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A BOLITION SOCIETIES IN THE SOUTH.
cipator in Tennessee, died, and Lundy / second meeting adjourned, an antiwas urged to go thither, unite the Slavery society was formed; and he two journals, and print them himself proceeded to hold fifteen or twenty from the materials of The Emancipa- similar meetings at other places withtor. He consented, and made the in that State. In one instance, he journey of eight hundred miles, one-spoke at a house-raising; in another, half on foot and the rest by water. at a militia muster. Here an antiAt Jonesborough, he learned the art Slavery society of fourteen members of printing, and was soon issuing a was thereupon formed, with the capweekly newspaper beside The Genius, tain of the militia company for its and a monthly agricultural work. He President. One of his meetings was removed his family a few months later, held at Raleigh, the capital. Before and East Tennessee was thencefor- he had left the State, he had organward his home for nearly three years, ized twelve or fourteen Abolition Soduring which The Genius of Univer- cieties. He continued his journey sal Emancipation was the only distinc- through Virginia, holding several tively and exclusively anti-Slavery pe meetings, and organizing societies— riodical issued in the United States, of course, not very numerous, nor constantly increasing in circulation composed of the most influential perand influence. And, though often sons. It is probable that his Quaker threatened with personal assault, and brethren supplied him with introduconce shut up in a private room with tions from place to place, and that two ruffians, who undertook to bully | his meetings were held at the points him into some concession by a flour-where violent opposition was least ish of deadly weapons, he was at no likely to be offered. time subjected to mob violence or He reached Baltimore about the 1st legal prosecution..
of October, and issued on the 10th In the winter of 1823-4, the first No. 1 of Volume IV. of the “GeAmerican Convention for the Aboli- nius," which continued to be well suption of Slavery was held in Philadel ported, though receiving little encou-phia; and Lundy made the journey ragement from Baltimore itself. A. of six hundred miles and back on year afterward, it began to be issuedi purpose to attend it. During his weekly. tour, he decided on transferring his Lundy visited Hayti in the latter establishment to Baltimore; and, in part of 1825, in order to make arthe summer of 1824, knapsack on rangements there foi the reception of shoulder, he set out on foot for that a number of slaves, whose masters. city. On the way, he delivered, at were willing to emancipate them on Deep Creek, North Carolina, his first condition of their removal from the public address against Slavery. He countryin fact, were not allowed; spoke in a beautiful grove, near the by the laws of their respective States, Friends' meeting-house at that place, to free them otherwise. Being dedirectly after divine worship; and the tained longer than he had expected, audience were so well satisfied that he was met, on his return to Balti-.. they invited him to speak again, in more, with tidings of the death of his their place of worship. Before this wife, after giving birth to twins, and
hastened to his dwelling to find it en- | Poughkeepsie, Albany, Lockport, tirely deserted, his five children hav- Utica, and Buffalo, reaching Baltiing been distributed among his more late in October. friends. In that hour of intense af- Lundy made at least one other fliction, he renewed his solemn vow visit to Hayti, to colonize emancipatto devote his entire energies to the ed slaves; was beaten nearly to death cause of the slave, and to efforts de- in Baltimore by a slave-trader, on signed to awaken his countrymen to a whose conduct he had commented in sense of their responsibility and their terms which seemed disrespectful to danger. In 1828, he traveled east- the profession; was flattered by the ward, lecturing and soliciting sub- judge's assurance, when the trader scribers to his “Genius," and calling, came to be tried for the assault, that in New York, on Arthur Tappan, “he [L.] had got nothing more than William Goodell, and other anti he deserved ;” and he made two long Slavery men. At Boston, he could journeys through Texas, to the Mexihear of no Abolitionists, but made can departments across the Rio the acquaintance, at his boarding- Grande, in quest of a suitable lohouse, of WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON, cation on which to plant a colony a fellow-boarder, whose attention had of freed blacks from the United not previously been drawn to the States, but without success. He Slavery question, but who readily traveled in good part on foot, obembraced his views. He visited suc- serving the strictest economy, and cessively most of the clergymen of supporting himself by working at Boston, and induced eight of them, saddlery and harness-mending, from belonging to various sects, to meet place to place, as circumstances rehim. All of them, on explanation, quired. Meantime, he had been approved his labors, and subscribed compelled to remove his paper from for his periodical; and, in the course Baltimore to Washington; and finalof a few days, they aided him to hold ly (in 1836), to Philadelphia, where an anti-Slavery meeting, which was it was entitled The National Inlargely attended. At the close of his quirer, and at last merged into The remarks, several clergymen expressed Pennsylvania Freeman. His coloa general concurrence in his views. nizing enterprise took him to MonHe extended his journey to New clova, Comargo, Monterey, MatamoHampshire and Maine, lecturing ras, and Victoria, in Mexico, and conwhere he could, and obtaining some sumed the better part of several encouragement. He spoke also in years, closing in 1835. He also made the principal towns of Massachusetts, a visit to the settlements in Canada, Rhode Island, and Connecticut; and, of fugitives from American Slavery, on his homeward route, traversed the to inquire into the welfare of their State of New York, speaking at inhabitants. On the 17th of May,
9 Lundy's brief journal of this tour has been “September 6th-At Albany, I made some ac preserved; and, next to an entry running "On i quaintances. Philanthropists are the slowest creathe 25th I arrived at Northampton, Mass., after
tures breathing. They think forty times before they 9 o'clock in the evening, and called at three taverns before I could get lodgings or polite There is reason to fear that the little Quaker treatment"--we find the following:
| was a 'fanatic.
WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON.
1838, at the burning by a mob of newspaper ever issued in that State. Pennsylvania Hall-built by Aboli- | Though earnestly devoted to the retionists, because they could be heard election of John Quincy Adams, as in no other—his little property, con- President, it gave a hearty support sisting mainly of papers, books, to the Temperance, Anti-Slavery, and clothes, etc., which had been collected other Reform projects, and promoted in one of the rooms of that Hall, the extensive circulation and signawith a view to his migration west- ture of memorials to Congress, urging ward, was totally destroyed. In July, the banishment of Slavery from the he started for Illinois, where his chil- District of Columbia. But its padren then resided, and reached them tronage was unequal to its merits; in the September following. He and, Mr. Adams having been defeatplanted himself at Lowell, La Salle ed, its publication was soon afterward county, gathered his offspring about discontinued. him, purchased a printing-office, and Mr. Garrison was, about this time, renewed the issues of his “Genius." visited by Lundy, and induced to But in August, 1839, he was attacked join him in the editorship of The by a prevailing fever, of which he Genius at Baltimore, whither he acdied on the 22d of that month, in the cordingly proceeded in the Autumn 51st year of his age. Thus closed of 1829. Lundy had been a zealous the record of one of the most heroic, supporter of Adams; and, under his devoted, unselfish, courageous lives, auspices, a single Emancipation canthat has ever been lived on this con- didate for the Legislature had been tinent.10
repeatedly presented in Baltimore,
receiving, at one election, more than WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON, born in nine hundred votes. Garrison, in obscurity and indigence, at Newbury- his first issue, insisted on immediate port, Massachusetts, in 1805, and and unconditional Emancipation as educated a printer, after having tried the right of the slave and the duty of his boyish hand at shoe-making, wood- the master, and disclaimed all temsawing, and cabinet-making, started porizing, all make-shifts, all comThe Free Press, in his native place, promises, condemning Colonization, directly upon attaining his majority ;-) and everything else that involved but Newburyport was even then a or implied affiliation or sympathy slow old town, and his enterprise soon with slaveholders. Having, at proved unsuccessful. He migrated length, denounced the coastwise to Boston, worked a few months as slave-trade between Baltimore and a journeyman printer, and then be- New Orleans as “domestic piracy," came editor of The National Philan- and stigmatized by name certain thropist, an organ of the Temperance Baltimoreans concerned therein, he movement. He left this early in 1828, was indicted for “a gross and malito become editor, at Bennington, Ver- cious libel” on those worthies, conmont, of The Journal of the Times, a victed, sentenced to pay fifty dollars' “National Republican” gazette, and fine and costs, and, in default thereabout the ablest and most interesting of, committed to jail. A judgment
10 Condensed from the "Life of Benjamin Lundy," by Thomas Earle.
in behalf of one of these aggrieved was adopted as a principle some persons of $1,000 and costs was like- years later; as was the doctrine that wise obtained against him on a civil “ The Federal Constitution is a suit, but never enforced. He remain covenant with death, and an agreeed forty-nine days in prison, during ment with hell.” To wage against which his case excited much sympa Slavery an uncompromising, unrethy, a protest against his incarcera- lenting war, asking no quarter and tion having been issued by the Manu- giving none—to regard and proclaim mission Society of North Carolina. the equal and inalienable rights of At length, the fine and costs were every innocent human being as infepaid by Arthur Tappan, then a rior or subordinate to those of no wealthy and generous New York other, and to repudiate all creeds, all merchant, who anticipated, by a few alleged revelations, rituals, constitudays, a similar act meditated by Hen- tions, governments, parties, politics, ry Clay. Separating himself from that reject, defy, or ignore this funLundy and The Genius, Mr. Garri- damental truth-such is and has been son now proposed the publication of the distinctive idea of the numericalan anti-Slavery organ in Washington ly small, but able and thoroughly City; but, after traveling and lec- earnest class, known as “ Garrisonituring through the great cities, and ans.” 11 They for many years generbeing prevented by violence from ally declined, and some of them still speaking in Baltimore, he concluded decline, to vote, deeming the Govto issue his journal from Boston in- ernment and all parties so profoundly stead of Washington; and the first corrupted by Slavery, that no one number of The Liberator appeared could do so without dereliction from accordingly on the 1st of January, principle and moral defilement. And, 1830. It was, from the outset, as though the formal and definitive septhorough-going as its editor; and its aration did not take place till 1839, motto--“Our Country is the World the alienation between the Garrisoni
Our Countrymen are all Mankind” ans and the larger number of Anti-truly denoted its character and Slavery men had long been decided spirit. “No Union with slaveholders" and irremediable. A very few years,
11 « The broadest and most far-sighted intellect ment commenced in usurpation and oppression; is utterly unable to see the ultimate consequen- | that liberty and civilization, at present, are nothces of any great social change. Ask yourself, ing else than the fragments of rights which the on all such occasions, if there be any element of scaffold and the stake have wrung from the right or wrong in the question, any principle of strong hands of the usurpers. Every step of clear, natural justice, that turns the scale. If progress the world has made has been from So, take your part with the perfect and abstract scaffold to scaffold, and from stake to stake. . It right, and trust God to see that it shall prove would hardly be exaggeration to say, that all the the expedient."— Wendell Phillips's Speeches and great truths relating to society and government Lectures, p. 18.
have been first heard in the solemn protests of "The time has been when it was the duty of
martyred patriotism, or the loud cries of crushed the reformer to show cause why he offered to
and starving labor. The law has been always disturb the quiet of the world. But, during the wrong."-Ibid., p. 14. discussion of the many reforms which have been advocated, and which have more or less succeed
“An intelligent democracy says of Slavery as ed, one after another-freedom of the lower
of a church, This is justice and that iniquity.' classes, freedom of food, freedom of the press,
The track of God's thunderbolt is a straight line freedom of thought, reform in penal legislation,
from one to the other, and the Church or State and a thousand other matters-it seems to me
that cannot stand it, must get out of the way." to have been proved conclusively, that govern- | 162do, P. 267.
THE CHURCHES AND SLAVERY.
dating from 1832-3, when the New Slavery, refused either to withhold England and the American Anti- their votes, or to throw them away
spectively, sufficed to segregate the possible, but persisted in voting, at American opponents of Slavery into nearly every election, so as to effect four general divisions, as follows: good and prevent evil to the extent
1. The “Garrisonians” aforesaid. of their power.
2. The members of the “Liberty An artful and persistent ignoring party," 12 who, regarding the Federal of all distinction between these classConstitution as essentially anti-Slave- es, and thus covering Abolitionists inry, swore with good conscience to discriminately with odium, as hostile uphold it, and supported only can- to Christianity and to the Constitudidates who were distinctively, deter- tion, was long the most effective minedly, pre-eminently, champions of weapon in the armory of their com“ Liberty for all.”
mon foes. Thousands, whose con3. Various small sects and parties, sciences and hearts would naturally
tween the above positions ; some of manity and justice, were repelled by the sects agreeing with the latter in vociferous representations that to do interpreting and revering the Bible so would identify them with the “disas consistently anti-Slavery, while re- union" of Wendell Phillips, the fusing, with the former, to vote. “ radicalism” of Henry C. Wright,
4. A large and steadily increas- and the “infidelity” of Pillsbury, ing class who, though decidedly anti- Theodore Parker, and Garrison.
THE CHURCHES AND SLAVERY.
WE have seen that the Revolution- | deed, a religious opposition to Slaveary era and the Revolutionary spirit ry, whereof the society of Christian of our country were profoundly hos- Friends or Quakers were the piotile to Slavery, and that they were neers, had been developed both in not content with mere protests the mother country and in her coloagainst an evil which positive efforts, nies. George Fox, the first Quaker, determined acts, were required to bore earnest testimony, so early as remove. Before the Revolution, in- 1671, on the occasion of his visit to
12 Sundry differences respecting “Woman's but the ultimate causes of the rupture were Rights”—whereof the Garrisonians were stanch | deeper than these. As a body, the Garrisonians asserters--and other incidental questions, were were regarded as radical in politics and heterodox the immediate causes of the rupture between in theology; and the more Orthodox, conservathe Garrisonians and the political Abolitionists, tive, and especially the clerical Abolitionists, inwhereby the American Anti-Slavery Society was creasingly disliked the odium incited by the convulsed by the secession of the latter in 1840; | sweeping utterances of the Garrisonian leaders.