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MR. VALLANDIGHAM'S PROJECT.

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all new States annexed or admitted into the law for the case of a failure by the House of Union, or formed or erected within the juris- Representatives to choose a President, and diction of any of said States, or by the junction of the Senate to choose a Vice-President, of two or more of the same, or of parts there | whenever the right of choice shall devolve of, or out of territory now held or hereafter upon them respectively, declaring what offiacquired west of the crest of the Rocky Moun- cer shall then act as President; and such tains and of the Rio Grande, shall constitute officer shall then act accordingly until a another section, to be known as THE PACIFIC. President shall be elected. The Congress

“The States of Delaware, Maryland, Vir- shall also provide by law for a special elecginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Geor- tion for President and Vice-President in gia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisi such case, to be held and completed within ana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, six months of the expiration of the term of and Missouri, and all new States annexed office of the last preceding President, and to or admitted into the Union, or formed or be conducted in all respects as provided for erected within the jurisdiction of any of said in the Constitution for regular elections of States, or by the junction of two or more of the same officers; except that, if the House the same, or of parts thereof, or out of terri- of Representatives shall not choose a Presitory acquired east of the Rio Grande and | dent, should the right of choice devolve upon south of latitude 36° 30', shall constitute an- | them, within twenty days of the opening of other section, to be known as THE SOUTI. the certificates and counting of the Electoral

“Sec. 2. On demand of one-third of the votes, then the Vice-President shall act as Senators of any one of the sections on any | President, as in the case of the death or bill, order, resolution, or vote, to which the other constitutional disability of the Presiconcurrence of the House of Representatives dent. The term of office of the President may be necessary, except on a question of chosen under such special election shall conadjournment, a vote shall be had by sec- | tinue six years from the 4th day of March tions; and a majority of the Senators from preceding such election. each section shall be necessary to the pas "ART. XIV. No State shall secede, withsage of each bill, order, or resolution, and to out the consent of the Legislatures of all the the validity of every such vote.

States of the section to which the State pro“Sec. 3. Two of the Electors of President posing to secede belongs. The President and Vice-President shall be appointed by shall have power to adjust with seceding each State, in such manner as the Legislature States all questions arising by reason of their thereof may direct, for the State at large. secession; but the terms of adjustment shall The other Electors to which each State may be submitted to the Congress for their ap-. be entitled shall be chosen in the respective proval before the same shall be valid. Congressional Districts into which the State "ART. XV. Neither the Congress nor a. may, at the regular decennial period, have Territorial Legislature shall have power to been divided, by the electors of each District interfere with the right of the citizens of having the qualifications requisite for elect- any of the States within either of the secors of the most numerous branch of the tions to migrate, upon equal terms with the: State Legislature. A majority of all the citizens of the States within either of the Electors in each of the four sections in this other sections, to the territories of the; article established, shall be necessary to the United States; nor shall either have power: choice of President and Vice-President; and to destroy or impair any rights of either the concurrence of a majority of the States person or property in the territories. New of each section shall be necessary to the States annexed for admission into the Union, choice of President by the House of Repre- or formed or erected within the jurisdiction sentatives, and of the Senators from each of the other States, or by the junction of section to the choice of Vice-President by | two or more States, or parts of States, and the Senate, whenever the right of choice States formed with the consent of Congress, shall devolve upon them respectively. . out of any territory of the United States,

“Sec. 4. The President and Vice-Presi- shall be entitled to admission upon an equal dent shall hold their offices each during the footing with the original States, under any term of six years; and neither shall be eligi- | Constitution establishing a government reble to more than one term except by the publican in form, which the people thereof votes of two-thirds of all the Electors of may ordain, whenever such States shall coneach section, or of the States of each section, tain, within an area of not less than thirty whenever the right of choice of President | thousand square miles, a population equal. shall devolve upon the House of Representa- , to the then existing ratio of representation: tives; or of the Senators from each section, for one member of the House of Representa whenever the right of choice of Vice-Presi- / tives.” dent shall devolve upon the Senate. “Sec. 5. The Congress shall provide by | Dr. Franklin-who failed to pera.

12

d not haveations a low our and w

ceive the wisdom of dividing a legis- | Yet this inevitable disparity in growth lature into two "houses —once com- and strength between the Free and pared said device to that of a Dutch- the Slave States was the basis of all man, who, having a loaded wagon Southern discontent with the Union, stuck fast in a bog, hitched a span of and to counteract or overbear it the horses to either end and whipped object of every device for the removal up both ways. It is not certain that of Southern grievances and the rehe might not have thus extricated his dress of Southern wrongs. load-or, at least, overturned it; for even our old Confederation, though The House Committee of Thirtya feeble and vicious, was not an im- three encountered the same obstacles, possible frame-work of government. and achieved a like failure, with its We could not have so rapidly in- counterpart in the Senate. Mr. Alcreased in wealth or power under it; bert Rust, of Arkansas, submitted to yet we need not have permanently it 20 a proposition which was substanheld in the scale of nations a lower tially identical with Mr. Crittenden's, rank than that of Switzerland or and which he presented as the ultiSweden. But this project of Mr. matum of the South. It was voted Vallandigham, if adopted, would down some days afterward: Yeas have given us a government which 12; Nays 15: no Republican sustainno civilized people could have en- ing it. On the 18th, Mr. Henry dured through a quarter of a cen- Winter Davis, of Md., offered the tury-a government embodying in following, which was adopted unanian aggravated form all the vices of mously: the old Confederation, with few or

"Resolved, by the Senate and House of none of its virtues—a government Representatives, That the several States be requiring a President, yet rendering respectfully requested to cause their statutes

| to be revised, with a view to ascertain if his election a rare and happy acci- |

any of them are in conflict with, or tend to dent-a Congress wherein the pas- | embarrass or hinder, the execution of the sage of a single act of any decided

laws of the United States, made in pursuance

of the second section of the IVth Article of importance would be the event of a the Constitution of the United States, for decade-a rule hardly to be endured, the delivering up of persons held to labor by

the laws of any State and escaping thereyet not to be escaped without a revo

from; and the Senate and House of Reprelution. For the chief end of this, as sentatives earnestly request that all enactof nearly every kindred contrivance

ments having such tendency be forth with

repealed, as required by a just sense of conof the session, was the construction

stitutional obligations, and by a due regard of a balance whereby three hundred for the peace of the Republic. And the thousand slaveholders would weigh to communicate these resolutions to the

President of the United States is requested down twenty millions of freemen, and Governors of the several States, with the a section which systematically repels

request that they will lay the same before

the Legislatures thereof respectively." immigration, degrades industry, and discourages improvement, be ren- Mr. Thomas Corwin, of Ohio, from dered enduringly equal in power and a majority of this Committee, made consideration with one cherishing a an elaborate report, on the 14th of policy radically antagonistic to this. January, 1861, favoring concession

20 December 17th.

0

MR. CORWIN'S "PEACE' MEASURE.

387 and compromise, but not the line of | ance thereof, on the subject of fugitive 36° 30. Messrs. C. C. Washburne,

slaves, or fugitives from service or labor,

and discountenance all mobs, or hindrances of Wisconsin, and Mason W.Tappan, to the execution of such laws; and that citiof N. H., tendered a minority report, | zens of each State shall be entitled to all

the privileges and immunities of citizens in setting forth that, in view of the Re

the several States. . bellion, now in progress, no conces “5. Resolved, That we recognize no such sions should be made. They closed

conflicting element in its composition, or

sufficient cause from any source for a dissoby submitting the resolve which had

lution of this Government; that we are not been offered in the Senate by sent here to destroy, but to sustain and harMr. Clark, of N. H., and which has

monize, the institutions, and to see that

equal justice is done to all parts of the already been given.

same; and, finally, to perpetuate its existMessrs. Birch, of California, and ence on terms of equality and justice to all

the States. Stout, of Oregon, submitted a sepa

| 66. Resolved, That the faithful observrate minority report, proposing a ance, on the part of all the States, of all their Convention of the states to amend constitutional obligations to each other, and

to the Federal Government, is essential to the Federal Constitution. This pro- |

the peace of the country. posal had been voted down by 15 67. Resolved, That it is the duty of the

| Federal Government to enforce the Federal to 14 in the Committee, and it was

laws, protect the Federal property, and prelikewise voted down in the House: serve the Union of these States. Yeas 64; Nays 108.

68. Resolved, That each State is request

ed to revise its statutes, and, if necessary, so The Crittenden proposition was

to amend the same as to secure, without moved in the House, as a substitute legislation by Congress, to citizens of other for Mr. Corwin's, and rejected: Yeas

States traveling therein, the same protection

as citizens of such State enjoy; and that 80; Nays 113.

she also protect the citizens of other States The conclusions of the Grand Com- | traveling or sojourning therein against

popular violence or illegal summary punishmittee, as reported by Mr. Corwin

ment, without trial, in due form of law, for and sustained by the House, were as imputed crimes. follows:

69. Resolved. That each State be also re

spectfully requested to enact such laws as “1. Resolved, by the Senate and House of will prevent and punish any attempt whatRepresentatives of the United States of Amer- ever in such State to recognize or set on ica in Congress assembled, That all attempts, foot the lawless invasion of any other State on the part of the Legislatures of any of or territory. the States, to obstruct or hinder the recov “10. Resolved, That the President be reery and surrender of fugitives from labor, quested to transmit copies of the foregoing are in derogation of the Constitution of the resolutions to the Governors of the several United States, inconsistent with the comity States, with a request that they be commuand good neighborhood which should pre- | nicated to their respective Legislatures." vail among the several States, and dangerous to the peace of the Union.

The Speaker decided Mr. Corwin's 2. Mr. H. Winter Davis's proposition, report an indivisible proposition, and already given on page 386.]

the House, after refusing to lay it on “3. Resolved, That we recognize Slavery the table, finally passed it by the deas now existing in fifteen of the United

cisive majority of 83: Yeas 136; States, by the usages or the laws of those States; and we recognize no authority, le- Nays 53: the proportion of Republigally or otherwise, outside of a State where

cans to anti-Republicans being about it so exists, to interfere with slaves or Slavery in such States, in disregard of the rights

the same in the Yeas as in the Nays. of their owners or the peace of Society. Mr. Corwin further reported a joint

“4. Resolved, That we recognize the just- resolution proposing an amendment ness and propriety of a faithful execution of 1? the Constitution, and laws made in pursu- / to the Constitution, whereby any fu

U

ture amendment giving Congress covering a very large proportion of power over Slavery in the States is all the remaining territory of the forbidden; which was defeated, not United States. All these acts were receiving the requisite two-thirds- silent with regard to Slavery ; leavYeas 123; Nays 71. It was recon- ing whatever rights had accrued to sidered, however, on motion of Mr. the South' under the Constitution, Daniel Kilgore, of Indiana, seconded as interpreted and affirmed by the by 21 Mr. Benjamin Stanton, of Ohio ; Supreme Court in the Dred Scott deadopted: Yeas 133; Nays 65: and cision, not merely unimpaired, but the Senate concurred: Yeas 24; unassailed and unquestioned, by any Nays 12.

Federal legislation or action. The This closed the efforts in Congress passage of these acts in this form was to disarm the sternly purposed Rebel- certainly intended to soothe the lion, by yielding without bloodshed a prevalent madness, and to strengthen substantial triumph to the Rebels. the Unionists of the South, especially

At this session, after the withdrawal of the Border States; though it does of Southern members in such numbers not seem to have had any such effect. as to give the Republicans a large And, indeed, it is not probable that majority in the House and a practical any concession could have been made, control of the Senate, three separate after the withdrawal of Toombs, acts were passed, organizing the Ter- Davis, etc., from Washington, that won "un popu u 15 une bavi oblem ritories of Colorado, Nevada, and Da- would not have evoked the stern

wason, wat kotah respectively--the three together | answer— Too late!'

XXV.

PEACE DEMOCRACY-PEACE CONFERENCE.

On the 31st of January, 1861, a cratic,' there was a large and most Democratic State Convention, called respectable representation of the old to consider the impending peril of Whig party, with a number who had Disunion, assembled at Tweddle Hall, figured as · Americans.' No ConvenAlbany. It was probably the strong- tion which had nominations to make, est and most imposing assemblage of or patronage to dispose of, was ever delegates ever convened within the so influentially constituted. All symState. Not less than thirty of them pathizing State officers and members had been chosen to seats in Congress, of the Legislature were formally inwhile three of them had been Demo- vited to participate in its delibera

of them once elected, and since chosen was temporary Chairman, and Judge again. Though called as “Demo- Amasa J. Parker, of Albany, Presi

21 February 28, 1861. Horatio Seymour, Amasa J. Parker, and William Kelly.

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VIEWS OF JUDGE PARKER AND A. B. JOHNSON.

389

dent. On taking the Chair, Judge guarantees of her rights as are reParker said:

quired; adding: :66 This Convention has been called with L What the guarantees should be is in vain

only to the great interests of State. We inaugurate them or to conduct them to a meet here as conservative and representative successful consummation; but, speaking for men who have differed among themselves as the Democratic party of this State, and of, to measures of governmental policy, ready, we believe, the whole Union, and, indeed, all of them, I trust, to sacrifice such differ for a vast body of citizens not identified ences upon the altar of our common coun- with any party, we feel safe in saying that try. He can be no true patriot who is not no guarantee will be unwelcome that shall ready to yield his own prejudices, to surren give the South, and all its property, the der a favorite theory, and to clip even from same rights that are or shall be possessed by his own party platform, where such omission the North and its property : the same rights may save his country from ruin otherwise which the South possessed at the commenceinevitable. Loud cheers.]

ment of the confederacy: Slavery being at “The people of this State demand the that time no object of antagonism, but the peaceful settlement of the questions that common institution of all the States but one; have led to disunion. They have a right to and we will accord this equality the more insist that there shall be conciliation, con- | readily, by reason that any settlement which cession, compromise. While yet the pillars shall continue any inequality between the of our political temple lie scattered on the North and the South will be prejudicial to ground, let them be used to reconstruct the the permanency of the settlement, and hence edifice. The popular sentiment is daily ga- | should not be offered by the North, even if thering strength, and will overwhelm in its the South, from a love of the Union, should progress alike those who seek to stem it on be willing to remain therein with less than the frail plank of party platforms and those | an equality of its advantages." who labor to pervert it to mere party advantage. [Cheers.]”

He considered the prescribed modes The venerable Alex. B. Johnson,

of amending the Constitution, and of Utica, followed, in an address

then continued: which lauded the good understanding

"Possibly, all remedies may be withheld

till the seceded States shall have become which had always existed between

confederated together and refuse to return. the Democratic party and the South ; In the possibility of this unhappy determiwhich he attributed to a mutual dread

nation, and which the present aspect of par

ties compels us to consider, we are certain of the undue extension and aggran

that the will of a large portion of the citidizement of Federal power. He said: zens of this State is against any armed coër

cion, on the part of the General or State 6 To a superficial observer, our difficulties

governments, to restore the Union by civil consist of revolutionary movements in the war; and, in this connection, we have seen Southern States; but these movements are with disapprobation the haste evinced by only symptoms of a disorder, not the disorder our Legislature to imbrue their hands in itself; and, before we can treat the disorder | fraternal blood, and the pernicious zeal understandingly, with a view to its remedy, which, without even the apology of any lewe must understand its cause; and we shall | gislative direction, induced the transmission find it in the avowed principles on which of this aggressive intention to the governors the late presidential election was conducted of not only the seceded States, but of the to its final triumph--principles inculcating Border States, who, at the time, were strugsectional hate in place of federal kindness; gling to restrain their citizens from secesin direct contravention with the dying in- | sion, and thus revealing to us, that, unless junctions of the Father of his Country, and our Northern people interfere, the mistaken of the most eminent of his successors in the sectionalism, which has produced our prepresidency, General Jackson.”

sent misfortunes, is not to be corrected by

any evidence of its destructiveness, but is to He proceeded to blame the Repub

be continued by partisans, till the South is licans, “whose principles and con either subjugated or destroyed. The advoduct have produced the mischief,"

| cates of this horrid violence against the doc

trines of our Declaration of Independence, for refusing to give the South' such and which, if successful in its object, would

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