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Barbadoes, against the prevalent cru- | under this head was reported; and elty and inhumanity with which ne- in 1783, it duly appeared that there gro slaves were then treated in that were no slaves owned by its memisland, and urged their gradual eman-bers. The coincidence of these later cipation. His letter implies that some dates with the origin, progress, and of his disciples were slaveholders. Yet close of our Revolutionary struggle, it was not till 1727 that the yearly is noteworthy. The New York and meeting of the whole society in Lon Rhode Island yearly meetings passed don declared “the importing of ne almost simultaneously through the groes from their native country and same stages to like results; that of relations, by Friends, not a commenc- Virginia pursued a like course; but, able or allowable practice." Nearly meeting greater obstacles, was longer thirty years before, the yearly meet- in overcoming them. It discouraged ing in Philadelphia (1696) took a the purchasing of slaves in 1766; urstep in advance of this, admonishing gently recommended manumission in their members to be careful not to | 1773; yet, so late as 1787, its annual encourage the bringing in of any reports stated that some members still more negroes, and that those who held slaves. But it is understood that have negroes be careful of them, Slavery and Quakerism, throughout bring them to meeting, etc., etc. It the South, had very little communion thus appears that Quakers, like other or sympathy after the Revolution, Christians, were then not only slave- and were gradually and finally diholders, but engaged in the Slave- vorced so early as 1800. Hence, as Trade. In 1754, the American Qua- Slavery grew stronger and more inkers had advanced to the point of tolerant there, Quakerism gradually publicly recommending their socie- faded out; so that its adherents were ties to “advise and deal with such as probably fewer in that section in engage in” the Slave-Trade. Again: 1860 than they had been eighty years slaveholding Quakers were urged- before. not to emancipate their slaves—but Of other religious denominations, to care for their morals, and treat none of the more important and poputhem humanely. The British Qua- lar, which date back to the earlier kers came up to this mark in 1758 periods of our colonial history, can four years later; and more decidedly show even so fair a record as the in 1761 and 1763. In 1774, the Phil above. By the Roman Catholics and adelphia meeting directed that all Protestant Episcopalians, generally, persons engaged in any form of slave- Slaveholding has never been, and is trading be “disowned;" and in 1776 not yet, considered inconsistent with took the decisive and final step by di- piety, and a blameless, exemplary, recting" that the owners of slaves, who Christian life. Individuals in these, refused to execute the proper instru- as in other communions, have con. ments for giving them their freedom, spicuously condemned and earnestly be disowned likewise.” This blow opposed Human Slavery; but the hit the nail on the head. In 1781, general influence of these churches in but “one case” requiring discipline our country, and especially of their

s to “adhe Slave-It avere urgent

Of

i Clarkson's History.

THE PRESBYTERIANS AND SLAVERY.

119

drevery inno, ed that, 1 slave, who lo he said si

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hierarchies, has been adverse to the delay than a regard for the public practical recognition of every inno- welfare demands !and recommendcent man's right to his own limbs and ed that, if “a Christian professor sinews, and to sell or employ his own shall sell a slave, who is also in comlabor as to himself shall seem best. munion with our Churchsaid slave

The Presbyterian, Congregational, not being a consenting party to the Baptist, and kindred (Orthodox” sale—the seller be “suspended till he denominations, have no very consist- shall repent and make reparation !" ent or luminous record on this sub- It need hardly be added that, with ject. Thus, the Presbyterian Gen- few and spasmodic exceptions, the eral Assembly did, at its session in Presbyterian Church thenceforth was 1794—long before its division into found apologizing for Slavery, and “Old School” and “New School”- censuring its determined assailants adopt a note to one of the questions far oftener than doing or devising in its longer Catechism, wherein, ex- | anything to hasten that “total abolipounding and applying the Eighth tion,” which it had solemnly proCommandment, it affirmed that the nounced a requirement of ChristianBiblical condemnation of "man- ity. And, though the Synod of Kenstealers"

tucky, in 1835, adopted a report on “comprehends all who are concerned in Slavery, which condemned slavebringing any of the human race into Slavery, holding broadly and thoroughly and or retaining them therein. Stealers of men are those who bring off slaves or freemen,

reprobated the domestic slave-trade and keep, sell, or buy them. To steal a as revolting, even horrible, in its freeman, says Grotius, is the highest kind

cruelty, the same report admits that of theft," etc., etc.

“ those who hold to our communion, But this note was directed to be

are involved in it;" and no action erased by the General Assembly of

was taken whereby they should be 1816, in a resolve which characterizes

required to choose between their conSlavery as a “mournful evil," but

nection with the Church and persistdoes not direct that the churches be

ence in buying, holding, and selling purged of it. In 1818, a fresh As

men, women, and children, as slaves. sembly adopted an “Expression of

Nor did the division of this Church, Views,” wherein Slavery is reprobat

which occurred not long afterward, ed as a

work any improvement in this re"gross violation of the most precious and

spect. A majority of the slaveholding sacred rights of human nature, utterly inconsistent with the law of God, which requires members, doubtless, adhered to the us to love our neighbor as ourselves, and to- | 66 Old School;" but the “New tally irreconcilable with the spirit and prin

School” did not see fit to make ciples of the gospel of Christ, which enjoin that all things whatsoever ye would that slaveholding a bar to its communion, men should do to you, do ye also to them.?"

On the contrary, certain Presbyteries But, instead of requiring its mem having done so, the General Assembers to clear themselves, and keep bly of 1843 censured their action, and clear, of slaveholding, the Assembly required that it be rescinded. And exhorted them to continue and in- though, in 1846, the next General crease their exertions to effect a total Assembly reiterated, in substance, abolition of Slavery, with no greater the broad condemnation of Slavery

set as per

contained in the Expression of Views | “any right, wish, or intention, to inin 1818, and in 1849 proclaimed that terfere with the civil and political

relation between master and slave, as " there has been no information before this Assembly to prove that the members of our

it exists in the slaveholding States of Church, in the Slave States, are not doing this Union,” condemned two minisall they can (situated as they are, in the providence of God) to bring about the pos

ters who had delivered Abolition lecsession and enjoyment of liberty by the en- tures, and declared the opponents slaved,"

of Abolition “true friends to the it is as certain as that “fine words Church, to the slaves of the South, butter no parsnips," that slaves con- and to the Constitution of our Countinued to be bought, held, and sold try.” by members of the “ New, as well. The Baptists of Virginia, in Genas of the “Old School” Presbyterian eral Assembly, 1789, upon a reference Church, and that, while Abolitionists from the session of the preceding were subject to continued and un year, on motion of Elder John Lesparing denunciation in the common land, as well as the special organs and

Resolved, That Slavery is a violent deutterances of these rival sects, slave- privation of the rights of nature, and inconholders often filled the highest seats

sistent with republican government; and

therefore we recommend it to our brethren in their respective synagogues, and to make use of every measure to extirpate Slavery regarded their aimless denun

this horrid evil from the land ; and pray Al

mighty God that our honorable Legislature ciations and practical tolerance with

may have it in their power to proclaim the serene complacency.

great jubilee, consistent with the principles

of good policy." With the Baptists and Methodists But no similar declaration has --two very numerous and important been made by any Southern Baptist denominations—the case was some State Convention since field-hands what different. Each of these rose to $1,000 each, and black inchurches was originally anti-Slavery. fants, at birth, were accounted worth The Methodists, in the infancy of $100. On the contrary, the Souththeir communion, were gathered ern Baptists have for thirty years mainly from among the poor and been among the foremost champions despised classes, and had much more of slaveholding as righteous and affiliation with slaves than with their Christian, and the Savannah River masters. Their discipline could with Baptist Association in 1835 gravely great difficulty be reconciled with decided that slavé husbands and slaveholding by their laity, while it wives, separated by sale, should be decidedly could not be made to per at liberty to take new partners; bemit slaveholding on the part of their cause Bishops; and this impelled the seces

“such separation, among persons situated as sion, some twenty years since, of the our slaves are, is civilly a separation by “Methodist Church South,” carrying

death, and they believe that, in the sight of

God, it would be so viewed. To forbid off most, but not all, of the churches second marriages, in such cases, would be located in the Slave States. The to expose the parties not only to greater

hardships and stronger temptations, but to General Conference held at Cincin

church censure for acting in obedience to nati in 1836 solemnly disclaimed their masters," etc., etc.

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THE CHURCHES AND ABOLITION.

121 Thus adapting Christianity to far more of hindrance than of help Slavery, instead of requiring that from our ecclesiastical organizations. Slavery be made to square with the | And this fact explains, if it does not requirements of Christianity. And excuse, the un-Orthodox, irreverent, this is a fair specimen of what has and "infidel" tendencies which have passed for religion at the South for been so freely, and not always unreathe last thirty or forty years. sonably, ascribed to the apostles of

In full view of these facts, the Abolition. These have justly felt that Northern and Southern Baptists met the organized and recognized religion for thirty years in Triennial Conven- of the country has not treated their tion, over which slaveholders usually cause as it deserved and as they had a presided, and wherein the righteous right to expect. The pioneers of“modness of slaveholding could not, there- ern Abolition” were almost uniformly fore, without seeming rudeness, be devout, pious, church-nurtured men, questioned. Abolition might be free-who, at the outset of their enterprise, ly stigmatized; slaveholding was ta took the cause of the slave' to the citly admitted to be just and proper Clergy and the Church, with undoubtby the very constitution of the body. ing faith that it would there be recAnd by no sect or class have anti- ognized and by them adopted as the Slavery inculcations been more viru cause of vital Christianity. Speaking lently reprobated than by the Bap- generally, they were repulsed and retists of the South.

sisted, quite ás much to their astonThe Free-Will Baptists, several ishment as their mortification; and bodies of Scottish Covenanters, and the resulting estrangement and hosother offsets from the original Pres- tility were proportioned to the fullbyterian stock, with certain of the ness of their trust, the bitterness of Methodist dissenters or seceders from their disappointment. It would have the great Methodist Episcopal organ been wiser, doubtless, to have forization, have generally maintained an borne, and trusted, and reasoned, and attitude of hostility to Slavery. So, remonstrated, and supplicated; but of late years, have the greater num patience and policy are not the virber of Unitarian and Universalist con- tues for which reformers are apt to ventions. But all these together are be distinguished ; since, were they a decided minority of the American prudent and politic, they would choose People, or even of the professing some safer and sunnier path. No inChristians among them; and they surance company that had taken a do not at all shake the general truth large risk on the life of John the that the anti-Slavery cause, through- Baptist would have counseled or apout the years of its arduous and per- proved his freedom of speech with ilous struggle up from contempt and regard to the domestic relations of odium to respect and power, received Herod.

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2 Witness Lundy and Garrison at Boston, 1828.
36 Alas! they had been friends in youth;
But whispering tongues can poison truth,

And constancy lives in realms above;

And life is thorny and youth is vain;

And to be wroth with one we love,
Doth work like madness on the brain."

----Coleridge's Christabel.

XI.

THE PRO-SLAVERY REACTION.

The Liberator, by its uncompro- | be. Other such rewards of $10,000, mising spirit and unsparing denunci- $50,000, and even $100,000, for the ations, soon challenged and secured, | bodies or the heads of prominent to an extent quite unprecedented, the Abolitionists, were from time to time attention of adversaries. Treating advertised; but these plagiarisms were Slavery uniformly as a crime to be re- seldom responsibly backed, and provpented, a wrong to be righted at the ed only the anxiety of the offerers earliest moment, if it did not convince to distinguish themselves and cheaply the understanding of slaveholders, it win a local popularity. Their aspect at least excited their wrath. Before it was not business-like. In several inhad been issued a year, while it had stances, Southern grand juries graveprobably less than a thousand subscri- ly indicted Northern “ agitators" for bers, and while its editor and his part | offenses against the peace and digner were still working all day as jour nity of their respective States; and in neymen printers, sleeping, after some at least one case a formal requisition hours' editorial labor, at night on the was made upon the Governor of New floor of their little sky-parlor office, York for the surrender of an Aboliand dreaming rather of how or where tionist who had never trod the soil of to get money or credit for the paper the offended State; but the Governor required for next week's issue than (Marcy), though ready to do what he of troubling the repose of States, they lawfully could to propitiate Southern were flattered by an act of the Legis- favor, was constrained respectfully to lature of Georgia, unanimously pass decline. ed, and duly approved by Governor That “error of opinion may be safeLumpkin, offering the liberal reward ly tolerated where reason is left free of $5,000 to whomsoever should ar- to combat it," 2 is a truth that does rest, bring to trial, and prosecute to not seem to have occurred either to. conviction, either of them under the the Southern or Northern contemners laws of that State-the arrest be- of the Garrisonian ultras. In fact, it ing the only difficult matter. There does not seem to have irradiated the was no reason to doubt that the prof- minds of the chief priests, scribes and fer was made in good faith, and that Pharisees of Christ's day, nor those the stipulated reward would have of the hereditary champions of estabbeen more promptly and cheerfully lished institutions and gainful tradipaid than Southern debts are apt to tions at almost any time. The South

1 Harrison Gray Otis, the wealthy and aristo- | iliary a negro boy, his supporters a few insignif. cratic Mayor of Boston, being required by a icant persons of all colors”—whence the said Southern magistrate to suppress The Liberator Otis concluded that his paper ought not to diswhich was probably the first he had heard of it turb the slumbers of the quite significant and

in due season reported that his officers had potent Southrons. The superficial, purblind "ferreted out the paper and its editor, whose Mayor! office was an obscure hole, his only visible aux- ! ? Jefferson's Inaugural Address.

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