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ILLUSTRATIONS.

FRONTISPIECE.

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PRESIDENT AND CABINET. . 1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President 2. HANNIBAL HAMLIN, Vice-President . 3. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State 4. SALMON P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury 5. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. 6. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy 7. John P. USHER, Secretary of the Interior 8. MONTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster-General 9. EDWARD BATES, Attorney-General 10. Simon CAMERON, ex-Secretary of War . 11. CALEB B. SMITH, ex-Secretary of the Interior.

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24. JEFFERSON DAVIS

336 1 29. JOHN B. FLOYD. 25. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS

30. R. BARNWELL RHETT 26. JUDAH P. BENJAMIN

31. JAMES M. MASON 27. ROBERT TOOMBS .

32. JOHN SLIDELL 28. WILLIAM L. YANCEY.

33. ISHAM G. HARRIS 34. HENRY A. WISE

336

UNION GENERALS.

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35. Lieut.-Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT 448 41. Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos BUELL , 448 36. Maj.-Gen. John E. WOOL

42.

JOSEPH HOOKER 37. HENRY W. HALLECK

43.

AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE 38. GEO. B. MOCLELLAN 44.

BENJAMIN F. BUTLER 39. IRWIN MCDOWELL.

DAVID HUNTER, 40. JOHN C. FREMONT

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46. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT ANDERSON

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CONFEDERATE GENERALS.

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47. General ROBERT E. LEE

528 53. Lt.-Gen. John C. PEMBERTON 528 48. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON

54.

LEONIDAS POLK. 49. BRAXTON BRAGG.

55. Maj. Gen. Jno. C. BRECKINRIDGE 50. Lt.-Gen. P. G. T. BEAUREGARD 56.

SIMON B. BUCKNER แ” 51. THOMAS J. JACKSON

57.

ALBERT SYD. JOHNSTON 52. JAMES LONGSTREET.

58.

STERLING PRICE

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UNION NAVAL OFFICERS.

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59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES . 608 60. DAVID G. FARRAGUT

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CHARLES H. DAVIS 61. L. M. GOLDSBOROUGH

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HENRY W. MORRIS 62.

SAM’L F. DU PONT . 68. Captain JAMES H. WARD 63. DAVID D. PORTER

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JOHN L. WORDEN 64. JOHN A. DAHLGREN 70.

CHARLES S. Boggs.

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ILLUSTRATIONS CONTINUED.

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TEXAS AS SHE WAS, AND AS SHE CLAIMED TO BE
VIEW OF HARPER'S FERRY .
VIEW IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.
FORT SUMTER
THE APPROACHES TO CHARLESTON
NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH, AND THE NAVY YARD
WEST VIRGINIA
TEN MILES AROUND FORTRESS MONROE
WASHINGTON CITY AND VICINITY
BULL RUN BATTLE-FIELD AND CENTERVILLE
MISSOURI.
BATTLE-FIELD OF Wilson's CREEK, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo.
LEXINGTON (Missouri) DEFENDED BY MULLIGAN
BATTLE-FIELD OF BELMONT, MISSOURI
HATTERAS INLET FORTS HATTERAS AND CLARK
SINKING OF THE PETREL BY THE ST. LAWRENCE
FORT PICKENS-SANTA ROSA ISLAND-PENSACOLA
HILTON HEAD-REDUCTION OF FORT BEAUREGARD
BATTLE-FIELD OF BALL'S BLUFF-HARRISON ISLAND, ETC.
BATTLE-FIELD OF DRANESVILLE, VIRGINIA

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THE AMERICAN CONFLICT,

I.

OUR COUNTRY.

THE United States of America, ed two or three hundred miles westwhose independence, won on the ward, to the bases and more fertile battle-fields of the Revolution, was valleys of the eastern slope of the tardily and reluctantly conceded by Alleghanies; and there were three Great Britain on the 30th of Novem- or four settlements quite beyond that ber, 1782, contained at that time a formidable but not impassable barrier, population of a little less than Three mainly in that portion of Virginia Millions, of whom half a million which is now the State of Kentucky. were slaves. This population was But, in the absence of steam, of camainly settled upon and around the nals, and even of tolerable highways, bays, harbors, and inlets, which ir- and with the mouth of the Missisregularly indent the western shore of sippi held and sealed by a jealous. the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance and not very friendly foreign power, of about a thousand miles, from the the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the. mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, Altamaha. The extent of the settle- were scarcely habitable for civilized ments inland from the coast may have communities. No staple that their averaged a hundred miles, although pioneer population would be likely, there were many points at which the for many years, to produce, could be primitive forest still looked off upon sold on the sea-board for the cost the broad expanse of the ocean. of its transportation, even from the Nominally, and as distinguished site whereon Cincinnati has since from those of other civilized nations, been founded and built, much less the territories of the Confederation from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. stretched westward to the Mississippi, The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and northward, as now, to the Great and even of Asia, could be transLakes, giving a total area of a little ferred to the newest and most inland more than eight hundred thousand settlement for a small fraction of the square miles. At several inviting price at which they would there be localities, the “clearings" were push- 1 eagerly bought; but when the few

coins which the settlers had takened, desolating Revolutionary strugwith them in their journey of emi- gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in gration had been exhausted, there worldly goods. Their country had, was nothing left wherewith to pay for seven years, been traversed and for these costly luxuries; and debt, wasted by contending armies, almost embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the from end to end. Cities and villages inevitable results. A people clothed had been laid in ashes. Habitations in skins, living on the products of the had been deserted and left to decay. chase and the spontaneous abund- Farms, stripped of their fences, and ance of nature, might maintain ex- deserted by their owners, had for istence and a rude social organization years produced only weeds. Camp amid the forests and on the prairies fevers, with the hardships and priof the Great Valley; any other must vations of war, had destroyed many have experienced striking alterna- more than the sword; and all alike tions of factitious prosperity and uni- had been subtracted from the most versal distress ; seeing its villages and effective and valuable part of a popcommercial depots rise, flourish, and ulation, always, as yet, quite inadedecay, after the manner of Jonah's quate. Cripples and invalids, melangourd, and its rural population con- choly mementoes of the yet recent stantly hunted by debt and disaster struggle, abounded in every village to new and still newer locations. and township. Habits of industry The Great West of to-day owes its had been unsettled and destroyed by unequaled growth and progress, the anxieties and uncertainties of its population, productiveness, and The gold and silver of antewealth, primarily, to the framers of revolutionary days had crossed the the Federal Constitution, by which ocean in exchange for arms and its development was rendered possi- munitions. The Continental paper, ble; but more immediately and pal- which for a time more than supplied pably to the sagacity and statesman-in volume) its place, had become ship of Jefferson, the purchaser of utterly worthless. In the absence of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and a tariff, which the Confederate ConFulton, the projector and achiever, gress lacked power to impose, our respectively, of steam-navigation; to ports, immediately after peace, were De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerv- glutted with foreign luxuries--gewing, and successful champion of artifi- gaws which our people were eager cial inland navigation; and to Henry enough to buy, but for which they Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effec- soon found themselves utterly unable tive champion of the diversification to pay. They were almost exclusively of our National Industry through the an agricultural people, and their Protection of Home Manufactures. products, save only Tobacco and In

The difficulties which surrounded digo, were not wanted by the Old the infancy and impeded the growth World, and found but a very restrictof the thirteen original or Atlantic ed and inconsiderable market even States, were less formidable, but kin- in the West Indies, whose trade was dred, and not less real. Our fathers closely monopolized by the nations emerged from their arduous, protract- | to which they respectively belonged.

war.

OUR COUNTRY AFTER THE REVOLUTION.

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Indian Corn and Potatoes, the two | fashionable, even in high quarters; principal edibles for which the poor and the letters of Washington' and of the Old World are largely indebt- his compatriots bear testimony to the ed to America, were consumed to a wide-spread prevalence of venality very limited extent, and not at all and corruption, even while the great imported, by the people of the eastern issue of independence or subjugation hemisphere. The wheat-producing was still undecided. capacity of our soil, at first unsur- The return of peace, though it passed, was soon exhausted by the arrested the calamities, the miseries, unskillful and thriftless cultivation of and the desolations of war, was far the Eighteenth Century. Though from ushering in that halcyon state one-third of the labor of the country of universal prosperity and happiness was probably devoted to the cutting which had been fondly and sanguineof timber, the axe-helve was but a ly anticipated. Thousands were sudpudding-stick; while the plow was denly deprived by it of their aca rude structure of wood, clumsily customed employment and means of pointed and shielded with iron. A subsistence, and were unable at once thousand bushels of corn (maize) are to replace them.

Those accepted now grown on our western prairies at though precarious avenues to fame a cost of fewer days' labor than were and fortune, in which they had found required for the production of a hun- at least competence, were instantly dred in New York or New England closed, and no new ones seemed to eighty years ago. And, though the open before them. In the absence settlements of that day were nearly of aught that could, with justice, be all within a hundred miles of tide- termed a currency, Trade and Busiwater, the cost of transporting bulky ness were even more depressed than staples, for even that distance, over Industry. Commerce and Navigation, the execrable roads that then existed, unfettered by legislative restriction, was about equal to the present charge ought to have been, or ought soon to for transportation from Illinois to have become, most flourishing, if the New York. Industry was paralyzed dicta of the world's accepted political by the absence or uncertainty of mar- economists had been sound; but the Kets. Idleness tempted to dissipation, facts were deplorably at variance with of which the tumult and excitement their inculcations. Trade, emanciof civil war had long been the school. pated from the vexatious trammels Unquestionably, the moral condition of the custom-house marker and of our people had sadly deteriorated gauger, fell tangled and prostrate through the course of the Revolution. in the toils of the usurer and the Intemperance had extended its rav- sheriff. The common people, writhages; profanity and licentiousness ing under the intolerable pressure of had overspread the land; a coarse debt, for which no means of payment and scoffing infidelity had become existed, were continually prompting

"That spirit of freedom, which, at the com- public, but private interest, which influences the mencement of this contest, would have gladly generality of mankind, nor can the Americans sacrificed every thing to the attainment of its any longer boast of an exception." - Washingobject, has long since subsided, and every self- ton's Letter to Henry Laurens, July 10 (1782). ish passion has taken its place. It is not the Shoddy," it seems, dates away back of 1861.

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