« AnteriorContinuar »
patriotism and fairness they are not the Presidential contest of 1860? designed to impeach. He doubtless Why call upon the Republicans to considered carefully and well what help them do, after forty years of the South could be induced to accept; controversy, what they might themand he undoubtingly believed this to selves have done, without help, albe embodied and presented in his most any time during those forty plan of compromise. A slaveholder years? Why repudiate, against the himself; born, educated, and living most urgent remonstrances, in 1854, amid the influences of the institution; a compromise which, so far as it went, he could not or did not realize that was substantially identical with this, his conditions would seem inadmis- and now ask those whom they then sible to any but the narrowest and overbore to unite with them in ratimost miserable fanatics. Assuming fying another and a worse, in 1861 ? his premises, regarding the matter II. The Conservatives,' so called, exclusively from his standpoint, and were still able to establish this Critputting conscience and consistency tenden Compromise by their own entirely out of the question, his pro- proper strength, had they been disposal was fair enough; and its cordial posed so to do. The President was adoption would doubtless have exhi- theirs; the Senate strongly theirs; larated the stock market, and caused in the House, they had a small mageneral rejoicing on exchanges and jority, as was evinced in their defeat around the dinner-tables of merchant of John Sherman for Speaker. Had princes. Its advocates, witły good they now come forward and said, reason, claimed a large majority of with authority: ‘Enable us to pass the people in its favor, and clamored the Crittenden Compromise, and all for its submission to a direct popular shall be peace and harmony,' they vote. Had such a.submission been would have succeeded without diffiaccorded, it is very likely that the culty. It was only through the greater number of those who voted at withdrawal of pro-Slavery members all would have voted to ratify it. that the Republicans had achieved
But, on the other hand, these facts an unexpected majority in either deserve consideration:
House. Had those members chosen I. The Democratic and Conserva to return to the seats still awaiting tive politicians who united on the them, and to support Mr. Crittenden's Crittenden Compromise, and clamor- proposition, they could have carried ed for its adoption, had had control it without difficulty. of Congress and the Federal Executive III. But it was abundantly evident through seven-eighths of our past that the passage of this measure national history. If this were the would not restore the Union. Several true panacea for our troubles respecting Slavery, why had they not ap- cession, their oracles avowing that plied it long ago? Why not adopt they wanted no concession, and would it under Polk or Fillmore, Pierce or be satisfied with none. Every sugBuchanan, without waiting to the last gestion that they should wait for sands of their departing power? Why some overt act, at least for some offinot unite upon it as their platform incial declaration, from Mr. Lincoln, SENATOR ANTHONY'S PROPOSITION.
381 had been spurned by them. They | “Resolved, That it shall be declared, by
tamendment of the Constitution, that propmade haste to secede, from fear that
erty in slaves, recognized as such by the concessions would be offered-that local law of any of the States of the Union, their pretexts for disruption would
shall stand on the same footing, in all con
stitutional and Federal relations, as any other somehow be obviated. To send con
species of property so recognized; and, like cessions after them, in their scornful, other property, shall not be subject to be imperious, insulting stampede, would
divested or impaired by the local law of any
other State, either in escape thereto, or by be inviting them to heap new and the transit or sojourn of the owner therein. more dishonoring in dignities on the
And in no case whatever shall such property
be subject to be divested or impaired by any nation they were defying. It was, in legislative act of the United States, or any fact, to justify their past treason, and of the territories thereof." incite them to perseverance and | When the Senate came to act 13 greater daring in the evil way they upon Mr. Crittenden's proposition, had chosen.
Mr. Anthony, of Rhode Island-a IV. Our conservative' Supreme
very moderate, conservative RepubCourt, by its Dred Scott decision, lican-made a new overture which had denied to Congress all power to ought to have closed the controversy. exclude Slavery from a single acre of Announcing his intention to vote for the common territories of the Union; the substitute proposed by Mr. Danit had held the Missouri Compromise iel Clark, of New Hampshire, as "abinvalid on this very ground; and stractly true," and more in accordnow, the North was called to reën- ance with his idea of the mode in act and extend that very line of which our troubles should be comdemarkation between Free and Slave posed, Mr. Anthony proceeded: 'territory which the Court had pro- believe Mr. President that if the nounced a nullity. True, Mr. Crit- danger which menaces us is to be avoided tenden proposed that the new com at all, it must be by. legislation; which is
more ready, more certain, and more likely to promise should be ingrafted upon the
be satisfactory, than constitutional amendConstitution; but that only increased ment. The main difficulty is the territorial the difficulty of effecting the adjust
question. The demand of the Senators on
the other side of the chamber, and of those ment, without assuring its validity. whom they represent, is, that the territory For, if the new Southern doctrines South of the line of the Missouri Compro
mise shall be open to their peculiar properrespecting property, and the rights of
ty. All this territory, except the Indian resproperty, and the duty of protecting ervation, is within the limits of New Mexico, those rights, and the radical inability
which, for a part of its northern boundary,
runs up two degrees beyond that line. This of the Government to limit or impair
is now a slave territory; made so by territothem, be sound, then the guarantee rial legislation; and Slavery exists there, to Free Labor of the territory northine so soon as Kangas can be admitted, to
recognized and protected. Now, I am willof 36° 30', must prove delusive. In vote for the admission of New Mexico as a deed, Mr. Jefferson Davis, at a meet
State, with such Constitution as the people
may adopt. ing of the Select Committee framed
"This disposes of all the territory that is to consider these very resolutions, adapted to slave labor, or that is claimed by proposed, on the 26th of December,
the South. It ought to settle the whole
question. Surely, if we can dispose of all the following:
the territory that we have, we ought not to
13 January 16, 1861
quarrel over that which we have not, and I "Resolved, That all attempts to dissolve the which we have no very honest way of ac- present Union, or overthrow or abandon the quiring. Let us settle the difficulties that present Constitution, with the hope or exthreaten us now, and not anticipate those pectation of constructing a new one, are which may never come. Let the public mind dangerous, illusory, and destructive; that, have time to cool; let us forget, in the gen- in the opinion of the Senate of the United eral prosperity, the mutual dependence and States, no such reconstruction is practicable; the common glory of our country, that we and, therefore, to the maintenance of the have ever quarreled over the question that existing Union and Constitution should be we have put at rest; and perhaps when, in directed all the energies of all the departthe march of events, the northern provinces ments of the Government, and the efforts of of Mexico are brought under our sway, they all good citizens." may come in without a ripple on the political sea, whose tumultuous waves now
The vote was now taken on this threaten to ingulf us all in one common substitute, which was adopted, as folruin. “In offering to settle this question by the
lows: admission of New Mexico, we of the North YEAS.Messrs. Anthony, Baker, Bingham, who assent to it propose a great sacrifice, Cameron, Chandler, Clark, Collamer, Dixon, and offer a large concession. We propose Doolittle, Durkee, Fessenden, Foot, Foster, to take in a State that is deficient in popu Grimes, Hale, Harlan, King, Seward, Simlation, and that possesses but imperfectly mons, Sumner, Ten Eyck, Trumbull, Wade, many of the elements of a member of the Wilkinson, and Wilson -- 25 [all RepubliUnion, and that will require, in one form or cans). another, even after its admission, the aid of | Nays.Messrs. Bayard, Bigler, Bragg, the General Government. But we make the Bright, Clingman, Crittenden, Fitch, Green, offer in a spirit of compromise and good feel-Gwin, Hunter, Johnson, of Tennessee, Kening, which we hope will be reciprocated. nedy, Lane, of Oregon, Mason, Nicholson,
“And now, Mr. President, I appeal to | Pearce, Polk, Powell, Pugh, Rice, Saulsbury, Senators on the other side, when we thus and Sebastian-23 [all Democrats, but two offer to bridge over seven-eighths of the Bell-Conservatives, in italics]. frightful chasm that separates us, will you not build the other eighth? When, with Messrs. Iverson, of Georgia, Benoutstretched arms, we approach you so near, jamin and Slidell, of Louisiana, that by reaching out your hands you can clasp |
Hemphill and Wigfall, of Texas, and ours in the fraternal grasp from which they | should never be separated, will you, with R. W. Johnson, of Arkansas-who
had voted just before against taking treme demands which you know we cannot accept, and for which, if we did, we could up the Kansas bill -- had now abnot carry our constituents ?”
sented themselves or sat silent, and There was no response to this; and allowed Mr. Clark's resolves to supthe Senate, after having refused—30 plant Mr. Crittenden’s, which were to 25~-to postpone the subject to thus defeated. They doubtless did take up the Kansas Admission bill, this in obedience to a resolve, preconproceeded to vote on Mr. Clark's sub-certed with Messrs. Davis, Toombs, stitute, which was in these words: etc., to accept no adjustment or con
"Resolved, that the provisions of the Con cession which did not receive the stitution are ample for the preservation of vote of a majority of the Republithe Union, and the protection of all the material interests of the country; that it needs
cans. to be obeyed rather than amended; and that In the last hours of the session, an extrication from our present dangers is the subiect was called up by Mr. to be looked for in strenuous efforts to preserve the peace, protect the public property,
J. M. Mason, of Virginia, when Mr. and enforce the laws, rather than in new Clark's substitute aforesaid was reguarantees for peculiar interests, compromi
considered and rejected—22 to 14– ses for particular difficulties, or concessions to unreasonable demands.
in order to have a direct vote on the
14 March 2, 1861.
GOV. SEWARD'S CONCESSIONS.
Crittenden proposition; which was the Constitution which will authorize or then defeated: Yeas 19 [Conserva
| give to Congress any power to abolish or
interfere, in any State, with the domestic tives']; Nays 20 [Republicans]; as institutions thereof, including that of perbefore. Several more Southern Sen
sons held to service or labor by the laws of
such State." ators had meantime seceded and left. Mr. Lazarus W. Powell, of Ken
This was adopted by the following
vote: tucky, having moved 25 the appoint
1 YEAS—Messrs. Powell, Hunter, Crittenment of a Select Committee of Thir- den. Sewar
den, Seward, Douglas, Collamer, Wade, Bigteen on the crisis at which the ler, Rice, Doolittle, and Grimes~11. country had now arrived, the Sen- Nays-Messrs. Davis and Toombs-2. ate assented, and Vice-President John sented and Vice President John“Second, The Fugitive Slave law of 1850
shall be so amended as to secure to the C. Breckinridge 16 appointed Messrs. Powell, Hunter, Crittenden, Seward,
This, having been amended, on moToombs, Douglas, Collamer, Davis,
tion of Mr. Douglas, so as to have the Wade, Bigler, Rice, Doolittle, and
alleged fugitive sent for trial to the Grimes on said Committee--five of
State from which he was charged the thirteen Republicans (in italics).
with escaping, was voted down-all Mr. Davis [Jefferson) asked to be ex- |
the Republicans and Mr. Crittenden cused from serving, but finally con
ally con- sustaining it; all the rest opposing sented. The Committee met two or
it. . three days thereafter, and held seve
Mr. Seward 18 further proposed, and ral animated sessions, but to little
the Republicans sustained, the folpurpose. Mr. Crittenden's main proposition—the line of 36° 30'-was vo
1 Resolved, That, under the fourth section ted down after full discussion : Yeas | of the fourth article of the Constitution, ConMessrs. Bigler, Crittenden, Douglas, gress should pass an efficient law for the Rice, and Powell—5; Nays, Messrs.
punishment of all persons engaged in the
armed invasion of any State from another Davis, Doolittle, Collamer, Wade, by combinations of individuals, and punishToombs, Grimes, and Hunter-7: ing all persons in complicity therewith, on
trial and conviction, in the State or District absent, Mr. Seward. Messrs. Hunter, / where their acts of complicity were com
Toombs, and Davis, it is said, would mitted, in the Federal Courts."" have supported it, had it been pro- This was negatived by the solid posed and sustained by the Republi- vote of the anti-Republican memcans. The remaining propositions bers. of Mr. Crittenden received generally. It can hardly be necessary to trace a majority of the whole number of further the abortive proceedings of votes, but were not considered adopt- this Committee. They came to ed; the Committee having agreed nothing, through no want of good-will upon a rule that nothing should be so on the part of a majority of its memconsidered that did not receive a ma- bers, but because most or all of those jority both of the Republican and the from the South could or would acanti-Republican votes. When the cept nothing as sufficient short of Committee met again," Mr. Seward an utter and shameful repudiation by submitted the following proposition: the Republicans of the vital principle
"First. No amendment shall be made to of their party—the consecration of 15 December 5, 1860. 16 December, 20, 1866. 1 27 December 24th. 18 December 26th.
Mr. Semes, and mer; Wadies
the Territories to Free Labor. Thus: | January next. Such a voice will be your Mr. Robert Toombs, of Georgia,
best guarantee for liberty, tranquillity, and
R. TOOMBS." having submitted a series of propo
Though it is neither essential nor sitions, which were, in substance, the Breckinridge platform, without wait
practicable here to record all the ing a vote or any decisive action
abortive projects of conciliation' sub
mitted to Congress at this fruitlessly thereon, made haste to telegraph to
fruitful session, that presented by Mr. Georgia, for effect upon her approach
C. L. Vallandigham, of Ohio, deserves ing election, as follows:
notice, as the fullest and most logical “WASHINGTON, Dec. 23, 1860..
embodiment yet made of Mr. Cal“I came here to secure your constitutional rights, and to demonstrate to you that you houn's subtile device for enabling a can get no guarantee for those rights from minority to obstruct and baffle the your Northern confederates. “The whole subject was referred to a
majority under a political system Committee of thirteen in the Senate. I was i preserving the forms of a republic. appointed on the Committee, and accepted Mr. V., after a preämble, setting the trust. I submitted propositions, which, so far from receiving a decided support from forth “the tendency of stronger gova single member of the Republican party of ernments to enlarge their powers and the Committee, were all treated with derision |
jurisdiction at the expense of weaker," and contempt.
“A vote was then taken in the Committee | “and of majorities to usurp and abuse on amendments to the Constitution, proposed power, and oppress minorities ;" also by Hon. J. J. Crittenden; and each and all of them were voted against, unanimously,
affirming that “sectional divisions by the Black Republican members of the can no longer be suppressed,” etc., "In addition to these facts, a majority of
etc., proposed 19 that Congress should the Black Republican members of the Com- recommend to the States a radical mittee declared distinctly that they had no change of the Federal Constitution, guarantees to offer; which was silently
by adding thereto as follows: acquiesced in by the other members.
“The Black Republican members of the “ARTICLE XIII. Sec. 1. The United Committee are representative men of the States are divided into four sections, as party and section, and, to the extent of my | follows: information, truly represent them.
“ The States of Maine, New Hampshire, " The Committee of thirty-three on Fri Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Conday adjourned for a week, without coming necticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennto any vote, after solemnly pledging them- sylvania ; and all new States annexed and selves to vote on all the propositions then admitted into the Union or formed or erectbefore them, that day. It is controlled by ed within the jurisdiction of said States, the Black Republicans, your enemies, who or by the junction of two or more of the
same or of parts thereof, or out of territory until your election, that you may defeat the acquired north of said States, shall constifriends of Secession.
tute one section, to be known as THE NORTII. “If you are deceived by them, it shall not “The States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, be my fault. I have put the test fairly and | Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and frankly. It is decisive against you now. I Kansas, and all new States annexed or adtell you, upon the faith of a true man, that mitted into the Union, or erected within the all further looking to the North for security jurisdiction of any of said States, or by the for your constitutional rights, ought to be junction of two or more of the same, or of instantly abandoned.
parts thereof, or out of territory now “It is fraught with nothing but ruin to held or hereafter acquired north of latitude yourselves and to your posterity. Secession, | 36° 30' and east of the crest of the Rocky by the 4th day of March next; should be Mountains, shall constitute another section, thundered from the ballot-box by the unani- | to be known as THE WEST. mous voice of Georgia, on the 20 day of “The States of Oregon and California, and
19 February 7, 1861.