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court in the State, since my coming into it. I do not notice the infrequency of punishments as wishing to occasion a belief that misdemeanours are seldom committed. Indeed, were it not for the absolute impunity obtained in most cases, we might soon see the partial development of a new system of physiognomy, one not founded on the features of the face, but on the striped lineaments of the back. Never, till now, did I so much value the usage of Scotland, where the inhabitant, on removing from one parish to another, carries with him the testimonial of the church.

The surface of the land in the neighbourhood of Charlestown is beautifully diversified, varying between gently undulated and steep or broken ground. The soil is of the first rate quality, and covered with luxuriant crops of Indian corn. The crops of wheat are what you would call a second rate crop, and several fields of oats, which I saw, were headed out, and were as bulky as any that I have seen in Mid-Lothian; but, for a reason formerly stated, the grain cannot be expected to arrive at fine quality. The banks of Fourteen-Mile-Creek, (which joins the Ohio at the distance of fourteen miles above the falls,) are cliffs of limestone that are overtopped by tall woods, and form, by their windings, many romantic scenes, of which I can convey no adequate idea. The stream is at present almost entirely dried up, but the extent of its bed, and the marks of inundation by its margin, convince me that its floods are nearly equal to those of the Clyde at Glasgow. Some salt springs that percolate through the rocks in the bottom, have been discovered during the present dry season: the existence of these were first surmised by an ingenious gentleman, with whom I am well acquainted. He proceeded by introducing a small tube into a

deep and still part of the river, and drew water from the bottom that was perceptibly saline. He has now some people engaged in boring, by which means the discharge of water has been considerably augmented, and has commenced evaporating on a small scale. This process is usually performed by filling a number of iron kettles, of about three feet in diameter, and six inches deep, with the water, and placing them on loose stones, or over a trench that is dug in the ground for receiving the fuel. Boring for salt water is a work that is occasionally accompanied with a considerable degree of difficulty. Where the bore communicates with a fresh water spring, on a higher level than the saline one, a tube of tinned iron is let down to exclude the former. At the salt-works by Kanhaway River, perforations have been made in the lime-stone rocks to the depth of two hundred feet. There a hundred gallons of water are said to yield a bushel of salt; but there are waters evaporated in other parts of the country that do not yield more than a fourth, or even a sixth part of that quantity.

Corydon, the capital of the State of Indiana, is a small village, situated in an obscure valley of Indian Creek, and is surrounded by high and broken wooded lands. The weeds which cover the clear parts of the town plot are withered to whiteness by the drought, as is most of the ground in this part of the country, swamps and lands under crop excepted. The site of a new capital for the State is determined to be on the east branch of White River, where the lands are still in the hands of the government. Future convenience, and the prospect of promoting the sale of land in the late Indian purchase, seem to have, on this occasion, tri

umphed over private interest.-No name has yet been assigned to this inland metropolis.

Between Corydon and the river Ohio, (about twenty-five miles,) the surface is of a rolling structure, and the soil good. Grass, at all times scanty on account of the small quantity of cleared ground, is now withered. The surface, where closely shaded by large trees, scarcely exhibits any thing that is green; rotten logs, and the leaves of last autumn, are strowed over the ground, presenting the most gloomy picture of desolation. Where large trees are thin, a growth of underwood prevails. Grounds called barrens are interspersed with the woods in this part of Indiana.-These are covered over with small copsewood, as hazel and briars, also with grasses, and an immense variety of deciduous plants.

-The name barrens must have arisen from the lands so denominated not producing such a large growth of vegetable matter as the forests, rather than from sterility. They are, in reality, much better pasturages than the woodlands, and, when cultivated, produce the best crops of wheat. I found travelling through the barrens to be somewhat uncomfortable, on account of exposure to the rays of the sun, and the dust of the road, which was continually raised, in a little cloud, by the motion of the horse's feet. This sort of ground is dry, and without the vast quantity of decaying ve. getable matters to be seen in the woods, and for these reasons it is probably more conducive to health.


A great portion of the soil of western America lies immediately over immense strata of horizontal limestone, in which are numerous fissures. have often seen the presence of these indicated in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana, by hollows in the

ground in the form of inverted cones, which are here called sink holes. Some of these fissures have openings to the surface. A stupendous one in Kentucky, known by the name of the great cave, has been explored to the distance of nine 4 miles from its entrance *. The nitrate of potash has been found in some, of these caves, and the sulphate of magnesia in others. Many of them abound in stalactites of calc sinter; and copious streams of water pass through some of them. One of these in Kentucky turns a subterraneous mill, to which access is obtained by a sink-hole; and a Colonel C- of Indiana told me that a settler in his neighbourhood, on digging a well, penetrated" into a stream of water, and found blind fishes in it t.

During the last and the present summer, this country has suffered droughts, which the inhabitants consider extraordinary. Between Corydon and the Ohio the water was very muddy. Some people in that part are obliged to carry water from a distance of two miles. It is not uncommon now to see mill streams entirely dried up. I have seen several peach trees, with the fruit nearly ripened, almost dried up by the scorching heat; and, in some instances, the woods assuming the appearance of autumn prematurely, from the same cause. The disadvantage of the want of water will be thought less appalling, when it is recollected that the clearing of the ground has a tendency to increase springs; and when it is considered that

* A description of this cave was written by John H. Farnham, Esq., and by him transmitted to the American Antiquarian Society, instituted by the legislature of Massachusetts.

+ Since the above was written, a notice of blind fishes has appeared (if I mistake not) in the memoirs of the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh.

the dryness of rivers is not occasioned by the total want of springs, but by the evaporation from the bottoms of water-courses; and farther, that water in most situations may be procured by digging wells.


Immediately on the north bank of the Ohio, and about thirty miles below the fall, I crossed an avenue in the woods, 600 or 700 yards wide, which had been devastated by a tornado that had passed from west to east, and in its way cleared the ground almost entirely. The largest trees were either torn up by the roots or broken. the part that I observed, nothing but underwood and the shattered fragments of trees remained. On making inquiries as to the hurricane, I was informed that it swept over the country to the length of several hundred miles; and that, on the Kentucky side of the river, it totally obstructed a road with timber which has not yet been removed.

It is also about thirty miles below the falls that the range of high land, called the knobs, intersects the river. This is the ridge that crosses the lower part of Indiana, and part of Kentucky, which the Îate M. Volney noticed under the name of the Silver Creek hills; and by him supposed to have once formed a dam, that retained a lake in the valley of the Ohio, extending from the ridge just mentioned, to the place where Pittsburg now stands. That philosopher attempted to show that the higher bottom. lands, which are above the level of the present inundations, were deposited in the bottom of the lake; and that, on the water's making a gap in the barrier, the lake was drained, and the Ohio withdrawn into its present lower and less capacious bed. That the knobs once formed a dam I am forced to admit, from having seen marks on a high level on the limestone rocks in the gap, which


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