made Confor the preservation of the Union, federate Brigadier-Generals. was discharged from further consider- | Zollicoffer, on entering Kentucky, ation of the subject by a vote of 67 issued an order promising that no to 13; and the Senate concurred citizen of that State should be mowithout a division.
6 Zollicoffer telegraphed, Sept. 14th, to Ma- ism. We have felt, and still feel, a religious goffin as follows:
respect for Kentucky's neutrality. We will re"The safety of Tennessee requiring, I occupy 1
spect it as long as our safety will permit. If the the mountain passes at Cumberland, and the
Federal force will now withdraw from their three long mountains in Kentucky. For weeks,
menacing position, the force under my command I have known that the Federal commander at
shall immediately be withdrawn." Hoskins's Cross-Roads was threatening the in: 1
“The despotic Government at Washington" vasion of East Tennessee, and ruthlessly urging
could hardly, with reason, be blamed for refusing our people to destroy our own road and bridges. I postponed this precautionary movement until
to recognize the neutrality of Kentucky, when the despotic Government at Washington, refus Kentucky herself did that very thing with a deing to recognize the neutrality of Kentucky, had cision and emphasis quite equal to those evinced established formidable camps in the center and in President Lincoln's reply to Magofin. Zolliother parts of the State, with the view, first, to
coffer's “religious respect," therefore, was paid subjugate your gallant State, and then ourselves. Tennessee feels, and has ever felt, toward Ken
to something exceedingly convenient to his tucky as a twin-sister; their people are as one cause, but which, if it ever had been, no longer people in kindred, sympathy, valor, and patriot- existed.
lested in person or property unless On the 16th, Zollicoffer advanced found in arms for the Union, or to Barboursville, Ky., capturing the somehow giving aid and comfort to camp of a regiment of Kentucky the National cause. Of course, this Unionists, who fled at his approach. did not save active Unionists from
The changed attitude and deter- seizure, abuse, and confinement, nor mined purpose of Kentucky encour- the pigs, fowls, cattle, etc., whether aged the Federal Government to of Unionists or Confederates, from take some decided steps in defense wholesale confiscation by his loosely of its own existence. Ex-Gov. More- organized and undisciplined banditti, head," a most inveterate traitor, was who swept over the poor and thinly arrested at his residence near Louis- settled mountainous region wherein ville, and taken thence to Fort La- the Cumberland and Kentucky rivfayette, in New York harbor, where- ers have their sources, devouring and in he was long confined, and whence destroying all before them. he should not have been released. Mr. Breckinridge, on finding himWarned by this blow, ex-Vice-Presi- self safely within the Confederate dent John C. Breckinridge, Hon. lines, issued an elaborate and bitter Wm. Preston, late Minister to Spain, Address, announcing his resignation
Charles S. Morehead, formerly a Whig rep- in Mississippi, was now and evermore a devotee resentative in Congress from the Lexington dis- l of the Slave Power-hence a Disunionist. He trict, afterward' American Governor of the State | bore an active and baleful part in the Peace Confrom 1855 to 1859, was originally a Unionist of ference of February, 1861; and was thenceforth, the Henry Clay school; but, having become though professing moderation, fully in the counlargely interested in slaves and cotton-growing sels of the Secessionists.