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Army, commeDowell, but directed along the wooded valde
by Lieut. Tuly half-wa
MODO VELL'S ADVANCE TO CENTERVILLE. 539 he fell back hastily to Harper's / Richardson's brigade, consisting of Ferry ; to where, on the 25th, he was the 1st Massachusetts, 12th Newsuperseded by Gen. N. P. Banks. York, and 2d and 3d Michigan. Re
garded as a reconnoissance in force, The movement of the Union Grand | the attack might be termed a success; Army, commanded in the field by since the result demonstrated that Gen. Irwin McDowell, but directed the main Rebel army was in position from Washington by Lieut. Gen. along the wooded valley of Bull Run, Scott, commenced on Tuesday, July half-way between Centerville and 16th. Gen. Tyler's column, in the Manassas Junction, and purposed to advance, bivouacked that night at remain. Vienna, four and a half miles from Gen. McDowell's army was moved Fairfax Court House. It rested next up to and concentrated around the night at Germantown, two miles be- ridge on which Centerville is situated yond Fairfax; and, on Thursday, at during the 18th and 19th, with in9 o'clock A. M., pushed on to and tent to advance and attack the Rebthrough Centerville, the Rebels re-els, posted along Bull Run and betiring quietly before it. Three miles tween that stream and Manassas beyond that village, however, the Junction, on Saturday, the 20th. Rebels were found strongly posted at But delay was encountered in the Blackburn's ford, on Bull Run, and, reception of adequate subsistence, on being pressed, showed fight. This which did not arrive till Friday night. was at 11 o'clock P. M. A spirited During Saturday, three days' rations conflict, mainly with artillery, re were distributed and issued, and sulted—the Rebels being in heavy every preparation made for moving force, under the immediate command punctually at 2 o'clock next morning. of Gen. James Longstreet. The Meantime, Beauregard, maintaining Unionists, more exposed, as well as an absolute quiet and inoffensiveness outnumbered, finally drew back, leav- on his front, and fully informed by ing the Rebel position intact. The spies and traitors of every movement losses were nearly equal : 83 on our between him and Washington, had side; 68 on the other. Sherman's hastily gathered from every side all battery, Capt. Ayres, did most of the the available forces of the Confedeactual fighting, supported by Col. racy, including 15,000, or nearly the
10 On the day of McDowell's advance to Cen
"CHARLESTOWN, July 18th, 1861. terville, and of the collision at Blackburn's Ford, "Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. G., etc.: TeleGen. Scott telegraphed complainingly to Patter
gram of to-day received. The enemy has stolen
no march upon me. I have kept him actively son as follows:
employed, and, by threats and reconnoissances "WASHINGTON, July 18th, 1861.
in force, caused him to be reënforced. I have "MAJOR-GEN. PATTERSON, etc. i I have cer- accomplished more in this respect than the tainly been expecting you to beat the enemy. General-in-Chief asked; or could well be expectIf not, to hear that you have felt him strongly, led, in the face of an enemy far superior in numor, at least, had occupied him by threats and bers, with no line of communication to pro
bers with no line demonstrations. You have been at least his
R. PATTERSON." equal, and, I suppose, superior, in numbers. Has he not stolen a march and sent reënforce
At this very moment, Patterson knew that he ments toward Manassas Junction ? A week is had, by his flank march to Charlestown, comenough to win a victory. * *
pletely relieved Johnston from all apprehension “WINFIELD SCOTT."
of attack or disturbance, and left him perfectly To this, Patterson responded as follows: free to reënforce Beauregard with his entire army.
full strength, of Gen. Johnston's , bated; had it been delayed a few Army of the Shenandoah, and had hours longer, we should have stood decided to assume the offensive and on the defensive, with the immense attack our forces before Gen. Patter- advantage of knowing the ground, son could come up to join them. and of choosing the positions whereHad our advance been made on Sat-on to fight. Such are the overruling urday, as we originally intended, it casualties and fatalities of war. would have encountered but two- Bull Run is a decent mill-stream, thirds of the force it actually com- fordable, in summer, at intervals of
BATTLE OF BULL RUN.
half a mile to a mile. Its immediate is close upon them. This fact exvalley is generally narrow and wood- plains and justifies Gen. McDowell's ed, inclosed by bluffs, neither high (or Scott's) order of battle. This was, nor very steep, but affording good briefly: to menace the Rebel right positions for planting batteries to by the advance of our 1st division on command the roads on the opposite the direct road from Centreville to side, so screened by woods and brush Manassas Junction, while making a as to be neither seen nor suspected more serious demonstration on the until the advancing or attacking party road running due west from Center
SUCCESS OF OUR FLANK ATTACK.
541 ville to Groveton and Warrenton, and in front of Stone Bridge, opened with crossing Bull Run by the Stone his artillery at 61 A. M., eliciting no Bridge; while the real or main attack reply; and it was three hours later was to be made by a column 15,000 when Hunter's advance, under Col. strong, composed of the 2d (Hunter's) Burnside, crossed at Sudley Spring; and 3d (Heintzelman's) divisions, his men, thirsty with their early which, starting from their camps a march that hot July morning, stopmile or two east and southeast of ping as they crossed to drink and fill Centerville, were to make a consider their canteens. Meantime, every able détour to the right, crossing Cub movement of our forces was made Run, and then Bull Run at a ford manifest to Beauregard, watching known as Sudley Spring, three miles them from the slope two or three above the Stone Bridge, thus turning miles west, by the clouds of dust that the Rebel left, and rolling it up on rose over their line of march; and the center, where it was to be taken regiment after regiment was hurried in flank by our 1st division (Tyler's) northward by him to meet the immicrossing the Stone Bridge at the right nent shock. No strength was wasted moment, and completing the rout of by him upon, and scarcely any notice the enemy. The 5th division (Miles's) taken of, our feint on his right; but, was held in reserve at Centerville, when Burnside's brigade, after cross
ing at Sudley, had marched a mile columns, but to guard against the ob or so through woods down the road vious peril of a formidable Rebel ad on the right of Bull Run, and come vance on our left across Blackburn's out into a clear and cultivated counFord to Centerville, flanking our try, stretching thence over a mile of flank movement, capturing our mu- rolling fields down to Warrenton nitions and supplies, and cutting off turnpike, he was vigorously opened our line of retreat. The 4th division upon by artillery from the woods in (Runyon's) guarded our communica- his front, and, as he pressed on, by tions with Alexandria and Arlington; infantry also. Continuing to adits foremost regiment being about vance, fighting, followed and supseven miles back from Centerville. ported by Hunter's entire division,
The movement of our army was which was soon joined on its left by to have commenced at 21 o'clock A. Heintzelman's, which had crossed M., and the battle should have been the stream a little later and further opened at all points at 6 A. M.; but down, our attacking column reached our raw troops had never been brig- and crossed the Warrenton road from aded prior to this advance, and most Centerville by the Stone Bridge, givof their officers were utterly without ing a hand to Sherman's brigade of experience; so that there was a delay Tyler's division, and all but clearing of two or three hours in the flanking this road of the Rebel batteries and divisions reaching the point at which regiments, which here resisted our the battle was to begin. Gen. Tyler, efforts, under the immediate com
11 Beauregard's official report of the battle, says of the state of the battle at this time: which was dated Manassas, August 26th, (after "Heavy losses had now been sustained on our he had received and read all our official reports,) | side, both in numbers and in the personal worth
mand of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. , temporarily carried the buildings Here Griffin's battery, which, with behind which the Rebel guns were Rickett's, had done the most effective sheltered; but the breastworks were fighting throughout, was charged too strong, and our men, recoiling with effect by a Rebel regiment, from their fire, deflected to the left, which was enabled to approach it moving down the Run under the with impunity by a mistake of our shelter of the bluff, covering the officers, who supposed it one of our efforts of Captain's Alexander's pioown. Three different attacks were neers to remove the heavy abatis, repulsed with slaughter, and the bat- whereby the Rebels had obstructed tery remained in our hands, though the road up from the Stone Bridge. all its horses were killed. At 3 This had at length been effected; and P. M., the Rebels had been driven Schenck's brigade and Ayres' battery, a mile and a half, and were nearly of Tyler's division, were on the point out of sight, abandoning the Warren- of crossing the Run to aid in completon road entirely to our victorious ting our triumph. troops. Gen. Tyler, on hearing the But the Rebels, at first out-numguns of Hunter on our right, had bered at the point of actual collision, pushed Sherman's, and soon after had been receiving reënforcements Keyes's, brigade, over the Run to as- nearly all day; and, at this critical sail the enemy in his front, driving moment, Gen. Kirby Smith,1who them back after a severe struggle, had that morning left Piedmont, and steadily advancing until checked. fifteen miles distant, with the remainby a heavy fire of artillery from bat- ing brigade of Gen. Johnston's army, teries on the hights above the road, appeared on the field. Cheer after supported by a brigade of Rebel cheer burst from the Rebel hosts, but infantry strongly posted behind now so downcast, as this timely rebreastworks. A gallant charge by ënforcement rushed to the front of the 2d Maine and 3d Connecticut the battle. Smith almost instantly
of the slain. The 8th Georgia regiment had battalions retired: the slaughter for the moment suffered heavily, being exposed, as it took and was deplorable, and has filled many a Southern maintained its position, to a fire from the enemy, home with life-long sorrow. already posted within a hundred yards of their “ Under this inexorable stress, the retreat front and right, sheltered by fences and other continued until arrested by the energy and resocover. It was at this time that Lieut. Col. Gard- | lution of Gen. Bee, supported by Bartow and ner was severely wounded, as also several other Evans, just in the rear of the Robinson House, valuable officers; the Adjutant of the regiment, and Hampton's Legion, which had been already Lieut. Branch, was killed, and the horse of the advanced, and was in position near it. regretted Bartow was shot under him. The 4th "Imboden's battery, which had been handled Alabama also suffered severely from the deadly with marked skill, but whose men were almost fire of the thousands of muskets which they so exhausted, and the two pieces of Walton's batdauntlessly fronted, under the immediate leader tery, under Lieut. Richardson, being threatened ship of Bee himself. Its brave Colonel, E. J. by the enemy's infantry on the left and front, Jones, was dangerously wounded, and many gal were also obliged to fall back. Imboden, leaving lant officers fell, slain or hors de combat.
a disabled piece on the ground, retired until he "Now, however, with the surging mass of met Jackson's brigade, while Richardson joined orer 14,000 Federal infantry pressing on their the main body of his battery near the Lewis front, and under the incessant fire of at least House." twenty pieces of artillery, with the fresh brig
12 A Connecticut traitor. ado3 of Sherman and Keyes approaching the
13 The Richmond Dispatch of August 1st has a litter already in musket-range-our lines gave back, but under orders from Gen. Bee.
spirited account of the battle, by an eye-witness, . - The enemy, maintaining their fire, pressed writing at Manassas Junction, July 22d; from their swelling masses onward as our shattered | which we extract the following:
ELZEY'S CHARGE-ROUT OF OUR FORCES. 543 fell from his horse, wounded; but panic-stricken. Elzey's and Early's 15 the command of his brigade was fresh battalions filled the woods on promptly assumed by Col. Arnold their right, extending rapidly toward Elzey, 14 who pressed forward, backed its rear, firing on them from under by the whole reässured and exultant cover, and seeming, by their shots and Rebel host, who felt that the day cries, to be innumerable. Two or was won. Our soldiers, who had three of our regiments recoiled, and been thirteen hours marching and then broke, rushing down to the Run. fighting, weary, hungry, thirsty, con- Jefferson Davis, who had left Richtinually encountering fresh Rebel mond at 6 A. M., reached the Junction regiments, and never seeing even a at 4, and galloped to the battle-field company hurrying to their own sup- just in time, it was said, to witness port, became suddenly dismayed and the advance of his cavalry, 1,500
"Between 2 and 3 o'clock, large numbers of cheer from our men went up, and we knew the men were leaving the field, some of them battle had been won." wounded, others exhausted by the long struggle,
The Louisville Courier, a thoroughly Secession who gave us gloomy reports; but, as the firing on both sides continued steadily, we felt sure that
sheet, had an account from its correspondent, our brave Southerners had not been conquered "Se De Kay," who was an officer in the Kenby the overwhelming hordes of the North. It tucky battalion attached to Gen. Johnston's
army, which reached the battle-field among the at this hour hung trembling in the balance. We had lost numbers of our most distinguished offi
last, and who, writing from Manassas, Monday, cers. Gens. Bartow and Bee had been stricken
July 22d, after stating that Beauregard had down; Lieut. Col. Johnson, of the Hampton | been driven two miles, says: Legion, had been killed; Col. Hampton had "The fortunes of the day were evidently been wounded. But there was at hand the fear
against us. Some of our best officers had been less General whose reputation as a commander | slain, and the flower of our army lay strewn was staked on this battle: Gen. Beauregard
upon the field, ghastly in death or gaping with promptly offered to lead the Hampton Legion wounds. At noon, the cannonading is described into action, which he executed in a style un as terrific. It was an incessant roar for more surpassed and unsurpassable. Gen. Beauregard than two hours, the havoc and devastation at rode up and down our lines, between the enemy this time being fearful. McDowell, with the aid and his own men, regardless of the heavy fire, of Patterson's division of 20,000 men, had nearly cheering and encouraging our troops. About outflanked us, and they were just in the act of posthis time, a shell struck his horse, taking his
sessing themselves of the railway to Richmond.
Then all would have been lost. But, most opporMessrs. Ferguson and Hayward. Gen. Beau tunely-I may say providentially--at this juncture, regard's Aids deserve honorable mention, par Gen. Johnston, with the remnant of his divisionticularly those just named, and Cols. W. Porcher our army, as we fondly call it, for we have been Miles, James Chestnut, John L. Manning, and A. friends and brothers in camp and field for three R. Chisholm. Gen. Johnston also threw him
months-reüppeared and made one other desperate self into the thickest of the fight, seizing the
struggle to obtain the vantage-ground. Elzey's colors of a Georgia regiment, and rallying them
brigade of Marylanders and Virginians led the to the charge. His staff signalized themselves
charge; and right manfully did they execute the by their intrepidity, Col. Thomas being killed
work." and Major Mason wounded.
"Your correspondent heard Gen. Johnston 14 A Marylander who did not go with his State. exclaim to Gen. Cocke, just at the critical mo
15 Beauregard's report of the battle says: ment, 'Oh, for four regiments!' His wish was answered; for in the distance our reënforcements " Col. Early, who, by some mischance, did not appeared. The tide of battle was turned in our receive orders until 2 o'clock, which had been favor by the arrival of Gen. Kirby Smith, from sent him at noon, came on the ground immediWinchester, with 4,000 men of Gen. Johnston's ately after Elzey, with Kemper's 7th Virginia, division. Gen. Smith heard, while on the Ma Hay's 7th Louisiana, and Barksdale's 13th Misnassas railroad cars, the roar of battle. He sissippi regiments. This brigade, by the personal stopped the train, and hurried his troops across direction of Gen. Johnston, was marched by the the fields to the point just where he was most Holkham house, across the fields to the left, needed. They were at first supposed to be the entirely around the woods through which Elzey enemy, their arrival at that point of the field had passed, and under a severe fire, into a pobeing entirely unexpected. The enemy fell sition in line of battle near Chinn's house, outback, and a panic seized them. Cheer after flanking the enemy's right.”