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sisting of eighty men, was organized | The firm of Russell, Majors & in Savannah, and reached Charleston Waddell held a very large contract December 23d. Capt. N. L. Coste, for the transportation of army supof the U. S. revenue service, in com- plies from Leavenworth and other mand of the cutter William Aiken, points on the Missouri river to the in Charleston harbor, turned her over army stationed at Camp Floyd, in to the State authorities, and enlisted, Utah; under which they were to rewith his crew, in the service of South ceive from the Treasury about one Carolina. This day, the Palmetto, million dollars per annum. The conor South Carolina, flag was formally tractors being pressed for funds, Mr. raised over the Custom-House and Floyd had been induced to accept the Post-Office at Charleston; and their drafts on his department, in anit was announced next morning that ticipation of future service, to the Gov. Pickens had been tendered the amount of nearly or quite a million services of volunteers from Georgia of dollars. These acceptances, being and Alabama, as well as from all manifestly irregular, could with diffiparts of South Carolina.
culty, and but to a moderate extent, Mr. Jacob Thompson, Secretary of be negotiated; so that the embarrassthe Interior, having left his post to ment of the contractors was thereby visit North Carolina in the character scarcely mitigated. Under these cirof a Secession Commissioner from cumstances, it appears, Mr. Russell Mississippi, a heavy defalcation was had been made acquainted with Mr. discovered in his Department. A Bailey, and had, by some means, inSouth Carolina clerk named Godard duced the latter to supply him with Bailey, who was custodian of a large a large amount of bonds from the amount of State bonds belonging to safe under his control, substituting the Indian Trust Fund, had abstract therefor Mr. Floyd's acceptances ed therefrom bonds and coupons aforesaid. The bonds he had hypoamounting in the aggregate to $870,- thecated in Wall-street and raised 000, and had disappeared. Mr. money thereon. As our national sky Thompson was notified by letter of darkened, the bonds depreciated, and the fraud, and, returning, o called at the lenders called on Mr. Russell for once upon the President to announce additional security, which he furit. An investigation was forthwith nished in the shape of more bonds, ordered; but neither the key of the supplied by Bailey; who, finding safe nor the clerk who had charge of himself inextricably involved, adit could be found. Mr. Bailey was dressed, on the 18th, a letter to Secreat length discovered, but could not tary Thompson, disclosing the more or would not produce the key. The material facts, and pleading that he Department was then surrounded by had taken the bonds only to save the a police force, which no clerk was honor of Secretary Floyd, which, he allowed to pass, the safe broken open, was assured, had been compromised and the extent of the robbery dis- by his advances to Russell & Co. covered. An examination of Mr. He did this on the faith of promises Bailey elicited the following facts: that all should be made right in due
5 December 24th.
6 December 25th.
· THE UNION GOING TO WRECK.
season: but, being called upon by | tion that the course on which the the Indian Bureau for the coupons, President had decided was a fatally payable January 1st, on the abstracted mistaken one, and led directly to securities, he found himself unable to National subversion and ruin. Atrespond, and was driven to a confes- torney-General Black—a lifelong and sion. The Government being at intimate personal friend of the Presithat moment penniless, the revenue dent-took charge, by his direction, shrunk to less than half its ordinary of the State Department. dimensions by the stoppage of im- Messrs. R. W. Barnwell, James L. portations, and the necessity for bor- Orr, and ex-Gov. Adams, Commisrowing urgent, this development, sioners from the State of South Carocasting doubt on the integrity of lina, reached Washington on the men high in authority, gave a stag- 26th, under instructions to negotiate gering blow to the public credit. with the Federal Executive a partiThe Grand Jury at Washington in- tion of all the properties and interdicted' Floyd on two counts: first, ests of the sovereign and independent for malfeasance; second, for conspi- State of South Carolina in the Union racy with Bailey and Russell to de- from which she had seceded. Every fraud the Government; but he was one of them knew perfectly that the by this time far from that city, ab- President had no more constitutional sorbed in the work of luring Virginia power or right to enter upon such a into the toils of treason.
negotiation than he had to cede the The disintegration of the Cabinet country bodily to Russia, France, or had commenced so early as December Great Britain. They were, of course, 10th, when Mr. Howell Cobb, thor- received civilly, and treated respectoughly in the counsels of the seces- fully, but informed that the President sionists, resigned the control of the could only regard and meet them as Treasury, whereof the bankrupt and citizens of the United States. They hopeless condition supplied him with left, on their return, nine days afteran excuse, though not the reason, for ward; sending farewell letters to the his retirement. Mr. Philip Francis President, which are scarcely average Thomas, of Md., previously Commis- samples of diplomatic suavity. sioner of Patents, was appointed in Georgia having given a large popuhis stead. Gen. Lewis Cass resigned lar majority for Secession, her authe post of Secretary of State on the thorities immediately took military 14th, directly after a long and ex-possession of the Federal arsenal at citing Cabinet session. He did so Augusta, as also of Forts Pulaski and because he could not consent to ren- Jackson, commanding the approaches der himself responsible for, or be im- by sea to Savannah. plicated in, the President's refusal to North Carolina had not voted to reënforce, provision, and sustain Maj. secede, yet Gov. Ellis simultaneously Anderson and his little force, holding seized the U. S. Arsenal at Fayettethe forts in Charleston harbor. He ville, with Fort Macon, and other did not rush into the newspapers; fortifications commanding the apyet he made no secret of his convic- proaches to Beaufort and Wilming
oughív en Mr. H Carly as De
7 On the 30th.
8 January 2, 1861.
patch picewise, toe; but t
ton. Having done so, Gov. E. | likewise seized and garrisoned by coolly wrote to the War Department State troops. The Federal Mint and that he had taken the step to pre- Custom-House at New Orleans were serve the forts from seizure by mobs! | left untouched until February 1st,
In Alabama, the Federal arsenal when they, too, were taken possession at Mobile was seized on the 4th, by of by the State authorities. order of Gov. Moore. It contained In St. Louis, the Custom-House, large quantities of arms and muni- Sub-Treasury, and Post Office were tions. Fort Morgan, commanding garrisoned by a handful of Federal the approaches to Mobile, was like soldiers as a protection against a wise seized, and garrisoned by State similar movement. troops.
Mr. Thomas, after a very few days' The steamer Star of the West left service, resigned control of the TreaNew York unannounced, during the sury, and was succeeded by Gen. night of January 5th, laden with re- John A. Dix, of New York. ënforcements and supplies for Fort In Florida, Fort Barrancas and the Sumter. A dispatch from that city Navy Yard at Pensacola were seized reached the South Carolina authori- by Florida and Alabama forces on ties next day, advising them of her the 13th; Commander Armstrong destination and objects. Secretary surrendering them without a strugThompson likewise sent a dispatch gle. He ordered Lieut. Slemmer, from Washington to the same effect, likewise, to surrender Forts Pickens directly after leaving the Cabinet and McRae; but the intrepid suborcouncil in which he had ascertained dinate defied the order, and, withthe facts. He resigned his office on drawing his small force from Fort the 8th, asserting that the attempt to McRae to the stronger and less acreënforce Fort Sumter was a viola- cessible Fort Pickens, announced his tion of the promises of the Executive. determination to hold out to the last. The Star of the West, having 250 He was soon after besieged therein soldiers and ample provisions on by a formidable volunteer force; and board, appeared off the bar at Charles- a dispatch from Pensacola announced ton on the 9th. Attempting to that “Fort McRae is being occupied steam up the harbor to Fort Sumter, and the guns manned by the allied she was fired upon from Fort Moul- forces of Florida, Alabama, and Mistrie and a battery on Morris Island, sissippi.” and, being struck by a shot, put. Col. Hayne, as agent of Gov. about, and left for New York, with Pickens, reached Washington on the out even communicating with Major 12th; and on the 16th demanded the Anderson.
surrender of Fort Sumter, as essenIn Louisiana, the Federal arsenal tial to a good understanding between at Baton Rouge was seized by order the two nations of South Carolina of Gov. Moore on the 11th. Forts and the United States. The LegisJackson and St. Philip, commanding lature of the former had, on the 14th, the passage up the Mississippi to formally resolved, that 6 any attempt New Orleans, and Fort Pike, at the by the Federal Government to reënentrance of Lake Pontchartrain, were | force Fort Sumter will be regarded
REBEL SEIZURES OF SOUTHERN FORTS, ETC.: 413 as an act of open hostility, and a de- of dollars could hardly have replaced, claration of war."
in that crisis, the property thus filched The revenue cutter Cass, stationed from the Republic. And, to add to at Mobile, was turned over by Capt. the extent of the disaster, the ship J. J. Morrison to the authorities of Star of the West, which, after its reAlabama at the end of January. The turn from its abortive mission to Fort McClellan, Capt. Breshwood, station- Sumter, was dispatched, laden with ed on the Mississippi below New Or- munitions and supplies, for the army leans, was, in like manner, handed of the frontier, went into the harbor over to those of Louisiana. Gen. Dix of Indianola utterly unsuspicious of had sent down a special agent to se- the transformation which had been cure them, but he was too late. The there effected, and became 1o an easy telegraph dispatch whereby Gen. Dix prey to the exultant Rebels. directed him, “If any person attempts The defensive fortifications located to haul down the American flag, shoot within the seceding States were some him on the spot,” sent an electric thirty in number, mounting over three thrill through the loyal heart of the thousand guns, and having cost at country.
least Twenty Millions of dollars. Finally, tidings reached Washing- Nearly all these had been seized and ton, about the end of February, that appropriated by the Confederates beBrig.-Gen. Twiggs, commanding the fore Mr. Lincoln's inauguration, with department of Texas, had disgrace- the exception of Fortress Monroe (Virfully betrayed his trust, and turned ginia), Fort Sumter (South Carolina), over his entire army, with allo the Fort Pickens (Florida), and the fortposts and fortifications, arms, muni resses on Key West and the Tortutions, horses, equipments, etc., to Gen. gas, off the Florida coast. To offset Ben. M‘Culloch, representing the au- these, they had full possession of Fort thorities of Texas, now fully launched Macon, North Carolina, though that upon the rushing tide of treason. State had utterly refused to unite in The Union lost by that single act at the conspiracy, with the extensive and least half its military force, with the costly Navy Yard at Pensacola, and State of Texas, and the control of our the Southern Arsenals, which their Mexican frontier; while two millions Floyd had crammed" with arms
9 The following is a list of the property given up to the State of Texas by Gen. Twiggs: , 1,800 mules, valued at $50 each . . $90,000 500 wagons, " " 140 " .. 70,000 950 horses, 16 6 150 16 ., 142,500 500 harness, " 66 50 " . . Tools, wagon materials, iron, nails,
State at least a million and a half of dollars.--
horse and mule-shoes . . . . 250,000 Corn (at this port) ..... 7,000 Clothing . . . . . . . . . . 150,000 Commissary stores . . . . . . 75,000 Ordnance stores . . . . . . . 400,000
11 Mr. Edward A. Pollard, in his "Southern [Rebel] History of the War," page 40, thus sums up the cheap initial conquests of the Confederacy:
On the incoming of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln, on the 4th of March, the rival government of the South had perfected its organization; the separation had been widened and envenomed by the ambidexterity and perfidy of Pres
Total . . . . . . . . $1,209,500 I still hoped for a peaceful accomplishment of their exclusive of public buildings to which the Fed independence, and deplored war between the two eral Government has a title. Much of the prop- sections, as 'a policy detrimental to the civilized erty is estimated at the original cost, its value in world. The revolution, in the mean time, h Texas being much greater, and worth to the 1 rapidly gathered, not only in moral power, but in
and munitions with direct reference. The Convention took place accordto this contingency.12 Add to these ingly, and a provisional framework the Army of the Frontier, with all of government was adopted for “the its arms, munitions, trains, animals, Confederate States of America” on and provisions, with the Southern the 9th; which was superseded by a revenue-cutters, Mints, Custom-Hous- permanent Constitution, 14 substantiales, Sub-Treasuries, etc. (over half a ly a copy of the Federal Constitution, million of dollars in gold having been except in these particulars: The seized in that at New Orleans alone); President and Vice-President are and it may be safely estimated that | chosen for six years; and the Presithe Rebellion had possessed itself of dent may not be reëlected while in Thirty Millions' worth of Federal office. He may not remove from property before Mr. Buchanan left office any functionaries, but members the White House; which was in- of his Cabinet, without referring the creased to Forty Millions by the sei- same, with his reasons therefor, to zure of Harper's Ferry Arsenal, and the Senate. The heads of departthe Norfolk Navy Yard, with its ments may each, by law, be accorded ships of war, munitions, and two a seat on the floor of either House, thousand cannon, before a single blow with the privilege of discussing any was struck on the side of the Union. measures pertaining to his depart
The Convention of South Carolina ment. This Constitution further called, on motion of Mr. R. Barn- provides that well Rhett, a Convention of such
"No bounties shall be granted from the slaveholding States as should, mean- Treasury, nor shall any duties or taxes on time, have seceded from the Union, importations be levied to promote or foster to meet at Montgomery, Alabama,
any branch of industry.”
66 The citizens of each State * * * * shall February 4th, which was acceded to have the right of transit and sojourn in any
ton throughout Buchanan's Administration, himself one of the original traitors, and always in their counsels, says:
the means of war and muniments of defense. Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney had been captured by the South Carolina troops; Fort Pulaski, the defense of the Savannah, had been taken ; the Arsenal at Mount Vernon, Alabama, with 20,000 stand of arms, had been seized by the Alabama troops; Fort Morgan, in Mobile Bay, had been taken; Forts Jackson, St. Philip, and Pike, near New Orleans, had been captured by the Louisiana troops; the New Orleans Mint and CustomHouse had been taken; the Little Rock Arsenal had been seized by the Arkansas troops (though Arkansas had refused to secedel; and, on the 16th of February, Gen. Twiggs had transferred the public property in Texas to the State authorities. All of these events had been accomplished without bloodshed. Abolitionism and Fanaticism had not yet lapped blood. But reflecting men saw that the peace was deceitful and temporizing; that the temper of the North was impatient and dark; and that, if all history was not a lie, the first incident of bloodshed would be the prelude to a war of monstrous proportions."
12 Mr. E. Pollard, aforesaid, writing his Southern' History of the struggle at Richmond, after having been in public employment at Washing
"It had been supposed that the Southern people, poor in manufactures as they were, and in the haste for the mighty contest that was to ensuie, would find themselves but illy provided with arms to contend with an enemy rich in the means and munitions of war. This disadvantage had been provided against by the timely act of one man. Mr. Floyd, of Virginia, when Secretary of War under Mr. Buchanan's Administration, had, by a single order, effected the transfer of 115,000 improved muskets and rifles from the Springfield Armory and Watervliet Arsenal to different Arsenals at the South. Adding to these the number of arms distributed by the Federal Government to the States in preceding years of our history, and those purchased by the States and citizens, it was safely estimated that the South entered upon the war with one hundred and fifty thousand small arms of the most approved modern pattern and the best in the world."
13 December 27th.
14 Adopted March 11th.