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REPUBLICAN CONCESSIONS AND PROFFERS. 405 tion as her people should see fit to VI. There were very many Repubframe and adopt-New Mexico be- licans—and those by no means withing at that moment a Slave Terri-out consideration or influence—who tory by act of her Legislature—to would have cheerfully consented to a say nothing of the Dred Scott decis peaceful withdrawal from the Union ion. That would have given the of the Cotton States, with such others South a firm hold on nearly every as might have chosen to accompany acre of our present territory whereon them, had these accorded time for she could rationally hope ever to plant decently effecting and assenting to Slavery- provided the people of such a separation, after first allowNew Mexico should see fit to ingraft ing the Free States a fair opportunity Slavery on their State, as they seem to submit to and urge upon the peoed, under Democratic training, to ple of the South their reasons for have done on their Territory.
deprecating it. To this end, the IV The House—which had be calling of a National Convention and come strongly Republican through the election of delegates thereto were the withdrawal of most of the rep- deemed indispensable prerequisites. resentatives from Cotton States - Such a Convention could have acted passed the conciliatory and practical decisively on the main question and resolves reported by Mr. Corwin all subordinate points—such as the from the Committee of Thirty-three rightful disposal, by apportionment
-passed them by an overwhelming or otherwise, of the public lands majority. The Senate would have and other property belonging to the promptly concurred, had it been inti Union, with the public debt owed by it. mated or probable that such concur VII. The North did, as we have rence would have arrested and rolled seen, organize three new Territories back the surge of Secession.
at this Session, in utter silence reV. Both Houses united in passing specting Slavery, and in such manthe Joint Resolve from said Commit- ner as left “the South' in full possestee which, being ratified by the re sion of all the rights accruing to her quired proportion of the States, would from the Federal Constitution, as exhave precluded forever any action of pounded in the Dred Scott decision. Congress adverse to the perpetuation This was done, not in accordance of Slavery in such States as should with the views and feelings of the desire such perpetuation. This, too, Republicans, who reported and passwould have been readily perfected, ed the bills, but as a peace-offering had “the South' evinced any inclina- and a concession to those Southern tion to be satisfied and pacified there- Unionists who were constantly proby. But it was very generally treat- testing that they cared nothing for the ed by them as of no value. Senator extension of Slavery-in fact, were Mason, of Virginia, spoke of it deri- rather opposed to it, but would sively as, in substance, one of the not tamely submit to see a stigma planks of the Chicago [Republican] placed on their section and her “instiPlatform. And the artillery of Se- tution' by Northern votes. cession soon dispelled all desire of, Yet all this was fruitless, because or motive for, ratifying it.
| the North, in the full flush of a long
awaited and fairly achieved triumph, 1 by the conquest of more territory, did not see fit to repudiate the cher- and by the maintenance at all hazards ished and time-honored principle for of Slavery in Cuba, etc.— and that which it had patiently, ardently strug- all anti-Slavery discussion or exposgled. No other successful party was tulation must be systematically supever before required, at such a mo- pressed, as sedition, if not treasonment, to surrender its principle, its such was the gist of the Southern consistency, its manhood, on peril of requirement. A long-haired, raving National disruption and overthrow. Abolitionist in the furthest North, There was no concession from the according to conservative ideas, not other side--no real compromise-but merely disturbed the equilibrium of a simple, naked exaction that the Southern society, but undermined the Republicans should stultify and dis- fabric of our National prosperity. He grace themselves, by admitting that must be squelched, or there could they were fundamentally wrong, and be no further Union. Haman, surthat, instead of electing their Presi- rounded by the power and pomp of dent,they should have been defeated. his dazzling exaltation, bitterly says,
What the South' and its friends “All this availeth me nothing, so really required of the North was part- long as I see Mordecai, the Jew, sitnership, coöperation, complicity,in the ting at the king's gate.” 22 : work of extending, diffusing, and forti- Hence the South' would accord no fying Slavery, such as it had secured in time, allow no canvass by Northern the annexation of Texas. That Slave- men of the Slave States in the hope ry was a great National interest—the of disabusing their people of the broad and solid base of our industrial prejudice that we were their natural, economy and commercial prosperity implacable enemies. They gave --the slaves confined, indeed, to one us but this alternative" Consent to section of the Union, because there Disunion-let us wrest from the Remost profitably employed, but labor- public such portion of it as we choose ing for the benefit of Northern 20 man- to have—or meet us in the shock of ufacturers and merchants as much battle! Your country or your as for that of Southern planters and life!" factors that we must all watch and —And so we were plunged into work to give that interest wider scope | the horrors of Civil War.
19 The Cincinnati Enquirer of January 15, 1861, selors for the peace of the nation, then may we has a letter from 'A Citizen of Highland Coun- rejoice in the prospect of restoring our country ty,' which puts the case squarely thus:
to triat prosperity and happiness which we had "There is only one possible remedy which can
before the spirit of Abolitionism and of hate
blasted this fair heritage of our fathers. Let save the country, and restore harmony and peace;
the entire South to the border, including Kenand that is a total abandonment of the dogmas
tucky, Maryland, Virginia, and Missouri, take a of Lincoln, and the adoption of another and op
bold, dignified, and patriotic position, and deposite object--the recognition of the equality of
mand as a right that which the North--redeemed all the States in the territories of the United
from the curse of Abolitionism-will have the States, and the strict enforcement of all the laws
magnanimity and patriotism to yield." protecting and securing slave property under the Constitution. This principle is recognized in the
20 See Judge Woodward's speech, page 364. proposition of Senator Crittenden; and when the 21 See Mayor Henry's speech; also his letter madness and violence of such men as John Sher
forbidding G. W. Curtis's lecture, pages 363–7. man, Ben. Wade, and Horace Greeley shall be humbled, and when wise and patriotic statesmen
22 Esther v., 13. shall be looked for and found as guides and coun- ! 23 See Senator Clingman, page 373.
IF Hudibras was right in his as- / apprehensive, and paralyzed, it was sumption, that there is and can be no noted that at Baltimore, though no fighting where one party gives all the formal celebration was had, people blows--the other being content with seemed relieved and cheerful; the meekly and patiently receiving them, streets were gayly crowded, and busithen it might be plausibly contended ness was better. At Washington, Mr. that our great Civil War was initia- Garnett, of Virginia, exultingly anted by the bombardment of Fort Sum- nounced the fact of South Carolina's ter, or by the attempt to supply its secession in the House; whereupon, famishing garrison, some weeks after three or four Southrons clapped their Mr. Lincoln's inauguration. But Wit hands. There was no further public stands opposed to Reason in this case, manifestation in Congress; and none as in many others. The first at- north of the Virginia line, save in tempt in the interest of Secession to Wilmington, as aforesaid. dispossess the Union, by force, of any A mere handful of Federal troops, property or position held by it, even under Maj. Robert Anderson, watchthough not seriously opposed, was as ed rather than garrisoned the forts in truly an act of war as though it had Charleston harbor. Of these, Fort been desperately resisted, at the cost Moultrie, though the older and weakof hundreds of lives.
er, was mainly tenanted by the solThe Secession of South Carolina' diers, being the more convenient to was hailed with instant and general the city; but it could not have been exultation by the plotters of Disunion held a day against a serious assault. in nearly every Slave State. There Its garrison found themselves sudwere celebrations, with parades, mu- denly surrounded by scowling, deadsic, cannon-firing, speeches, etc., only foes, too numerous to be resisted. that evening or the following day, at During the night of the 26th, Maj. New Orleans, Mobile, Memphis, etc. Anderson properly and prudently Even at Wilmington, Del., where the transferred his entire command to Secessionists were few indeed, the Fort Sumter, taking with them, or event was honored by a salute of | after them, all provisions, munitions, a hundred guns. Senator Andrew etc., that could conveniently be transJohnson was still more honored, on ported. The removal was effected by the 22d, by being burned in effigy by means of two schooners, which made the Secessionists of Memphis. While several trips during the night, passthe Northern cities were anxious, ing directly by the harbor guard-boat
1 December 20, 1860.
at this time and under present circumstances,
means coërcion-war. When the forts are de2 The Charleston Mercury of the 22d said:
manded and refused to be delivered up to those in "The garrison in our harbor will not be . whom is invested the title of eminent domain, strengthened. The reënforcement of the forts, and for whose defense and protection alone they
Nina, and affecting no concealment. , an extensive transfer of arms, espeA full moon was shining in a clear cially of heavy ordnance, from the sky. When all that could be had Alleghany Arsenal near that place to been removed, the remaining gun the South and South-West. That carriages, etc., were burnt, so as to such transfers had been quietly going prevent their use in any future at-on for months, did not reconcile the tack upon Sumter. No resistance stanch Republicans of our Ameriwas offered; perhaps none of a seri- can Birmingham to further operaous nature could have been; for Maj. tions of the kind, now palpably in Anderson's act was evidently unan | the interest of Southern treason. A ticipated in Charleston ; but it was public meeting was called; dispatches gravely complained of as a breach of sent to Washington; and an order obfaith - President Buchanan, it was tained suspending the meditated transimplied, rather than distinctly al- fer. The citizens' meeting was held leged, having promised that the mil on the evening of the 27th ; and its itary status should not be changed, resolves, while they deprecated any without due notice. The news of lawless resistance to official orders, Anderson's movement sent a thrill called urgently on the President to through the hearts of many, who felt purge his Cabinet of every one known that we were silently drifting toward to be in complicity with treason or a sea of fraternal blood.
rebellion against the Federal GovAlmost simultaneously with this ernment and Union. transfer, a popular excitement was John B. Floyd, Secretary of War, aroused in Pittsburgh, Pa., by infor- resigned his post on the 29th, alleging mation that an order had been re- the course of the President, in refusceived from the War Department for ing to order Major Anderson back to
were ceded and built up; and when, the Fed- | garrison and military stores and supplies to Fort eral Government showing a hostile purpose, it. Sumter.” shall become necessary and proper for us to ob- And The Charleston Mercury said: tain possession, then it will be right for the
“Major Anderson alleges that the movement world and Black Republicanism to expect that
was made without orders, and upon his own rethe State, by her authorities, will move in the
sponsibility, and that he was not aware of such premises. The people will obey the call for war,
an understanding. He is a gentleman, and we and take the forts."
will not impugn his word or his motives. But it The Charleston Courier of December 4, 1860, is due to South Carolina and to good faith that has a speech by Mr. Edward M'Crady at a Se- the act of this officer should be repudiated by cession meeting in that city a few days pre
the Government, and that the troops be removed
forthwith from Fort Sumter." viously, which concludes as follows: "I do not counsel any precipitate action; nor
4 The order was as follows: do I fear anything from the forts--they are
“Send immediately to Ship Island, near Balize, ours, not merely in part. They were placed (mouth of Mississippi), 46 cannon, and to Galthere on our soil for our protection; and, when- / veston 78 cannon,” naming the kinds. ever the separation comes, they must fall into The schedule was as follows:
r possession. They will be ours as surely as | 21 ten-inch Columbiads, 15,200 lbs.-319,200 lbs. we secede; and we will secede as surely as the 21 eight-inch ditto 9,240 " =194,040 66 sun will rise to-morrow.”
4 32-pounders (iron), 7,250 " 29,000 “ 3 The Charleston Courier of the 29th said:
46 to Ship Island.
Total weight of metal, 542,240 lbs. “Major Robert Anderson, United States Army, has achieved the unenviable distinction of opening
23 ten-inch Columbiads, 15,200 lbs.=349,600 lbs. civil war between American citizens by an act of
| 48 eight-inch ditto 9,240 6 =443.520 " gross breach of faith. He has, under counsels
| 7 32-pounders (iron), 17,250 “ = 50,750 " of a panic, deserted his post at Fort Moultrie, | 78 to Galveston. and, under false pretexts, has transferred his
Total weight of metal, 843,870 lbs. SOUTH CAROLINA ON THE OFFENSIVE.
409 Fort Moultrie, as his reason. He as- / remained but five hours in Charlesserted that he had promised South ton; having learned within that time Carolina that no change should be that the rulers of South Carolina made in the disposition of our forces would make no promises and enter in Charleston harbor—which is ex into no arrangements which did not ceedingly probable. He asked per- recognize or imply the independence mission to “vindicate our honor, and of their State. He returned directly prevent civil war” by “ withdrawing to Washington, where his report was
the harbor of Charleston." This not of a stormy and protracted Cabinet being accorded, he declared that he meeting could no longer hold his office, Directly after Major Anderson's “under my convictions of patriotism, removal to Fort Sumter, the Federal nor with honor.” The President arsenal in Charleston, containing mildly accepted his resignation, and many thousand stand of arms and a appointed Joseph Holt, of Kentucky, considerable quantity of military to succeed him.
stores, was seized by the volunteers, By the middle of December, Hon. now flocking to that city by direcCaleb Cushing, of Mass., was dis- tion of the State authorities ; Castle patched to Charleston by President | Pinckney, Fort Moultrie, and SulliBuchanan as a Commissioner or con- van's Island, were likewise occupied fidential agent of the Executive. His by them, and their defenses vigorerrand was a secret one. But, so ously enlarged and improved. The far as its object was allowed to tran Custom-House, Post-Office, etc., were spire, he was understood to be the likewise appropriated, without resistbearer of a proffer from Mr. Buchanan ance or commotion; the Federal offithat he would not reënforce Major cers having them in charge being Anderson, nor initiate any hostilities original, active, and ardent Secessionagainst the Secessionists, provided ists. The lights in the light-houses they would evince a like pacific spi were extinguished, and the buoys in rit, by respecting the Federal author the intricate channel of the harbor ity down to the close of his Adminis were removed, so that no ocean craft tration--now but a few weeks distant. could enter or depart without the Gen. Cushing had been in Charleston guidance of a special pilot. Addia few months earlier as an antiDouglas delegate to, and President city and commanding the harbor apof, the Democratic National Conven proaches, were commenced and pushtion, and then stood in high favored rapidly forward; some of them with her aristocracy: on this occa having direct reference, offensive and sion, however, he was soon given to defensive, to Fort Sumter. And still understand that he had fallen from the volunteers came pouring in; grace; that his appearance in the nearly all from the interior of South character of an advocate or represen Carolina; though abundant proffers tative of Federal authority had cast of military aid were received from a sudden mildew on his popularity in all parts of the South. The first that stronghold of Secession. He company from another State, con