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beration amongst the rocky hills and woods greatly augmented the sound.
The margin of the river is lined with masses of sandstone of enormous size. Others lie in the middle, with their rounded and scratched tops exposed above water. All these must have been detached from the river hills.
Arived at Steubenville, on the right bank of the Ohio. This town stands on a second or higher bottom, exempt from the inundations so unpleasant on the first or lower plains. There are several hundred acres of this dry ground adjacent to the town, the largest tract of the kind that I have seen between the river and the hills.
This place is named Steubenville, from Baron Steuben, in consideration of his philanthropic services rendered to America, during the revolution. ary war. It contains upwards of 2000 people; and it is regularly laid out, and the houses built of brick, wood, and a few are of stone, all covered with shingles. A newspaper is printed in the town; it contains also a woollen manufactory, a paper-mill, a grist-mill, and a small cotton-mill. These machines are wrought by steam. There are also two earthenware manufactories, and a brewery in the town, four preachers, six lawyers, five surgeons, twenty-seven shops, sixteen taverns, two banks, and a considerable number of artizans, necessary to the existence and increase of the place.
The aspect of the river hills, by Steubenville, convey the idea that they are better land, and not so apt to be washed down by rains, as those in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg. I have had no opportunity of inquiring into the cause.
If I am not mistaken, Steubenville contains a greater proportion of orderly and religious people,
than some other American towns which I have seen. I entertain a very favourable opinion of several citizens, to whom I was introduced.
November 3. After having left the town, and proceeded about a mile down the river, Mr. Hamilton the tavern-keeper, with whom I had lodg. ed, came along the bank, on horseback, calling af ter me. I landed, and he delivered to me an article, that I had neglected to pack up.
Passed a young man in a small skiff; he had not ballast enough for keeping head against the wind, which twirled his vessel round, and occasionally drifted him up the stream. He put ashore, as did He also a family boat, that could not get onward.
The wind having increased, I found it expedient to land at Wellsburgh, and wait till the gale abated. The waves were too large for such a small bark, and, in making the crossings necessary to keep in the proper channel, I was in danger of exposing the broadside too much to the weather.
Wellsburgh, (formerly Charlestown,) stands on the Virginia side of the river. It is a small town; I observed in it a court-house, a jail, a large storehouse, and several taverns. The margin of the river is so shallow, that I could not push my skiff within twelve feet of the dry ground. There is no wharf or artificial landing place here, or at any of the towns that I have seen by the rivers. The floods sweep off almost every thing that is erected within the banks; even the roads that are scooped out of the beach are at times destroyed. Taverns (out of town) have only a rude foot-path cut in the bank, and many of them have not à trace formed by the hands of man.
Afternoon. The wind calmed, and I proceeded downward. I came up with two young men in a
small skiff; one of them put off his coat to row, and the other paddled with an oar. Their intention was evidently to keep before me, but they were soon disappointed. When one small boat comes up with another, a sort of race is almost invariably the consequence. I have already acted a part in several of them, and have uniformly got foremost. On one occasion I was opposed by three men in a smaller skiff than my own. I impute my success to the superior construction of my vessel, and to the extraordinary breadth of my oars. It has occurred to me, that the oars in general use are much too narrow, and that by adopting broader ones, we would avail ourselves more of the vis inertia of the water, that of course is the sole cause of locomotion in a vessel propelled by rowing.
On a dry bar, or island of gravel, I observed that none of the weeds were close by the present margin of the water, and that they were all on ground at least two feet higher than that line, an evident proof that the surface of the water must have been about two feet higher during the summer months. At that time it must have been a much easier task to descend the river.
I landed in the evening at Warren, a small town on the north bank. At this place there was a pedlar's boat, a small ark, which is removed from one town to another. Internally itis a shop, with counter, balances, &c. around the sides are shelves, with goods, in the usual form.
4th. Last night the tavern had been in an uproar with a large party of gamblers.-Their room had no door, and that in which I slept had none, so that I heard much swearing and loud vociferation. About four o'clock one of the gentlemen retired from play, and laid himself down beside me.
A short time afterwards another entered the room, when the bar-keeper advised him to become a third of our party; this he declined. The bar-keeper next advised that he should take a part of the clothes from our bed, and an adjoining one, and with them make a bed for himself on the floor.This he also declined; probably judging that the attempt would be opposed.
This morning a contrary wind blew hard. Immediately below the town there is a rapid current, not much ruffled by the breeze, but a long stretch of deeper water beyond it is rolling with waves. Where the waves and the stream meet, white break. ers are formed. Wishing to avoid these as much as possible, I took a young man of the neighbourhood with me, and availed myself of his local know ledge.
Wheeling is a considerable town on the left bank of the river, ninety-six miles from Pittsburg. It is expected that the new road from Baltimore to this place will be completed in the course of a year. This being a national highway, on which no tolls are to be levied, and the shortest connection between a sea-port and the Ohio, a great increase of trade is consequently anticipated. Hereafter, Baltimore will be the most proper landing place for Europeans who would settle in western America. At present the carriage of goods from Baltimore to Wheeling is cheaper than from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, From this it is evident, that the new route is already the shortest and the cheapest.
About four and a half miles below Wheeling, I was surprised at hearing the river making a great noise, The Pittsburg navigator not giving any notice of a rapid, and as a thick fog prevented me from seeing the cause, I went on shore to reconnoitre. Before reaching the place from whence
the noise proceeded, a boy informed me that a great fresh (flood) in M'Mahon's Creek, happened last summer, at a time when the Ohio was low, and that it had carried earth and trees from the bot tom land, together with a house and a family, into the river. The devastation produced by this torrent is truly astonishing. It has cut a great chasm through the bottom land, which is about twentyfive feet high, and scooped it out many feet lower than the surface of the Ohio. A large bar, that in some measure dams the river, has large trees intermixed with it; their roots and branches standing above the water. This is the obstacle and cause that occasion the noisy ripple.
The last tavern that we passed here, had no signboard. In consequence of which I supposed it to be a private house, and, after sailing several miles down the river, was obliged to put ashore, when nearly dusk, at a farm-house about nine miles below Wheeling.
November 5. The family with whom I lodged last night, seem to be industrious and well disposed. Two daughters were busily engaged in tailor work for the males. This, they said, is a common practice in the country. They also told me of a young lady of the neighbourhood, who had just gone to the house of her bridegroom, to make his marriage suit. As this occurrence was told with some degree of disapprobation, it is not to be viewed as in unison with the manners of the people.
Twelve miles and a half below Wheeling, and a quarter of a mile from the river, on the left-hand side, there is a remarkable mound of earth, called the Big Grave. This hill is about sixty-seven feet high, a hundred and eighty feet broad at the base, and about twenty-two feet broad at the top, which is a little hollow. Some have supposed that the earth