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confided to him, I shall be found as ready Before the opening of 1861, a perand determined as any other man to arrest foot raion of terror had been estab him in his wrong courses, and to seek redress of our grievances by any and all lished throughout the Gulf States. proper means."

A secret order, known as “Knights Delaware had, in 1858, chosen of the Golden Circle," or as 6 Knights William Burton (Democrat) for Gov- of the Columbian Star,” succeeding ernor by 7,758 votes to 7,544 for his that known, six or seven years earOpposition rival; Democracy in Del

lier, as the Order of the Lone Star,' aware being almost exclusively based

having for its ostensible object the on Slavery, and having at length car

acquisition of Cuba, Mexico, and Cenried the State by its aid. The great

tral America, and the establishment body of the party, under the lead of

of Slavery in the two latter, but really Senator James A. Bayard, had sup

operating in the interest of Disunion, ported Breckinridge, and were still

had spread its network of lodges, in sympathy with his friends' view of

grips, passwords, and alluring myste“Southern Rights, but not to the

ry, all over the South, and had ramiextent of approving South Carolina

fications even in some of the cities of remedies. Their Legislature met at

the adjoining Free States. Other Dover, January 2, 1861. Gov. Bur

clubs, more or less secret, were known ton, in his Message, said:

as The Precipitators, Vigilance “The cause of all the trouble is the per- Committee.' Minute Men, and by sistent war of the Abolitionists upon more than two billions of property; a war waged

kindred designations; but all of from pulpits, rostrums, and schools, by press them were sworn to fidelity to and people--all teaching that Slavery is a 1.

1. Southern Rights ;' while their memcrime and a sin, until it has become the opinion of a portion of one section of the bers were gradually prepared and country. The only remedy for the evils

ripened, wherever any ripening was now threatening is a radical change of public sentiment in regard to the whole ques

needed, for the task of treason. Whotion. The North should retire from its un ever ventured to condemn and reputenable position immediately."

diate Secession as the true and soverMr. Dickenson, Commissioner from

eign remedy for Southern wrongs, in Mississippi, having addressed the two

any neighborhood where Slavery was Houses jointly in advocacy of Seces- dominant, was thenceforth a marked sion, they passed, directly thereafter, man, to be stigmatized and hunted separately and unanimously, the fol-down as a "Lincolnite, Submissionlowing:

ist,' or 'Abolitionist. One refugee " Resolved, That, having extended to the planter from Southern Alabama, himHon. H. Dickenson, Commissioner from Mississippi, the courtesy due him as the

self a slaveholder, but of northern representative of a sovereign State of the birth, who barely escaped a violent confederacy, as well as to the State he

death, because of an intercepted letrepresents, we deem it proper, and due to ourselves and the people of Delaware, to

ter from a relative in Connecticut, express our unqualified disapproval of the urging him to free his slaves and remedy for the existing difficulties suggested by the resolutions of the Legislature of Mis

return to the North, as he had promsissippi.”

ised, stated that he had himself been


39 To Mr. 0,J. Victor, author of 'The History | p. 134.) See to the same effect the testimony of of the Southern Rebellion,' who knew him well, Hon. A. J. Hamilton, of Texas, Rev. Mr. Aughey, and vouches for his integrity. (See his vol. i., ) of Mississippi, and hundreds of others. SouthTHE SLAVE STATES ON SECESSION.


Total. 435,427

North Carolina...

Free Population

in 1860.
599, 846

Slaves. 111,104

1,798 225,490

87,188 114.965 331,081 275,784 490.887


661,586 834,063 1,105,192


087,084 1,182,317

992, 667 1,109,847 1,596.079

obliged to join the ‘Minute Men' of The Slave States and District which his neighborhood for safety, and had had not united in the movement, were thus been compelled to assist in as follows: hanging six men of Northern birth because of their Union sentiments;

112,218 and he personally knew that not less

1,155,713 than one hundred men had been hung

1,067,352 in his section of the State and in the adjoining section of Georgia, during

Dist. Columbia.....

. 75,076 the six weeks which preceded his es

Total........... 5,704,900 1,641,478 7,346,378 cape in December, 1860. When, therefore, the time at length

| So that, after the conspiracy had arrived,40 in pursuance of a formal in

had complete possession of the Southvitation from South Carolina, for the

crn mind for three months, with the assembling at Montgomery of a Con

Southern members of the Cabinet, vention of delegates from all the

early all the Federal officers, most of States which should, by that time,

the Governors and other State funchave seceded from the Union, with a

tionaries, and seven-eighths of the view to the formation of a new Con- prominent and active politicians, federacy, the States which had united / pushing it on, and no force exerted in the movement were as follows:

against nor in any manner threaten

ing to resist it, a majority of the

402,541 703,812 Slave States, with two-thirds of the Georgia.......

free population of the entire slave709,290 holding region, was openly and posi

tively adverse to it; either because Total Seceded. ........ 2,656,948 2,312,046' 4,968,994

they regarded the alleged grievances on-Seceded Slave States 5,633,005 1,638,297 7,271,302 of the South as exaggerated if not Total Slave States..... 8,289.953 3,950,343 12,240,296

unreal, or because they believed that

those wrongs would rather be aggraMontgomery when the time arrived for organizing the | vated than cured by Disunion.



South Carolina...

Free Population

in 1860. 301,271 595,097 529,164 354,700 376,280

78,686 421,750

Florida .....

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964,296 791,396


* Texas had,seceded; but her delegates had not reached



IN one of Beaumarchais's come- | attendant the odd question, “What dies, a green reveler in every advan- have I done that I should enjoy all tage and luxury that noble birth and these blessings ???--and is answered, boundless wealth can secure, asks an with courtly deference and suavity,

ern unanimity (in certain localities) for Seces- cured, but at the expense of not less than teri sion, was such as violence and terror have often thousand precious lives, taken because the vicproduced in favor of the most universally de- | tims would not conceal and deny their invincible tested men and measures all over the world. affection for their whole country. Such an apparent unanimity was doubtless se- 1 40 February 4, 1861.


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“ Your Highness condescended to be be mollified, bribed, beseeched, into born."

remaining peaceably in the Union. The people of the United States. This was but following in the beathad, in an unexceptionably legal and en track. Vehement threats of seconstitutional manner, chosen for | cession and dissolution were among their President an eminently conser the established means whereby an vative, cautious, moderate citizen, of aristocracy of less than one-tenth o blameless life and unambitious spirit, the American people had for sixty born in slaveholding Kentucky, but years swayed, almost uninterruptedly, now resident in free Illinois, who | the destinies of the Nation. Why held, with Jefferson and nearly all should they not again resort to the our Revolutionary sages and patriots, expedient which had so often proved that Human Slavery is an evil which effectual? Why should not the reought not to be diffused and strength sponse be substantially the same now ened in this Nineteenth Century of as it had hitherto been? And why Christian light and love. Hereupon, should not those whose success furthe ruling oligarchy in certain States, nished the pretext for this treason who had done nothing to prevent,

be charged with the evil, and inculbut much, indirectly yet purposely,

pated as themselves the traitors ? to secure this result, resolved to rend Had not, for a generation, the upthe Republic into fragments, tearing holding of a rule based on caste, their own fragment away from the re- and a denial to the humblest class sidue. What should be done about it? of all political rights in half the

The natural, obvious answer springs Union, and of all social and civil, as at once to every unquivering lip- well as political, rights in another “ Convince the disturbers that their third of it, been commended and gloonly safe course is to desist and behave rified as Democracy? themselves. They might have had a Had not every assertion, however President who is not a Republican, broad and general, of the right of had. they chosen : having done their each rational being to “life, liberty, best to elect one who is, they must and the pursuit of happiness," been now accept the result they have con- stigmatized as Sectionalism? tributed to insure, until the evolu- / Had not a simple adhesion to the tions of four years shall bring around policy of Jefferson and the fathers, the opportunity for another, and, if as to Slavery in the Territories, been they will, a more acceptable choice.” denounced as Radicalism, and as

Far otherwise was the actual re- | “making war on fifteen States ?" sponse of the Republic to her spoiled Had not ravaging and subjugating children, and their most unreasonably foreign lands, with intent to curse them factious demonstration. Instead of with human bondage, been glorified treating their outbreak as culpable as “extending the area of Freedom ?" and flagrant disloyalty, to be rebuk Had not the maintenance of the ed, abandoned, repented, and desist- rights of constitutional majorities, and ed from, the first impulse from almost of the duty of universal submission to every side was to inquire on what the popular will, constitutionally asterms and by what means they could certained and declared, been stigma





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tized as inciting to disunion and the removal of her giant curse as imanarchy?

pelled by hostility or ill-will, though And who could expect that half nothing was further from our intena century of such utter perversion of tion. The good Doctor can scarcely the plainest, least equivocal, most ob- have read with adequate attention, vious terms, should not bear bitter or at least not with the utmost profit, fruit? The inebriate, who fancies the urgent, impassioned adjurations the square in which he lives revolving of the demoniacs to the Saviour of about him, and gravely holds his mankind, for forbearance and 'nonlatch-key in hand, waiting till his intervention. “Let us alone,” was door shall in due order present itself, their habitual entreaty: “What have labors under substantially the same we to do with thee?” “Art thou come hallucination, and is usually certain to torment us before the time?" No to cherish it until he awakes to pro- delicacy of handling, no gentleness saic realities--to bruises, self-reproach, of treatment, could have pacified headache, and remorse. . them : they must be left undisturbed

Nearly forty years ago, the great and unobserved, or irritation and exand good Channing, after listening to citement were unavoidable. Benjamin Lundy, wrote to Mr. Web-/ Twenty or thirty years ago, there ster in apprehension that the South existed in Charleston, S. C., an assowould regard and resent any attempt ciation for social and intellectual enat the North to promote or hasten joyment, known as "The Wistar

i Von Muller, one of the present King of the editor of a paper called “The Genius of UniPrussia's grave and reverend councilors of versal Emancipation,' visited this part of the state, in his younger and wittier days, celebra

country to stir us up to the work of abolishing:

Slavery at the South; and the intention is to or-, ted this inversion of the perceptive faculties, in

ganize societies for this purpose. I know of few verses still popular in Germany, and which have objects into which I should enter with more zeal:: been rendered into English, as follows:

but I am aware how cautiously exertions are to,

be made for it in this part of the country. I "OUT OF THE TAVERN.

know that our Southern brethren interpret every "Out of the tavern I've just stepped to-night: word from this region on the subject of Slavery

Street! you are caught in a very bad plight; as an expression of hostility. I would ask if Right hand and left are both out of place they cannot be brought to understand us. better, Street ! you are drunk !'t is a very clear casel and if we can do any good till we remove their

misapprehensions. It seems to me that, before: * Moon! 't is a very queer figure you cut

moving in this matter, we ought to say to them One eye is staring, whilst t'other is shut; distinctly: 'We consider Slavery as your calami-. Tipsy, I see; and you're greatly to blame:

ty, not your crime; and we will share with you: Old as you are, it is a terrible shame.

the burden of putting an end to it. We will con"Then the street lamps-what a scandalous sight!

sent that the public lands shall be appropriated. None of them soberly standing upright;

to this object; or that the General Government; Rocking and swaggering-why, on my word,

shall be clothed with power to apply a portion. Each of the lamps is as drunk as a lord!

of revenue to it,

"I throw out these suggestions merely to: "All is confusion—now is n't it odd,

illustrate my views. We must first let the I am the only thing sober abroad ?

Southern States see that we are their friends in Sure it were rash with this crew to remain; this affair; that we sympathize with them, and, Better go into the tavern again."

from principles of patriotism and philanthropy,

are willing to share the toil and expense of abol2 The following is a portion of Dr. Channing's ishing Slavery; or I fear our interference will. letter:

avail nothing. I am the more sensitive on this "Boston, May 14, 1848.

subject, from my increased solicitude for the pres"MY DEAR SIR:--I wish to call your attention

ervation of the Union. I know no public interto a subject of general interest.

est so important as this.”-Webster's Works; vol. "A little while ago, Mr. Lundy, of Baltimore, V., p. 366.


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Club. Many, if not most, of the other's society throughout the evenmore intelligent and cultivated class ing, sipped their coffee with due debelonged to it, and strangers of like corum, and dispersed at the proper breeding were freely invited to its hour, without an opportunity for disweekly or bi-weekly meetings. It cussion, leaving the proposed debate was its rule to select, at each gather to stand adjourned over to the opening, some subject for conversational ing of the bombardment of Fort Sumdiscussion at the next. At one of ter, in the year of grace 1861. these meetings, the economic results. “Why can't you let Slavery of Slavery were incidentally brought alone?" was imperiously or queruinto view; when the few remarks lously demanded at the North, dropped from one and another devel- throughout the long struggle preceoped a decided difference of opinion ding that bombardment, by men who -the native Carolinians expressing a should have seen, but would not, that conviction that the institution' was Slavery never let the North alone, profitable; while two or three mem nor thought of so doing. “Buy bers or guests of Northern birth indi- Louisiana for us !” said the slavecated a contrary impression. Here- holders. “With pleasure." "Now upon, some one asked, Why not Florida !” “ Certainly.” Next: “Vioselect this as the topic for our next late your treaties with the Creeks and meeting ? Agreed !' was the unbro- Cherokees; expel those tribes from ken response; and the point was set the lands they have held from time tled. It was distinctly stipulated that immemorial, so as to let us expand no ethical, ethnological, religious, or our plantations.” “So said, so done." other aspect of the main problem, “Now for Texas!” “You have it." should be considered—nothing but “Next, a third more of Mexico !” the simple, naked question—'Is it “ Yours it is.” “Now, break the economically advantageous to a com Missouri Compact, and let Slavery munity to hold slaves ? Hereupon, wrestle with Free Labor for the vast the assemblage quietly dissolved. region consecrated by that Compact

At the evening designated for the to Freedom !” “Very good. What next regular meeting, the Yankee next?” “Buy us Cuba, for One members of the club were duly on Hundred to One Hundred and Fifty hand, prepared and eager for the ex- Millions.” “We have tried; but pected discussion; but not a Carolin- Spain refuses to sell it.” “ Then ian was present! Some old head had wrest it from her at. all hazards !” determined that no such discussion And all this time, while Slavery was should take place -- at least, in using the Union as her catspawCharleston and had given a hint dragging the Republic into iniquiwhich had operated as a command. tous wars and enormous expendiThough the interest in the subject tures, and grasping empire after had seemed general at the last meet- empire thereby–Northern men (or, ing, and the disposition to discuss it more accurately, men at the North) mutual and cordial, not a man now were constantly asking why people appeared to speak for Slavery. The living in the Free States could not 6 Yankees' enjoyed or endured each let Slavery alone, mind their own

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