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lation has been accelerated, if not entirely produced, by Europeans, who took possession of the country by force, driving tribes into the territories of other nations. A migration cannot be tolerated to any great extent, where the people depend on hunting and fishing for their subsistence. Hence, the object of Indian warfare has been extirpation. The practice of leaguing with one tribe in fighting against another, has been a powerful cause of mutual destruction. The presents given by Europeans in these cases, and the promises made, could never have been inducements to wars purely Indian. Add to this, the havock introduced by the small-pox, and the use of spiritous liquors. We are almost totally unacquainted with the remote history of the American tribes. The great magnitude of their remaining works, prove that the population has once been comparatively numerous. This fact is in some measure corroborated by the great number of nations existing at the time of the first invasion of white people. It follows, that the wars that occurred during the accumulation of these people, have probably been less frequent, or less destructive than those which have latterly exterminated a large portion of the race.

LETTER XIX.

Descend the Ohio from Cincinnati to Madison-Notices of a Scotch Settlement-Excess of Male PopulationRoads-Harvest-Crops--Orchards-Timber-Elections-Methodist Camp Meeting.

Jeffersonville, (Indiana,)
August 8, 1820.

On the day succeeding the date of my last, I descended the river to Madison, a new town on the Indiana side of the river.

About twelve miles north-east of Madison, and extending from thence eastward, is a new settlement, consisting chiefly of Scots, who amount to thirty-three families. The land which they have fixed on seems to be of the second rate quality. It is uneven, and intermixed with many deep ravines; in most of which the water is now dried up. The greatest natural disadvantage of this situation is, the difficulty of having roads over ground so much broken; but the industry displayed by the settlers may remedy this before the present generation passeth away. In the above enumeration of Scots, I used the term families for want of a better; but it deserves notice, that two of these establishments consist of two young men each, and one of them of three. Amongst the bachelor cultivators I recognised one of the passengers who came over with me in the ship Glenthorn. Another of them was lately a journeyman tailor in Edinburgh. He has thrown aside the tools of his former business, and taken up, in their stead, a more formidable

weapon. I had an opportunity of conversing with five of these people. The supposed horrors of a backwoods life, aggravated by a state of celibacy, has by no means shed a gloom over their countenances. Whatever their privations may be in the mean time, they have at least a reasonable prospect of having them speedily removed. The lands which they improve are their own. Whether they continue to cultivate or to sell them, their capital will increase: and even in the event of their taking wives, the probability of their children becoming paupers must be greatly lessened, in consequence of their emigrating to America. The excessive emigration of the men occasions a considerable paucity of females in all new settlements. While at Pittsburg, I saw a young widower with two infant children on his way for the military lands, in the State of Illinois. Some one hinted to him, that to marry again would be a prudential step on his part. He gave his assent to the truth of the remark, but expressed some doubts of his finding a wife where he was going. "I have lately been in that country," continued he, "and I believe that the girls there are all married up." During the early stages of the settlement of the colonies, the excess of male population must have been thought a great inconvenience. It is on record

that the settlers of Virginia procured ladies from England in exchange for tobacco. The necessity of importations of this kind has been long ago removed, in that State; and the two sexes are now nearly equal in point of numbers, although not quite equally distributed over the country. Before dropping this digression on celibacy, I must mention my conviction that a very great proportion of Scotsmen remain bachelors in America. This is not asserted as a fact that applies to every part of the country, but in

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so far as my observation has gone, I state it with much confidence. Whether we are less ardent in the pursuit than other people, or whether we are more under the influence of the prudential principle,---or whether our imputed loyalty, or some other national peculiarities, make the fair daughters of this land repulsive to us, I am not prepared to say. To return to the Scots settlement; J. M. lately a blacksmith in the county of Edinburgh, has settled here himself. He arrived with his wife, seven sons, two daughters, and a son-in-law, about ten months before I met him. He has purchased 480 acres of land, built two log-houses and a small stable; cleared and inclosed about 22 acres, which is nearly all under crop; deadened the timber of about 80 acres more; and planted an orchard. In addition to these improvements, his sons have wrought for a neighbour to the amount of a hundred days' work. He has a horse, a cow, a few hogs, and some poultry. I inquired if he felt himself happy in a strange land; he replied, that he would not return to Scotland though the property, of which he formerly rented a part, were given to him for nothing.

Madison is a county town, consisting of about 100 houses. It is situated on a northerly bend of the river Ohio; and is, therefore, a place well adapted for intercourse with the interior of Indiana, and, on that account, it may soon become a considerable town. While I was there, the circuit court of the State was sitting. Two respectable personages were on the bench, and several lawyers of polite address were attending to the business on hand. The number of litigants is extremely great when the thinness of the population is considered.

The roads are merely narrow avenues through

the woods; felling and rolling away the timber being, in most cases, all the labour which is bestowed upon them. Withered trees, and others blown down by the wind, lie across, forming obstructions in many parts. The few bridges which we do see are made of wood. In Indiana, the roads are opened and occasionally repaired by an assessment from every man who has lived thirty days in any particular county. In the present year this statute labour has been increased from two days' to six days' work; and the alteration is unpopular, because the poorest men in the State are obliged to pay as much as the wealthiest landholders, and non-resident. landholders are exempted. I have seen several labourers who left the State to avoid this obnoxious tax. I am not informed whether the increase mentioned has been exacted in every part of the State. An act of the legislature fixes six days' labour, or a money commutation of the same, as a maximum, leaving the actual increase in the option of county commissioners. It does not appear probable that the road law can exist long without being modified, as popular opinion regulates every thing of the kind here.

On the 29th of June, wheat harvest was commenced on several farms to the west of Madison. Oats, at that time, were headed out and luxuriant but the heat of the climate is uniformly unfavourable to the ripening of this kind of crop. Its weight, relative to measure, is usually about half of that of good grain in the better parts of Britain. The growth of Indian corn is this season luxuriant. The only injury it has suffered arises from squirrels that gathered a considerable quantity of the seed in many fields. Squirrels are not so excessively numerous in the uninhabited woods as in the vicinity of cultivated fields. Potatoes are small and of a bad

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