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ANNEXATION IN CONGRESS.
tion of the great tropical staples, amounting the people of the said territory, and forever annually in value to nearly $300,000,000, the remain unalterable, unless by the consent of fund which stimulates and upholds almost three-fourths of the States of the Union." every other branch of its industry, commerce, navigation, and manufactures. The Mr. Hale's motion that the rules whole, by their joint influence, are rapidly be suspended, to enable him to offer spreading population, wealth, improvement, this non
this proposition, was defeatedYeas and civilization, over the whole continent, and vivifying, by their overflow, the indus 92 (not two-thirds) to Nays 81. Mr. try of Europe, thereby increasing its popu- Charles J. Ingersoll, of Pa., reported lation, wealth, and advancement in the arts, Iran
(Jan. 12), from the Committee on in power, and in civilization.
Such must be the result, should Great Foreign Affairs a joint resolve in faBritain succeed in accomplishing the con- vor of Annexation, which was sent stant object of her desire and exertions the Abolition of Negro Slavery over this con- | to the Committee of the Whole tinent- and toward the effecting of which January 25th, the debate was she regards the defeat of the Annexation of Texas to our Union as so important."
brought to a close, and the following
joint resolution adopted-that porSuch were the grounds on which tion relating to Slavery having been France was asked to give her sympa- added in Committee, on motion of thy and moral support to the Annex- Mr. Milton Brown (Whig), of Tenation of Texas to this country. . nessee:
66 Resolved, by the Senate and House of On the 19th of December, Mr. Representatives in Congress assembled. That John B. Weller, of Ohio, by leave, Congress doth consent that the territory introduced to the House a joint re
properly included in, and rightfully belong
ing to, the Republic of Texas, may be erectsolve, providing for the Annexation ed into a new State, to be called the State of Texas to the United States ; which
of Texas, with a republican form of govern
ment, to be adopted by the people of said was sent to the Committee of the whole. Mr. John P. Hale, of New bled, with the consent of the existing govHampshire, then also a Democrat,
ernment, in order that the same may be ad
mitted as one of the States of this Union. proposed (January 10, 1845), an 2. And be it further resolved, That the amendment, as follows:
foregoing consent of Congress is given on
the following conditions, and with the fol“Provided, That, immediately after the lowing guarantees, to wit: question of boundary between the United “First. Said State to be formed, subject States of America and Mexico shall have to the adjustment by this Government of all been definitively settled by the two govern- questions of boundary that may arise with ments, and before any State formed out of other governments; and the Constitution the territory of Texas shall be admitted into thereof, with the proper evidence of its the Union, the said territory of Texas shall adoption by the people of said Republic of be divided as follows, to wit: beginning at Texas, shall be transmitted to the President a point on the Gulf of Mexico midway be- | of the United States, to be laid before Contween the Northern and Southern bounda gress for its final action, on or before the ries thereof on the coast; and thence by a 1st day of January, 1846. line running in a northwesterly direction to Second. Said State, when admitted into the extreme boundary thereof, so as to divide the Union, after ceding to the United States the same as nearly as possible into two equal | all public edifices, fortifications, barracks, parts, and in that portion of the said terri- | ports and harbors, navy and navy yards, tory lying south and west of the line to be docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all run as aforesaid, there shall be neither Sla- 1 other property and means pertaining to the very nor involuntary servitude, otherwise | public defense, belonging to the said Repubthan in the punishment of crimes, whereof lic of Texas, shall retain all the public funds, the party shall have been duly convicted. | debts, taxes, and dues of every kind, which
“And provided further, That this pro- may belong to, or be due or owing said Revision shall be considered as a compact be- public; and shall also retain all the vacant tween the people of the United States and and unappropriated lands, lying within its
limits, to be applied to the payment of the Compromise line, shall be admitted into the debts and liabilities of said Republic of Union with or without Slavery, as the peoTexas; and the residue of said lands, after ple of each State, so hereafter asking admisdischarging said debts and liabilities, to be sion, may desire: And provided furtherdisposed of as said State may direct; but in more, That it shall be also stipulated and no event are said debts and liabilities to be declared that the public debt of Texas shall come a charge upon the United States. in no event become a charge upon the Gov
“Third. New States, of convenient size, ernment of the United States." not exceeding four in number, in addition This was voted down, as were one to said State of Texas, and having sufficient population, may hereafter, by the consent or two kindred propositions. Mr. of said State, be formed out of the territory Miller (Whig), of New Jersey, moved thereof, which shall be entitled to admission, under the provisions of the Federal Consti- LO Stilke out all diter the enacting tution. And such States as may be formed | clause, and insert as follows: out of that portion of said territory lying
"That the President of the United States south of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes
be, and he hereby is, authorized and advised of North latitude, commonly known as the
to open negotiations with Mexico and Texas, Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted
for the adjustment of their boundaries, and into the Union with or without Slavery, as
the annexation of the latter to the United the people of each State asking admission
States, on the following basis, to wit: may desire ; and in such State or States as
"1. The boundary of the annexed terrimay be formed out of said territory north
tory to be in the desert prairie west of the of said Missouri Compromise line, Slavery
| Nueces, and along the highlands and mounor involuntary servitude (except for crime)
me) tain hights which divide the waters of the shall be prohibited.”
Mississippi from the waters of the Rio del The amendment of Mr. Brown was / Norte, and to latitude forty-two degrees adopted by Yeas 118 to Nays 101—|
“II. The people of Texas, by a legislative the Yeas consisting of 114 Democrats | act, or by any authentic act which shows the and 4 Southern Whigs (as yet) will of the majority, to express their assent
to said annexation. Milton Brown, of Tennessee ; James
“III. A State, to be called 'the State of Dellet, of Alabama; Duncan L. Texas,' with boundaries fixed by herself, Clinch and Alexander Stephens, of
and extent not exceeding the largest State
of the Union, to be admitted into the Union, Georgia. The Nays were 78 Whigs by virtue of this act, on an equal footing and 23 Democrats (from Free States), with the original States. .
“IV. The remainder of the annexed terriamong them, Hannibal Hamlin,
Tiho | tory, to be held and disposed of by the John P. Hale, Preston King, George United States, as one of their Territories, to Rathbun, and Jacob Brinckerhoff
be called the South-west Territory.'
"V. The existence of Slavery to be forsince known as Republicans. The
ever prohibited in the northern and northjoint resolve, as thus amended, passed western part of said Territory, west of the the House by Yeas 120 to Nays 98%
100th degree of longitude west from Green
wich, so as to divide, as equally as may be, the division being substantially as the whole of the annexed country between before.
slaveholding and non-slaveholding States.
“VI. The assent of Mexico to be obtained In the Senate, this resolve was
by treaty to such annexation and boundary, taken up for action, February 24th; or to be dispensed with when the Congress and, on the 27th, Mr. Foster (Whig),
of the United States may deem such as
sent to be unnecessary. of Tennessee, proposed the following: “VII. Other details of the annexation to “And provided further, That, in fixing the
be adjusted by treaty, so far as the same terms and conditions of such admission, it |
may come within the scope of the treaty
making power." shall be expressly stipulated and declared, that the State of Texas, and such other
This was rejected by 11 Yeas-all States as may be formed out of that portion Whigs from Free States--to 33 Nays. of the present territory lying south of
Mr. Walker, of Wisconsin, moved thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north | latitude, commonly known as the Missouri ! to add to the House proposition an
CONGRESS ASSENTS TO ANNEXATION,
alternative contemplating negotia- forts and harbors, navy and navy-yards, tion as a means of effecting the end
docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all
other property and means pertaining to the proposed: and this was carried by public defense, belonging to the said Republio 27 Yeas, to 25 Nays--the Nays all of Texas, shall retain all public funds, debts,
taxes, and dues of every kind, which may Whigs. The measure, as thus amend
belong to, or be due or owing said Repubed, passed the Senate by Yeas 27— lic; and shall also retain all the vacant or all the Democrats present and three
nt and three unappropriated lands lying within its limits,
to be applied to the payment of the debts Whigs, of whom two thereupon and liabilities of said Řepublic of Texas: turned Democrats -- to 25 Nays
and the residue of said lands, after discharg
ing said debts and liabilities, to be disposed all Whigs;s and the proposition
of as said State may direct; but in no event being returned to the House, the are said debts and liabilities to become a amendment of the Senate was con
charge upon the United States.
“ Third. New States of convenient size, curred in by 134 Yeas to 77 Nays not exceeding four in number, in addition to a party vote : so the Annexation of the said State of Texas, and having sufficient
population, may hereafter, by the consent of Texas was decreed, in the following
said State, be formed out of the territory terms:
thereof, which shall be entitled to admission
under the provisions of the Federal Consti“ Resolved, by the Senate and House of tution; and such States as may be formed Representatives of the United States in Con
out of that portion of said territory lying gress assembled, That Congress doth consent south of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes that the territory properly included within,
north latitude, commonly known as the and rightfully belonging to, the Republic of Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitTexas, may be erected into a new State, to
ted into the Union with or without Slavery, be called the State of Texas, with a repub as the people of each State asking admission lican form of government, to be adopted by may desire. And in such State or States as the people of said republic, by deputies in shall be formed out of said territory north of Convention assembled, with the consent of said Missouri Compromise line, Slavery. or the existing government, in order that the
involuntary servitude (except for crime) same may be admitted as one of the States , shall be prohibited.. of the Union. “Sec. 2. And be it further resolved, That
WALKER'S AMENDMENT-ADDED.7 the foregoing consent of Congress is given 6 And be it further resolved, That if the upon the following conditions, and with the | President of the United States shall, in his following guarantees, to wit:
judgment and discretion, deem it most ad“First : Said State to be formed, subject visable, instead of proceeding to submit the to the adjustment by this Government of all foregoing resolutions to the Republic of questions of boundary that may arise with Texas, as an overture on the part of the
her governments; and the Constitution United States for admission, to negotiate thereof, with the proper evidence of its with that Republic; then, adoption by the people of said Republic “Be it resolved, That a State to be formof Texas, shall be transmitted to the Presi- | ed out of the present Republic of Texas, dent of the United States, to be laid before with suitable extent and boundaries, and Congress for its final action, on or before with two representatives in Congress, until the first day of January, one thousand eight the next apportionment of representation, hundred and forty six.
shall be admitted into the Union by virtue “ Second : Said State, when admitted into l of this act, on an equal footing with the the Union, after ceding to the United States existing States, as soon as the terms and all public edifices, fortifications, barracks, conditions of such admission, and the
5 On the final vote in the Senate, the YEAS --for the Proposition as amended_were as follows the names in italics being those of Whigs :
The Nays—against the proposed. Annexation --were :
Messrs. Archer, Barrow, Bates, Bayard, Berrien, Choate, Clayton, Crittenden, Dayton, Evans, Foster, Francis, Huntington, Jarnagin, Mangum, Miller, Morehead, Pearce, Phelps, Porter, Rives, Simmons, Upham, White, Woodbridge-25. YEAS; From Free States, 13; Slave States, 14. NAYS: " " " 12; "
Messrs. Allen, Ashley, Atchison, Atherton, Bagby, Benton, Breese, Buchanan, Colquitt, Dickinson, Dix, Fairfield, Hannegan, Haywood, Henderson, Huger, Johnson, Lewis, McDuffie, Merrick, Niles, Semple, Sevier, Sturgeon, Tappan, Walker, Woodbury--27.
cession of the remaining Texan territory This complete triumph of Annexato the United States, shall be agreed upon
tion, even before the inauguration of by the Governments of Texas and the United | States.
Mr. Polk, was hailed with exultation ." And be it further enacted, That the sum throughout the South, and received of one hundred thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby, appropriated to defray the
with profound sensation and concern expenses of missions and negotiations, to at the North. It excited, moreover, agree upon the terms of said admission and
some surprise ; as, three days before cession, either by treaty to be submitted to the Senate, or by articles to be submitted to
it occurred, its defeat for that session the two Houses of Congress, as the President appeared almost certain. Mr. Bagmay direct. ** Approved, March 2, 1845.".
by, a Democratic Senator from Ala
bama, positively declared from his President Tyler immediately, on seat that he would not support it; the last day of his term, rendered while the opposition of Messrs. Niles, the Walker amendment nugatory by of Connecticut, Dix, of New York, dispatching a messenger to Texas to and Benton, of Missouri, was deemed secure her assent to Annexation, pure invincible; but the Alabamian was and simple; and thus the triumph of tamed by private, but unquestionathe measure was secured.
ble, intimations, that it would not be The pretext or show of compromise safe for him to return to his own with respect to Slavery, by a partition State, nor even to remain in Washof territory, was one of the worst fea- ington, if his vote should defeat the tures of this most objectionable mea- darling project; and the repugnance suro. So much of Texas as lay north of Messrs. Niles, Dix, and Benton, of the parallel of 36° 30' north lati- was somehow overcome-the Walker tude was thereby allotted to Free amendment serving as a pretext for labor, when Texas had never con- submission to the party behest, when trolled, and did not at that moment no plausible excuse could be given. possess, a single acre north of that Mr. Polk was already in Washingparallel, nor for two hundred miles ton, engaged in making up his jewsouth of it. All the territory claim- els; and he had very freely intimaed by her north of that line was New ted that no man who opposed AnnexMexico, which had never been for a ation should receive office or conweek under the flag of Texas. While sideration at his hands. The three seeming to curtail and circumscribe Tylerized Whigs from the South, Slavery north of the above parallel, who voted in the affirmative, had not this measure really extended it north- been counted on as opponents of the ward to that parallel, which it had scheme. not yet approached, under the flag The Democrats of the North, havof Texas, within hundreds of miles. ing elected Mr. Polk after a desperbut the chief end of this sham com- ate struggle, and being intent on the promise was the involving of Con- imminent distribution of the spoils, gress and the country in an indirect might regret this early fruit of their indorsement of the claim of Texas to triumph, but could hardly be expectthe entire left bank of the Rio Grande, ed openly to denounce it. Mr. John from its mouth to its source; and this P. Hale, of New Hampshire, who had was effected.
evinced (as we have seen insubor
THE UNION A CHAMPION OF SLAVERY.
dination in the House, and who was nothing of special moment had hapthen the regular Democratic nominee pened. for the next House in the election just at hand, was thrown off the Yet it did not escape the regard ticket unceremoniously, and another of keen observers that our country nominated in his stead—who, how had placed herself, by annexing ever, failed of success; the election | Texas under the circumstances, not resulting in no choice, so far as this merely in the light of a powerful agseat was concerned. Three regular gressor on the rights of neighboring Democrats were elected to the others. helplessness, but of a champion and In no other State was there any open propagandist of Slavery, as the fit, and formidable opposition manifested beneficent condition of the producers by Democrats to this sudden consum- of tropical and semi-tropical staples mation of the Texan intrigue.. throughout the world. The dispatch
The Whigs and Abolitionists of of Mr. Calhoun to France, with one the Free States, of course, murmur- or two others of like purport, aimed ed; but to what end? What could more directly at England, justified they do? The new Democratic Ad- and commended our designs on ministration must hold the reins Texas expressly and emphatically on for the ensuing four years, and its this ground. England, he argued, decided ascendency in both Houses was plotting the extinction of Slaveof the next Congress was already ry throughout the Western Hemisamply secured. There were the phere. The United States must usual editorial thunderings ; perhaps clutch Texas, or she would soon fall a few sermons, and less than half-a- a prey to British intrigue and British dozen rather thinly-attended public influence-being induced thereby to meetings, mainly in Massachusetts, emancipate her slaves; thus dealing whereat ominous whispers may have a damaging, if not mortal, blow to been heard, that, if things were to Slavery throughout the New World. go on in this way much longer, the To avert this blow, and to shield the Union would, or should, be dissolved. social and industrial system which it This covert menace was emphatically menaced, were the chief ends of Anrebuked by Mr. Robert C. Winthrop, nexation. of Boston, speaking the sentiment of Now, it was not literally true that the great majority of leading Whigs. our country was thus presented, for “Our country, however bounded," the first time, in the questionable atwas declared by him entitled to his titude of a champion of Slavery. In allegiance, and the object of his affec our last treaty of peace with Great tions. The great majority, even of Britain, our commissioners at Ghent, the murmurers, went on with their acting under special instructions from industry and their trade, their pur- the State Department, had adroitly suits and their aspirations, as though bound Great Britain to return to
6- The negroes taken from the Southern States should be returned to their owners, or paid for at their full value. If these slaves were considered as non-combatants, they ought to be restored; if as property, they ought to be paid
for.” This stipulation is, moreover, expressly included "in the conditions on which you are to insist in the proposed negotiations."--Letter of Instructions from Mr. Monroe, Secretary of State, 28th January, 1814.