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an excellency in nature, but it is nothing at all in use; for any dignity in use I know none, but that silvering will sully and canker more than gilding; which if it might be corrected with a little mixture of gold, there is profit and I do somewhat marvel that the latter ages have lost the ancient electrum, which was a mixture of silver with gold: whereof I conceive there may be much use, both in coin, plate, and gilding.

It is to be noted, that there is in the version of metals impossibility, or at least great difficulty, as in making of gold, silver, copper. On the other side, in the adulterating or counterfeiting of metals, there is deceit and villany. But it should seem there is a middle way, and that is by new compounds, if the ways of incorporating were well known.

What incorporation or imbibition metals will receive from vegetables, without being dissolved in their substance: as when the armourers make their steel more tough and pliant, by aspersion of water or juice of herbs; when gold being grown somewhat churlish by recovering, is made more pliant by throwing in shreds of tanned leather, or by leather oiled.

Note, that in these and the like shews of imbibition, it were good to try by the weights, whether the weight be increased, or no; for if it be not, it is to be doubted that there is no imbibition of substance, but only that the application of that other body doth dis pose and invite the metal to another posture of parts, than of itself it would have taken

After the incorporation of metals by simple colliquefaction, for the better discovery of the nature and consents and dissents of metals, it would be likewise tried by incorporating of their dissolutions. What metals being dissolved in strong waters will incorporate well together, and what not? Which is to be inquired particularly, as it was in colliquefactions.

There is to be observed in those dissolutions which will not easily incorporate, what the effects are: as the bullition; the precipitation to the bottom; the ejaculation towards the top; the suspension in the midst and the like.

Note, that the dissents of the menstrual or strong waters may hinder the incorporation, as well as the dissents of the metals themselves; therefore where the menstrua are the same, and yet the incorporation followeth not, you may conclude the dissent is in the metals; but where the menstrua are several, not so certain.

Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions, concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union of metals and minerals.

GOLD will incorporate with silver in any proportion. Plin. lib. xxxiii. cap. 4.-Omni auro inest argentum vario pondere; alibi dena, alibi nona, alibi octava parte-Ubicunque quinta argenti portio invenitur, electrum vocatur. The body remains fixt, solid, and coloured, according to the proportion of the two metals.

Gold with quicksilver easily mixeth, but the product is imperfectly fixed; and so are all other metals incorporate with mercury.

Gold incorporates with lead in any proportion.

Gold incorporates with copper in any proportion, the common allay.

Gold incorporates with brass in any proportion. And what is said of copper is true of brass, in the union of other metals.

⚫ Gold will not incorporate with iron.

Gold incorporates with tin, the ancient allay, Isa. i. 25. What was said of gold and quicksilver, may be said of quicksilver and the rest of metals.

Silver with lead in any proportion.

Silver incorporates with copper. Pliny mentions such a mixture for triumphales statuæ, lib. xxxiii. 9. Miscentur argento, tertia pars æris Cyprii tenuissimi, quod coronarium vocant, et sulphuris vivi quantum argenti. The same is true of brass.

- Silver incorporates not with iron. Wherefore I wonder at that which Pliny hath, lib. xxxiii. 9. Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum. And what is said of this is true in the rest; for iron incorporateth with none of them.

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Silver mixes with tin.

Lead incorporates with copper. Such a mixture was the pot-metal whereof Pliny speaks, lib. xxxiv. 9. Ternis aut quaternis libris plumbi argentarii in centenas æris additis.

Lead incorporates with tin. The mixture of these two in equal proportions, is that which was anciently called plumbum argentarium, Plin. lib. xxxiv. 17.

Copper incorporates with tin. Of such a mixture were the mirrors of the Romans. Plin. Atque ut omnia de speculis peragantur hoc loco, optima apud majores erant Brundusina, stanno et ære mistis. Lib.xxxiii. 9.

Compound metals now in use.

1. Fine tin. The mixture is thus: pure tin a thousand pounds, temper fifty pounds, glass of tin three pounds.

2. Coarse pewter is made of fine tin and lead. Temper is thus made: the dross of pure tin, four pounds and a half; copper, half a pound.

3. Brass is made of copper and calaminaris.

4. Bell-metal. Copper, a thousand pounds; tin, from three hundred to two hundred pounds; brass, a hundred and fifty pounds.

5. Pot-metal, copper and lead.

6. White alchemy is made of pan-brass one pound, and arsenicum three ounces.

7. Red alchemy is made of copper and auripig


There be divers imperfect minerals, which will incorporate with the metals: being indeed metals inwardly, but clothed with earths and stones: as pyritis, calaminaris, misy, chalcitis, sory, vitriolum.

Metals incorporate not with glass, except they be brought into the form of glass.

Metals dissolved. The dissolution of gold and silver disagree, so that in their mixture there is great ebullition, darkness, and in the end a precipitation of a black powder.

The mixture of gold and mercury agree.

Gold agrees with iron. In a word, the dissolution of mercury and iron agree with all the rest.

Silver and copper disagree, and so do silver and lead. Silver and tin agree.

The second letter of the cross-row, touching the separation of metals and minerals.

SEPARATION is of three sorts; the first is, the separating of the pure metal from the ore or dross, which we call refining. The second is, the drawing one metal or mineral out of another, which we call extracting. The third is, the separating of any metal into its original or materia prima, or element, or call them what you will; which work we will call principiation.

1. For refining, we are to inquire of it according to the several metals; as gold, silver, etc. Incidentally we are to inquire of the first stone, or ore, or spår, or marcasite of metals severally, and what kind of bodies they are, and of the degrees of richness. Also we are to inquire of the means of separating, whether by fire, parting waters, or otherwise. Also for the manner of refining, you are to see how you can multiply the heat, or hasten the opening, and so save the charge in the fining.

The means of this in three manners; that is to say, in the blast of the fire; in the manner of the furnace, to multiply heat by union and reflexion; and by some additament, or medicines which will help the bodies to open them the sooner.

Note, the quickning of the blast, and the multiplying of the heat in the furnace, may be the same for all metals; but the additaments must be several, according to the nature of the metals. Note again, that if you think that multiplying of the additaments in the same proportion that you multiply the ore, the work will follow, you may be deceived: for quantity in the passive will add more resistance, than the same quantity in the active will add force.

2. For extracting, you are to inquire what metals contain others, and likewise what not; as lead, silver; copper, silver, ete.

Note, although the charge of extraction should ex

ceed the worth, yet that is not the matter for at least it will discover nature and possibility, the other may be thought on afterwards.

We are likewise to inquire, what the differences are of those metals which contain more or less other metals, and how that agrees with the poorness or richness of the metals or ore in themselves. As the lead that contains most silver is accounted to be more brittle, and yet otherwise poorer in itself.

3. For principiation, I cannot affirm whether there be any such thing or not; and I think the chemists make too much ado about it: but howsoever it be, be it solution or extraction, or a kind of conversion by the fire; it is diligently to be inquired what salts, sulphur, vitriol, mercury, or the like simple bodies are to be found in the several metals, and in what quantity.

Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions, touching the separations of metals and minerals.

1. For the means of separating. After that the ore is washed, or cleansed from the earth, there is nothing simply necessary, save only a wind furnace well framed, narrow above and at the hearth, in shape oval, sufficiently fed with charcoal and ore, in convenient proportions,

For additions in this first separation, I have observed none; the dross the mineral brings being sufficient. The refiners of iron observe, that that ironstone is hardest to melt which is fullest of metal, and that easiest which hath most dross. But in lead and tin the contrary is noted. Yet in melting of metals, when they have been calcined formerly by fire, or strong waters, there is good use of additaments, as of borax, tartar, armoniac, and salt-petre.

2. In extracting of metals. Note, that lead and tin contain silver. Lead and silver contain gold. Iron contains brass. Silver is best separated from lead by the test. So gold from silver. Yet the best way for that is aqua regia.

3. For principiation. I can truly and boldly affirm, that there are no such principals as sal, sulphur, and

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