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along with himself. On the second day the family took breakfast a little earlier than usual, and caused the table to be covered anew for the mechanics, previous to their coming in. They were so highly offended with this imaginary insult, that they went off without finishing their work. This little affair became so well known in the vicinity, that the gentleman could not procure other workmen for some time. This extension of liberty and equality is injurious, inasmuch as it prevents the virtuous part of society from separating from the vicious; and so far as it removes from the unprincipled and untutored part, the salutary incitement to rest character on good behaviour and intelligence, instead of citizenship, or an allusion to the land of liberty, or the favourite maxim that one man is as good as another. (I have frequently been asked such questions as, "Where are you come from? Where are you going? What are you to do there? What have you got in these here boxes? Are you a merchant? I guess, then, you are a mechanic.". Dr. Franklin did well in wearing labels on his person, announcing his name, his residence, the place he was travelling for, and his business there.

The abolition of titles and hereditary distinctions in America has not been productive of all the simplicity of address that might have been expected, or was perhaps intended by the illustrious founders. Squire, the appellation designating a Justice of the Peace, or Magistrate, is commonly retained for life, although out of office, or even when dismissed for misconduct. It is so also amongst officers in the militia. Men who are appointed Captains, or Majors, and may have been present at trainings for a short time, are called Captains or Majors ever afterwards. Of ex officio corporals or serjeants I have heard no mention made. The persons who

take the charge of keel-boats are also Captains. Except in cases where such names as those just alluded to are applied, Mr. is the epithet of every man, and is applied on every occasion. All are gentlemen. The wife is, of course, Mrs.; the daughter and maid servant are indiscriminately saluted Miss, or Madam. All are ladies. Thus the Christian name has fallen into disuse. I do not wish to be understood as approving of giving an appellation to one man and withholding it from another, but would only observe, that where all are Mr. Mrs. and Miss, these terms do not imply a distinctive mark, and that the simple Christian names would be more discriminately useful in the affairs of life, if not almost as respectable.

A passion for money has been said to be a great characteristic of Americans. To admit this would perhaps be conceding too much. It is certain that security of property and high profits on capital, tend to promote this disposition, and it therefore cannot be wonderful that America has a full proportion of enterprizing citizens, and such as are essential to the progress of a new country.


Polite behaviour, talents, education, and property, have influence in society, here, as elsewhere. It is true that many who occupy the back ground are obtrusive, and wish to act on the principle of equality, and that violations of decorum are not repulsed with the same contempt as in Britain but it is only those who are agreeable in their manner and conversation, that can be received as interesting companions amongst accomplished men. The finer sympathies of human nature are not to be taken possession of by force. Those who have believed in the equality of society in America, have adopted a position physically and morally impossible.

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Most of the defects noticed may be traced to the education of youth, reared in families where the parents have not had the advantage of early culture, and where the son becomes a mere transcript of the father, the model after which he is formed. If he is sent to school, in most cases he knows that the teacher is not allowed to whip him. The teacher is thus rendered any thing but that object of reverence which becomes his office, and it can scarcely be expected that the young freeman will be much inclined either to follow the precepts or to imitate the example of his tutor. He is practically taught to look down on the learned man as an inferior, and to despise the most useful attainments. The most efficient means of instruction, then, are those of the family, where, in too many instances, the children are the unrestrained offspring of nature. It gives no pleasing sensations to hear them swearing, at an age when they ought to be learning to know one letter from another, or to see them throwing off submission to parents, and assuming all the confidence of manhood before they arrive at half the stature.

There is one trait of character sufficiently generous to give a lustre to the American name. The stranger is not insulted on account of his country. I have not seen or heard of a single instance where a native of Britain has met with a disagreeable reflection for having paid taxes to the government so long inimical to the Republic, and that has repeatedly leagued with savages in carrying bloodshed amongst her people.

In almost every part where I have travelled, I have met with intelligent and interesting individuals. In every town where my stay was for any considerable length of time, I have become ac


quainted with citizens whom I should be happy to meet again. A few introductory letters which I brought with me to this country, have not only procured for me the most polite and friendly receptions, but other introductions to respectable and eminent persons before me on my route; letters not weakened by the distance of my friends, whose good wishes dictated the first, but if possible stronger than the originals.


To give a summary character of the American people, or even of any considerable portion of them, is beyond the reach of my observation and intellect. It may be safe to state, that they are much diversified by education, local circumstances, and the sources from which the population has been derived. The manners of Britain seem to predominate. The want of schools a great is desiderata in new settlements. Hence it is, that in travelling from the coast into the interior, the proportion of uneducated persons appears to be the greater the farther to the westward a fact that has been noticed by many, and one showing that civilization follows in the rear of population.

His Excellency James Munro, President of the United States, is now on a tour through the southern and western parts of the country. On the 24th current, three of our citizens, deputed by the inhabitants of the town, went to congratulate him, on his arrival in the neighbourhood, and to invite him to visit Jeffersonville. On accidentally meeting with them returning, I felt myself at a loss for a trite phrase in congratulating them, and could only tell them bluntly, that in Europe we should say, You are very loyal. One of them was polite enough to set me right, by informing me, that the object of their mission was to make an expression

of public respect. Should you consider the loyalty of Europe, and the public respect of America as convertible terms, you will also have occasion to be set right, and this may perhaps be best done by telling you, that the President does not engage in dubbing knights or granting sinecures :-That public officers are not appointed by his fiat, nor with the concurrence of a privy council of his choice; but in conjunction with the Senate, whose members are elected by the people. These officers are not only few, but their salaries are merely remunerations for the services which they perform. In short, the President is not regarded as a dispenser of public money. On his part he has to regard public greetings as the spontaneous sentiments of disinterested and independent men, without repulsing any one in the language of James the First of Scotland, "What does the cunning loon want?"

On the 26th the President arrived. A tall pole with the striped flag was displayed on the bank of the river. A salute was fired, and a large body of citizens waited his coming on shore. To be introduced to the President was a wish almost universal, and he was subjected to a laborious shaking of hands with the multitude. A public dinner was given. This, too, was an object of ambition, Grocers left their goods, and mechanics their workshops, to be present at the gratifying repast. The first magistrate appears to be about sixty years of age. His deportment is dignified, and at the same time affable. His countenance is placid and cheerful. His chariot is not of iron, nor is he attended by horse-guards or drawn swords. His protection is the affection of a free and a represented people.

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