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broken land, has many fertile spots, and that the comparative salubrity of such parts of the country forms a very strong recommendation to them. Coal and limestone are not known within eight or nine miles of this part of Sciota river.

We lodged at Piketon, the head town of the new county Pike, so called in memory of General Pike, who, to the character of the enterprizing explorer of Mexico, added that of the brave soldier. Three years ago there were five houses here, now there are about a hundred.

November 19. We could not procure a breakfast at a tavern where we called, because the family had a sick child.

At the next tavern, breakfast was prepared for some labourers on the farm; but there was not enough of bread baked, to admit of our taking breakfast along with them. We were told that if we chose to wait for two hours, we might eat. We went onward.

After travelling several miles, we arrived at a third tavern; here, too, the bread was not prepared; but the people were obliging, and made it ready for us in a short time. The landlord was a farmer. He told us that Indian corn sells at twenty-five cents (1s. 14d. English) per bushel, and that he could procure twenty thousand bushels of it within three miles of his house. This appeared to be somewhat surprising, on considering that the cleared grounds form only small detached parcels, when compared with the intervening woods.Wheat sells at seventy-five cents (3s. 44d. English) per bushel. This sort of crop is, at present, more profitable than Indian corn, as in most cases it yields more than a third part by measure; it does not require to be cleared of weeds; and is more easily carried to market. The predominance of crops of

Indian corn is occasioned by the ease with which it is disposed of in feeding hogs and other stock, and, perhaps, in some degree, by prejudice. The bottoms are wide, and their soil rich. They are often inundated by the Sciota and its numerous branches, the water leaving great quantities of logs, and other vegetable matter, to be decomposed on the surface of the ground. These facts convince us that the situation is not healthy, notwithstanding the affirmations we heard to the contrary; and we were the more fully persuaded of this, as we saw a young man pale and meagre, in consequence of an attack of the ague.

We came to a saw-mill near Paint Creek. A woman asked us how we proposed to get across the run. She told us that there was neither bridge nor boat; and that the water would reach up to our middle. She told us further, that travellers commonly hire a creature (a horse) at her house. We ordered one, and her husband followed us with it. At the Creek, we discovered that the water was shallow. Some of our party, (now increased to five,) indignant at the hoax, waded the stream. The water did not reach to the knee.

Chillicothe, (formerly the seat of government, in the State of Ohio, now transferred to Columbus,) is situated on an extensive high plain, in a great bend of the Sciota, which here varies from one hundred to one hundred and fifty yards in breadth. The town has a court-house, an academy, two places of worship, two printing offices, that publish a weekly newspaper each, a woollen manufactory, a cotton manufactory, a grist-mill wrought by steam, a brewery, a tannery, a variety of merchants' shops, several taverns, and three banks. One of the last establishments has its door


shut. There is a good wooden bridge across the river, near the town.

November 20. I crossed Paint Creek, by the road toward Limestone. The bottoms are rich, but the greater part of them uncleared. The cattle of this neighbourhood are better than those I have seen by the river Ohio, and in the western parts of Pennsylvania. It is not here, however, that the fine droves formerly noticed are reared. These must have come from the more northerly part of the State, where the grass on the prairies (lands without timber) is said to be abundant. All accounts that I have heard of these prairies, say, that they are wet, and unfavourable to health. The ease with which settlements are formed on them, and the facility for rearing cattle, are, however, attracting many settlers.

Visited a Scotch family about thirteen miles from Chillicothe. They settled here twelve years ago. Their farm consists of three hundred acres of first and second rate land; of which seventy acres are cleared and fenced. They have met with two misfortunes; either of which, they think, would have finally arrested their progress in Scotland. They bought a bad title to their land; it being part of an old military grant, and omitted to see it traced back to the government. In addition to this, their house, with most of their moveables, was burnt. They have now surmounted these losses; and are in better circumstances than at any former period. It is astonishing to see how much this family have adopted the manners and customs of the Americans. The father, who is seventy-five years of age, has almost entirely laid aside the peculiarities of his native provincial dialect. Nothing but the broad pronunciation of the vowel A remains. The son

has acquired the dialect of the country perfectly; and has adopted the American modes of farming; is a good axe-man, and is in every respect identified with the people. During the late war, he was out on a campaign, on the frontier of Canada. This absence must have been extremely painful to the father, who lost an amiable son in the fight with the Indians, at Tippacanoe, in 1811. Religious and patriotic views seem to have supported this worthy old man under every discourage


November 21. I made an excursion into the woods. A few deer and wild turkeys remain. Squirrels are very numerous. They are of the grey and black varieties: also of the striped or ground species. The two former are much larger than the English squirrel, and are ate in America. Some people esteem them as equal to chickens. Quails are abundant: they are smaller than partridges, and are so tame that the report of a gun, and the destruction of a part of the covey, do not always make them take flight. It is a common prac tice to drive whole families of them into nets. Rabbits are not plentiful; they lodge in the hollows of fallen trees; and are not understood to burrow in the ground. The only fox that I have seen, was of a small size, and of a light grey colour. It does not require a thick population to exterminate bears, deer, and turkeys. The beaver is destroyed by the first hunters who invade the forests; and the buffalo retreats into more remote solitudes, almost on the first approach of white men.

The woods are principally composed of Quercus, (Alba,) White Oak; (Tinctoria,) Black Oak; (Coccinea,) Red Qak; (Primus accuminata,) Chesnut Oak; Platanus, (Occidentalis,) Syca more; Fagus, (Ferruginea,) Beech; Acer, (Sac

charinum,) Maple, (sugar tree ;) Fraxinus, (Americana,) Ash; Juglans, (Nigra,) Walnut, (black ;) (Alba ovata,) Hickory; Laurus, (Sassafras,) Sassafras; Cornus (Florida,) Dogwood; Fagus, (Castanea,) Chesnut; Liriodendron, (Falipifera,) Poplar; Ulmus, (Americana,) Slippery Elm; (Mollifolia,) White Elm; Vitus, (Labrusea,) Fall Grape; (Serotina,) Winter Grape.

Amongst the shrubs, or underwood, the following may be noticed as prevalent:

Rhus, (Glabrum,) Sumach; Laurus, (Benzoin,) Spicewood; Rubus, (Fructicosus,) Blackberry; (Hispidus,) Running do.; Annona, Annona, (Glabra,) Papaw.

The prevalent strata are of slate clay, bituminous shale, and sandstone. Coal is not known, and probably has not been sought after. Rolled pieces of the latter mineral, and of granite, gneiss, quartz, and flint slate, are mixed with the sandy gravel of the streams. Dr. Drake has pointed out a situation in this State, where large detached masses of granite lie over strata of secondary limestone; and has conjectured that they have been brought from the primitive country north of the lakes, by the agency of water passing from north to south. This hypothesis is countenanced by the vast quantities of alluvial soil which lie far above the level of the present river, and by the almost total absence of primitive rocks, between the eastern side of the Allegany ridge, and the sources of the Missouri. The only exception known is the tract between Lakes Ontario and Champlain,-a field so narrow that we cannot view it as the probable source of fragments profusely scattered over the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky.

In this part of Ohio State, first and second rate lands sell at four or five dollars per acre. The richest ground is in bottoms: the hilly has many


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