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the weight will discover it; yet that taketh off but half of the profit; for gold is not fully double weight to silver, but gold is twelve times price to silver.
The burial must be by one of these two ways, either by the smallness of the proportion, as perhaps fifty to one, which will be but six-pence gains in fifty shillings; or it must be holpen by somewhat which may fix the silver, never to be restored or vapoured away, when it is incorporated into such a mass of gold; for the less quantity is ever the harder to sever: and for this purpose iron is the likest, or coppel stuff, upon which the fire hath no power of consumption.
The making of gold seemeth a thing scarcely possible; because gold is the heaviest of metals, and to add matter is impossible: and again, to drive metals into a narrower room than their natural extent beareth, is a condensation hardly to be expected. But to make silver seemeth more easy, because both quicksilver and lead are weightier than silver; so as there needeth only fixing, and not condensing. The degree unto this that is already known, is infusing of quicksilver in a parchment, or otherwise, in the midst of molten lead when it cooleth; for this stupifieth the quicksilver that it runneth no more. This trial is to be advanced three ways. First, by iterating the melting of the lead, to see whether it will not make the quicksilver harder and harder. Secondly, to put realgar hot into the midst of the quicksilver, whereby it may be condensed, as well from within as without. Thirdly, to try it in the midst of molten iron, or molten steel, which is a body more likely to fix the quicksilver than lead. It may be also tried, by incorporating powder of steel, or coppel dust, by pouncing, into the quicksilver, and so to proceed to the stupifying.
Upon glass four things would be put in proof. The first, means to make the glass more crystalline. The second, to make it more strong for falls, and for fire, though it come not to the degree to be malleable. The third, to make it coloured by tinctures, comparable to or exceeding precious stones. The fourth, to
make a compound body of glass and galletyle; that is, to have the colour milky like a chalcedon, being a stuff between a porcelane and a glass.
For the first, it is good first to know exactly the several materials whereof the glass in use is made; window-glass, Normandy and Burgundy, ale-house glass, English drinking-glass: and then thereupon to consider what the reason is of the coarseness or clearness; and from thence to rise to a consideration how to make some additaments to the coarser materials, to raise them to the whiteness and crystalline splendor of the finest.
For the second, we see pebbles, and some other stones, will cut as fine as crystal, which if they will melt, may be a mixture for glass, and may make it more tough and more crystalline. Besides, we see metals will vitrify; and perhaps some portion of the glass of metal vitrified, mixed in the pot of ordinary glass-metal, will make the whole mass more tough.
For the third, it were good to have of coloured window-glass, such as is coloured in the pot, and not by colours
It is to be known of what stuff galletyle is made, and how the colours in it are varied; and thereupon to consider how to make the mixture of glass-metal and them, whereof I have seen the example.
Inquire what be the stones that do easiliest melt. Of them take half a pound, and of iron a pound and half, and an ounce of brimstone, and see whether they will incorporate, being whole, with a strong fire. If not, try the same quantities calcined: and if they will incorporate, make a plate of them, and burnish it as they do iron.
Take a pound and a half of brass, and half a pound of iron; two ounces of the calaminar stone, an ounce and a half of brimstone, an ounce of lead; calcine them, and see what body they make; and if they incorporate, make a plate of it burnished.
Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an ounce, and melt them together, and make a plate of them burnished.
Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an ounce, of glass-metal half an ounce; stir them well in the boiling, and if they incorporate, make a plate of them burnished.
Take of copper a pound and a half, tin four ounces, brass two ounces; make a plate of them burnished. Take of silver two ounces, tin half an ounce; make a little say-cup of it, and burnish it.
To inquire of the materials of every of the kind of glasses, coarser and finer, and of the proportions.
Take an equal quantity of glass-metal, of stone calcined, and bring a pattern.
Take an ounce of vitrified metal, and a pound of ordinary glass-metal, and see whether they will incorporate, and bring a pattern.
Bring examples of all coloured glasses, and learn the ingredients whereby they are coloured. Inquire of the substance of galletyle.
ARTICLES OF QUESTIONS
THE LORD BACON'S QUESTIONS,
DR. MEVEREL'S SOLUTIONS.
Concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union of metals or minerals. Which subject is the first letter of his Lordship's Alphabet.
WITH What metals gold will incorporate by simple colliquefaction, and with what not? And in what quantity it will incorporate; and what kind of body the compound makes?
Gold with silver, which was the ancient electrum: gold with quicksilver: gold with lead: gold with copper: gold with brass: gold with iron: gold with
So likewise of silver: silver with quicksilver : silver with lead: silver with copper: silver with brass: silver with iron: Plinius secund. lib. xxxiii. 9. Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum, silver with tin.
So likewise of quicksilver: quicksilver with lead : quicksilver with copper: quicksilver with brass: quicksilver with iron: quicksilver with tin.
So of lead: lead with copper: lead with brass: lead with iron: lead with tin. Plin. xxxiv. 9.
So of copper copper with brass: copper with iron: copper with tin.
So of brass
brass with iron: brass with tin. iron with tin.
So of iron
What be the compound metals that are common and known? And what are the proportions of their mixtures?
Latten of brass, and the calaminar stone.
Pewter of tin and lead.
Bell-metal of etc. and the counterfeit plate, which they call alchemy.
The decomposites of three metals or more, are too long to inquire of, except there be some compositions of them already observed.
It is also to be observed, whether any two metals, which will not mingle of themselves, will mingle with the help of another; and what.
What compounds will be made of metal with stone and other fossils; as latten is made with brass and the calaminar stone; as all the metals incorporate with vitriol; all with iron powdered; all with flint, etc.
Some few of these would be inquired of, to disclose the nature of the rest.
Whether metals or other fossils will incorporate with molten glass, and what body it makes?
The quantity in the mixture would be well considered; for some small quantity perhaps will incorporate, as in the allays of gold and silver coin.
Upon the compound body, three things are chiefly to be observed: the colour; the fragility or pliantness; the volatility or fixation, compared with the simple bodies.
For present use or profit, this is the rule: consider the price of the two simple bodies; consider again the dignity of the one above the other in use; then see if you can make a compound, that will save more in price, than it will lose in dignity of the use.
As for example; consider the price of brass ordnance; consider again the price of iron ordnance, and then consider wherein the brass ordnance doth excel the iron ordnance in use; then if you can make a compound of brass and iron that will be near as good in use, and much cheaper in price, then there is profit both to the private and the commonwealth. So of gold and silver, the price is double of twelve: the dignity of gold above silver is not much, the splendour is alike, and more pleasing to some eyes, as in cloth of silver, silvered rapiers, etc. The main dignity is, that gold bears the fire, which silver doth not: but that is