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earnest collision was on the White for the White Basis, with some help Basis, so called—that is, on the pro- from the East; and it was computed position that representation and po- that the majority represented 402,631 litical power should be apportioned of Free Population, and the minority to the several counties on the basis but 280,000. But the minority was of their White population alone. The strong in intellect, in numbers, and Committee on the Legislative depart- in resolution, and it fought desperatement decided in favor of the White ly through weeks of earnest debate Basis by 13 to 11-James Madison's and skillful maneuvering. President vote giving that side the majority; Monroe, in December, resigned the but he voted also against the White chair, and his seat, and his constitBasis for the Senate, making a tie on

uents offered the latter to General R. that point. A strong excitement B. Taylor aforesaid, who declined, having arisen on this question, Gen- when it was given to a Mr. Osborne. eral Robert B. Taylor, of Norfolk, an Finally, a proposition by Mr. Upshur advocate of the White Basis, resigned, afterward Secretary of State) was so and his seat was filled by Hugh B. amended, on motion of Mr. Gordon, Grigsby, of opposite views. At as to prescribe, arbitrarily, that thirlength, the Convention came to a teen Senators should be apportioned vote, on the proposition of a Mr. to counties west of the Blue Ridge, Green, of Culpepper, that the White and nineteen to those east of it, with Basis be stricken out, and the Feder- a corresponding allotment of Deleal Basis (the white inhabitants with gates in four parcels to the various “three-fifths of all other persons") natural divisions of the State, and be substituted. This was defeated was carried by 55 Yeas to 41 NaysYeas 47 (including Grigsby afore- a motion that the Senate apportionsaid); Nays 49—every delegate vot- ment be based on Federal numbers, ing. Among the Yeas were and that for the House on the White President Madison, Chief Justice population, having first been voted Marshall, Benjamin Watkins Leigh, down—48 to 48. So the effort of Philip P. Barbour, John Randolph the West, and of the relatively nonof Roanoke, William B. Giles, John slaveholding sections of Virginia, to Tyler, etc. Among the Nays (for wrest political power from the slavethe White Basis) were ex-President holding oligarchy of the tide-water Monroe, Philip Doddridge, Charles, counties, was defeated, despite the F. Mercer, Chapman Johnson, Lewis sanguine promise at the outset; and Summers, etc. As a rule, Western the Old Dominion sunk again into (comparatively Free) Virginia voted the arms of the negro-breeders."


6 November 16th.

almost as senseless herds of black slaves, or the ? Hezekiah Niles, in his Weekly Register of Oc

free, tax-paying inhabitants of the State, shall tober 31, 1829, thus forcibly depicted the mo

have political power. Very important events

will grow out of this convention, and their effect mentous issues for Virginia and the country,

will not be confined to Virginia. We hope and then hinging on the struggle in Richmond: believe, that the free white population of the

« VIRGINIA CONVENTION. - The committees State will be adopted as the basis of representahaving chiefly reported, 'the tug of war between tion in the popular branch of the Legislaturethe fold lights' and the new has commenced; and indeed, it cannot be popular without it; but perthe question is to be settled whether trees and haps the Senate may be apportioned according stones, and arbitrary divisions of land, with to 'federal numbers,' in which three-fifths of the slaves are counted. If the latter may stand as important operations of agriculture or the arts, a peace-offering to the departing power of the except the cultivation of cotton, sugar, tobacco, old lights, we would let them have it-in a few and rice (as at present carried on), is the cheapyears, under a liberal Constitution, the free pop- est and the best. And in truth, it would not ulation of middle and western Virginia will be perhaps be straining the facts too far, to express so increased, that the power in the Senate, de- an opinion, that the greatest question before the rived from slaves, will not be injuriously felt. Virginia convention is, the perpetual duration · And then will the tacticians, who have kept Vir- of negro slavery, or the increase of a generous ginia back half a century, compared with New and free white population." York and Pennsylvania, disappear, and give place to practical men—then will roads and ca



Some years later (in 1831–2), on the in America. Many who lived before occurrence of the slave insurrection in and cotemporary with him were AbSouthampton county, known as Nat. olitionists: but he was the first of our Turner's, her people were aroused to countrymen who devoted his life and a fresh and vivid conception of the all his powers exclusively to the cause perils and evils of Slavery, and her of the slave. Born in Sussex county, Legislature, for a time, seemed on the New Jersey, January 4, 1789, of point of inaugurating a system of Quaker parents, whose ancestors for Gradual Emancipation; but the im- several generations had lived and died pulse was finally, though with diffi- in this country, he injured himself, culty, overborne. Several who have while still a mere boy, by excessive since cast in their lot with the Slave- labor on his father's farm, incurring holders’ Rebellion-among them Jas. thereby a partial loss of hearing, from C. Faulkner, late Minister to Eng. which he never recovered. Slight in land—at that time spoke earnestly frame and below the common hight, and forcibly for Emancipation, as an unassuming in manner and gentle in imperative necessity. And this is spirit, he gave to the cause of Emancinoteworthy as the last serious effort pation neither wealth, nor eloquence, by the politicians of any Slave State nor lofty abilities, for he had them to rid her of the giant curse, prior to not; but his courage, perseverance, the outbreak of the Slaveholders’ Re- and devotion were unsurpassed; and bellion,

these combined to render him a for

midable, though disregarded if not BENJAMIN LUNDY deserves the high despised, antagonist to our national honor of ranking as the pioneer of crime. Leaving his father's farm at direct and distinctive Anti-Slavery nineteen years of age, he wandered westward to Wheeling, Virginia, weekly journal entitled The Philanwhere, during the next four years, thropist was soon after started at he learned the trade of a saddler, Mount Pleasant by Charles Osborne; and gained an insight into the cruel- and Lundy, at the editor's invitation, ties and villainies of slaveholding- contributed to its columns, mainly by Wheeling being at that time a great selections. In a few months, he was thoroughfare for negro-traders and urged by Osborne to join him in the their prey on their route from Mary- newspaper enterprise, and finally conland and Virginia to the lower Mis- sented to do so, removing to Mount sissippi. Before he made Wheeling Pleasant. Meantime, he made a voyhis home, he had spent some time at age to St. Louis in a flat-boat to disMount Pleasant, Ohio, whither he pose of his stock of saddlery. Arrivreturned after learning his trade, ing at that city in the fall of 1819, and remained there two years, dur- when the whole region was convulsed ing which he married a young wo- by the Missouri Question, he was man of like spirit to his own. He impelled to write on the side there then, after a long visit to his father unpopular in the journals of the day. in New Jersey, settled at St. Clairs- His speculation proved unfortunate ville, Ohio, near Wheeling, and the whole West, and, indeed, the opened a shop, by which in four whole country, being then involved years he made about three thousand in a commercial convulsion, with dollars above his expenses, and, with trade stagnant and almost every one a loving wife and two children, was bankrupt. He returned to his home as happy and contented with his lot on foot during the ensuing winter, as any man need be.

8 In 1849, when Kentucky revised her State nals be made, domestic manufactures encour

Constitution, Henry Clay formally renewed the aged, and a free and virtuous and laborious people give wealth and power and security to the appeal in favor of Gradual Emancipation, which commonwealth-the old families,' as they are

he had made, when a very young man, on the called-persons much partaking of the character occasion of her organization as a State; but the of the old nobility of France, imbecile and incor

response from the people was feeble and ineffectrigible-pass away, and a healthful and happy,

ive. Delaware has repeatedly endeavored to bold and intelligent middle class rise up to sweeten and invigorate society, by rendering

rid herself of Slavery by legislation; but partilabor honorable; and Richmond will not any

san Democracy has uniformly opposed and delonger be ALL Virginia, as a distinguished gen

feated every movement looking to this end. She, tleman used to proclaim, in matters of politics though slaveholding, has for sixty years or more or policy. The moral effects of these things over

been truly, emphatically, a Border State. Slathe slave population of Virginia, and in the ad

very has only been kept so long alive within her jacent States, are hardly to be calculated. The presence of numerous slaves is incompatible

limits for the benefit, and by the strenuous with that of a numerous free population; and it efforts, of the Democratic party. It is now eviis shown that the labor of the latter, in all the dently near its end.

having been absent nearly two years, But the impression made on his and lost all he was worth. mind by his experiences of Slavery Meantime, Osborne, tired of his in Wheeling could not be shaken off thankless and profitless vocation, had nor resisted. In the year 1815, when sold out his establishment, and it had twenty-six years of age, he organized been removed to Jonesborough, Tenan anti-Slavery association known nessee, where his newspaper took the as the “Union Humane Society," title of The Emancipator. Lundy whereof the first meeting was held removed, as he had purposed, to at his own house, and consisted of Mount Pleasant, and there started, but five or six persons. Within a few in January, 1821, a monthly entitled months, its numbers were swelled to The Genius of Universal Emancifour or five hundred, and included pation. He commenceä it with six the best and most prominent citizens subscribers; himself ignorant of printof Belmont and the adjacent coun- ing and without materials; having ties. Lundy wrote an appeal to phi- his work done at Steubenville, twenty lanthropists on the subject of Slavery, miles distant; traveling thither frewhich was first printed on the 4th of quently on foot, and returning with January, 1816, being his twenty-sev- his edition on his back. Four months enth birthday. Short and simple as later, he had a very considerable subit was, it contained the germ of the scription list. About this time, Elihu entire anti-Slavery movement. A Embree, who had started The Eman

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