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friends. This stupendous trust they cannot sent? They freely concede to us our conput from them, if they would. Emancipa- | scientious convictions, our rights, and all tion, were it possible, would be rebellion | our privileges: should we not as freely conagainst Providence, and destruction to the | cede to them theirs ? Why should we concolored race in our land. We at the North tend? Why paralyze business, turn thourid ourselves of no responsibility by assum sands of the industrious and laborious poor ing an attitude of hostility to Slavery, and out of employment, sunder the last ties of thus sundering the bonds of State fellow affection that can bind these States together, ship; we only put it out of our power to do destroy our once prosperous and happy nathe good which both humanity and religion tion, and perhaps send multitudes to premademand. Should we not rather recognize ture graves-and all for what? Is not such the Providence of God, in His placing such a course a struggle of arrogant assumption a vast multitude of the degraded and de against the Providence of the Most IỈigh? pendent sons of Africa in this favored land, and, if persisted in, will it not surely bring and cheerfully coöperate, by all needful | down His heavy and prolonged judgments labors and sacrifices, with His benevolent upon us?". design to save and not to destroy them? Under a Providential dispensation, lifting

Such were the means whereby them up from the degradation and miseries of indolence and vice, and exacting of them many conservative and Christian due and needful labor, they can certainly be men were intent on preserving our trained and nurtured, as many have been, for the services and joys of heaven; and, if

National unity, and reviving the the climate and institutions of the South are sentiment of fraternity among our such that our fellow-citizens there can afford

people, in March and the beginning to take the onerous care of them, in return for their services, should we not gladly con- of April, 1861.

XXVIII.

FORT SUMTER.

WHETHER the hesitation of the document, that he fully purposed, to Executive to reënforce Fort Sumter the extent of his ability, to maintain was real or only apparent, the re- the authority and enforce the laws serve evinced with regard to his of the Union on every acre of the intentions was abundantly justified. geographical area of our country. The President, in his Inaugural Ad Hence, secessionists in Washington, dress, had kindly and explicitly set as well as South of that city, uniforth his conception of the duties formly denounced that manifesto as and responsibilities assumed in taking a declaration of war, or as rendering his oath of office. No man of decent war inevitable. The naked dishonunderstanding who can read our lan-esty of professed Unionists inquiring guage had any reason or right to —as even Senator Douglas,' for two doubt, after hearing or perusing that weeks, persisted in doing-whether

? Mr. Douglas—though one of the most zeal- to demonstrate that the Republicans ought to ous advocates of the Crittenden Compromise, and act, in accordance not with their own principles though he, as such, strangely employed all his and convictions, but with his—and who talked great ability throughout the winter of '60-'61 ) and acted in this vein through most of the Sen.

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FUTILITY OF THE "PEACE CLAMOR.

441

n LIIV

S

Mr. Lincoln intended peace or war, . sealed against the commerce and was a sore trial to human patience. navigation of the other half, save on A government which cannot uphold payment of duties utterly unknown and vindicate its authority in the to our laws; while goods could be country which it professes to rule is entered at those ports at quite other to be pitied; but one which does not (and generally lower) rates of impost even attempt to enforce respect and than those established by Congress. obedience is a confessed imposture Hence, importers, with good reason, and sham, and deserves to be hooted refused to pay the established duties off the face of the earth. Nay, more: at Northern ports until the same it was impossible for ours to exist on should be exacted at Southern as the conditions prescribed by its do- well; so that three months' acquiesmestic foes. No government can en-'cence by the President in what was dure without revenue; and the Federal untruly commended as the “Peace Constitution (Art. I. $ 9) expressly policy,” would have sunk the counprescribes that

try into anarchy and whelmed the “No preference shall be given, by any | Government in hopeless

Government in hopeless ruin. regulation of commerce or revenue, to the Still, no one is required to achieve ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be

the impossible, though to attempt obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties, in an

what to others will seem such may other."

sometimes be accepted by the unselfBut here were the ports of nearly ish and intrepid as a duty; and this half our Atlantic and Gulf coasts practical question confronted the

ate's called Session, which followed yet, when the territories, and that you were now pursuing war actually grew out of the conflicting preten- | the policy of exccluding the Southern people from sions of the Union and the Confederacy, took

| all the territories of the United States. * *

There never has been a time since the Governnobly and heartily the side of leis whole country.

ment was founded when the right of the slaveBut, even before the close of the called Session, holders to emigrate to the territories, to carry a decided change in his attitude, if not in his con- | with them their slaves, and to hold them on an ceptions, was manifest. On the 25th of March, | equal footing with all other property, was as replying to a plea for 'Peace,' on the basis of No

| fully and distinctly recognized in all the territories as

at this time, and that, too, by the unanimous vote Coërcion,' by Senator J. C. Breckinridge, of Ken

of the Republican party in both Houses of Congress. tucky, he thus thoroughly exposed the futility “The Senator from Kentucky [Mr. Breckinof the main pretext for Disunion:

ridge] has told you that the Southern States,

still in the Union, will never be satisfied to re"From the beginning of this Government | main in it unless they get terms that will give down to 1859, Slavery was prohibited by Con them either a right, in common with all the gress in some portion of the territories of the other States, to emigrate into the territories, or United States. But now, for the first time in the that will secure to them their rights in the terhistory of this Government, there is no foot of ritories on the principle of an equitable division. ground in America where Slavery is prohibited by | These are the only terms on which, as he says, act of Congress. You, of the other side of this those Southern States now in the Union will conchamber, by the unanimous vote of every Re sent to remain. I wish to call the attention of publican in this body, and of every Republican · that distinguished Senator to the fact that, unin the House of Representatives, have organized der the law as it now stands, the South has all all the territories of the United States on the the rights which he claims. First, Southern men principle of non-intervention, by Congress, with have the right to emigrate into all the territories, the question of Slavery-leaving the people to and to carry their Slave property with them, on do as they please, subject only to the limitations | an equality with the citizens of the other States. of the Constitution. Hence, I think the Senator Secondly, they have an equitable partition of the from Kentucky fell into a gross error of fact as | territories assigned by law, viz. : allis Slave Terriwell as of law when he said, the other day, that tory up to the thirty-seventh degree, instead of up to you had not abated one jot of your creed--that the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes you had not abandoned your aggressive policy in | half degree more than they claim."

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President on the threshold: "What | ton on the 20th, and had a long means have I at command wherewith interview with Gov. Pickens and to compel obedience to the laws ? Gen. Beauregard, with reference, it Now, the War Department had, for was said, to the terms on which nearly eight years prior to the last Fort Sumter should be evacuated, if few weeks, been directed successively evacuated at all, the 25th brought to by Jefferson Davis and John B. Charleston Col. Ward H. Lamon, a Floyd. The better portion of our confidential agent of the President, little army had been ordered by who, after an interview with the Floyd to Texas, and there put under Confederate authorities, was permitthe command of Gen. Twiggs, by ted to visit the fort, and hold unrewhom it had already been betrayed stricted intercourse with Major Aninto the hands of his fellow-traitors. derson, who apprised the GovernThe arms of the Union had been sed- ment through him that their scanty ulously transferred by Floyd from the stock of provisions would suffice his Northern to the Southern arsenals. little garrison only till the middle of The most effective portion of the April. Col. Lamon returned immeNavy had, in like manner, been dis- diately to Washington, and was said persed over distant seas. But, so to have reported there, that, in Major early as the 21st of March, at the Anderson's opinion as well as in his close of a long and exciting Cabinet own, the relief of the fortress was session, it appears to have been defi- impracticable.. . nitively settled that Fort Sumter was By this time, however, very denot to be surrendered without a strug-cided activity began to be manifest gle; and, though Col. G. W. Lay, an in the Navy Yards still held by the Aid of Gen. Scott, had visited Charles Union. Such ships of war as were

ay

2 The New York Herald of April 9th has a dis- | laws, and to do it vigorously; but not in an agpatch from its Washington correspondent, con

gressive spirit. When the Administration defirming one sent twenty-four hours earlier to an

termined to order Major Anderson out of Fort

Sumter, some days since, they also determined nounce the determination of the Executive to

to do so on one condition: namely, that the fort provision Fort Sumter, which thus explains the and the property in it should not be molested, but negotiations, and the seeming hesitation, if not allowed to remain as it is. The authorities of the vacillation, of March:

Confederacy would not agree to this, but mani"The peace policy of the Administration has

fested a disposition to get possession of the fort been taken advantage of by the South, while, at

and United States property therein. The Govthe same time, their representatives have been

ernment would not submit to any such humiliahere begging the President to keep hands off.

tion. . 1 While he was holding back, in the hope that a "It was immediately determined to keep forbearing disposition, on the part of the authori Major Anderson in Fort Sumter, and to supply ties of the seceded States, would be manifested, him with provisions forthwith. *** There is to his great surprise, he found that, instead of no desire to put additional men into the fort, peace, they were investing every fort and navy unless resistance is offered to the attempt to yard with Rebel troops and fortifications, and | furnish Major Anderson with supplies. The actually preparing to make war upon the Fede- | fleet will not approach Charleston with hostile ral Government. Not only this, but, while the intent; but, in view of the great military prepaAdministration was yielding to the cry against rations about Fort Sumter, the supply vessels coërcion, for the purpose, if possible, of averting will go prepared to reply promptly to any rothe calamity of civil war, the very men who sistance of a warlike character that may be were loudest against coërcion were preparing for offered to a peaceful approach to the fort. The it; the Government was losing strength with the responsibility of opening the war will be thrown people; and the President and his Cabinet were upon the parties who set themselves in defiance charged with being imbecile and false to the to the Government. It is sincerely hoped, by high trust conferred upon them.

the Federal authorities here, that the leaders of "At last, they have determined to enforce the | the secessionists will not open their batteries."

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