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lyhedral crystals, where the sides of one pyramid are set on the angles of another.

For some days past I have found the expense of travelling to be uniformly three shillings and elevenpence farthing per day.

Limestone, sometimes called Maysville, is a considerable landing place on the Kentucky side of the river Ohio. The houses stand above the level of the highest floods. There is rope-walk, glasshouse, several stores and taverns, and a bank, in the town.

On the 26th, I left Limestone by the road for Lexington, which is sixty-four miles distant. The roads, hitherto scorched by drought, were in a few minutes rendered wet and muddy by a heavy shower of rain. The roads in this western country are of the natural soil.

The high grounds every where seen from the river, are called the river hills; they are in reality banks, the ground inland of them being high. To the south of Limestone it is a rich table land, diversified by gentle slopes and moderate emi

nences.

At four miles from Limestone is Washington, the seat of justice in Mason County. The town is laid out on a large plan, but is not thriving.

May's Lick is a small village, twelve miles from Limestone. A rich soil, and a fine undulated surface, unite in forming a neighbourhood truly delightful. The most florid descriptions of Kentucky have never conveyed to my mind an idea of a country naturally finer than this.

I lodged at a tavern twenty miles from Limestone. Before reaching that place the night became dark and the rain heavy. As the tops of the trees overhung the road, I had no other indication than the miry feel of the track, to prevent me from wandering into the woods.

November 27. Crossed the river Licking in a boat, at a small town called Blue Licks, from the springs in its neighbourhood, from which great quantities of salt were formerly procured. The adjoining timber is exhausted, and the salt-works are abandoned.

After coming to a flooded creek, where there was neither bridge nor boat, I waited a few minutes for the mail coach. The road is in several parts no other than the rocky bed of the stream. It also crosses the same creek four or five times. After riding a few miles, I left the coach. There is no great degree of comfort in travelling by this vehicle; stowed full of people, baggage, and letter bags; the jolting over stones, and through miry holes, is excessively disagreeable: and the traveller's head is sometimes knocked against the roof with much violence. A large piece of leather is let down over each side, to keep out the mud thrown up by the wheels. The front was the only opening, but as the driver and two other persons occupied it, those behind them were almost in total darkness. A peep at the country was not to be obtained.

Millersburg is a very small town, with several large grist-mills and a bank.

To-day I have seen a number of young women on horseback, with packages of wool, going to, or returning from, the carding machine. At some of the houses the loom stands under a small porch by the door, Although Miss does not wear the produce of her own hands, it is pleasant to see such abundant evidence of family manufacture.

I lodged at Paris, the head town of Bourbon county. A cotton-mill, and some grist-mills, are the manufactories of the place. The population is considerable. Several of the taverns are large, and, like many of the others in the western country,

have bells on the house-tops, which are rung at meals.

A traveller has just returned from attending the sales of public lands in the Missouri country.→→ They are exposed by auction, in quarter sections of 160 acres each. A considerable part of them sold at from three to six dollars per acre. Lots, not sold at auction, may be subsequently bought at the land-office for two dollars per acre, on paying half a dollar in ready money, and the remainder within five years. Land dealers are very vigilant in securing for themselves great quantities of the best land. It is not uncommon for reconnoitring parties of them to lodge in the woods for a whole week. By such means much of the best land, mill-seats, and other local advantages, are withdrawn from the market at the first public sales. This gentleman describes the Missouri country as one possessing a fine climate, and containing many extensive prairies of a rich soil, but destitute of timber and stone. The most advantageous purchases are considered to be those on the edges of prairies, with a part of the open land, and a part of the woods. Many of the settlers that I have seen by the river, and elsewhere, were on their way for the Missouri territory. The Illinois country, according to the account given by this traveller, is a very unhealthy one. He travelled twenty days in that State, and on his return home, found that many of the people were afflicted with bilious fevers and agues. He affirmed that he had seen more sick people during these twenty days than during the whole of his preceding life in Kentucky. Other reports corroborate his statement, so that there can be no doubt that the autumn has been a sickly one in that low country.

The best taverns in town charge higher than those in the country, where accommodation is inferior. At Paris I paid 624 cents (2s. 9ąd. English) for supper and lodgings.

In this western country there is a great diversity of paper money. Small bills are in circulation of a half, a fourth, an eighth, and even a sixteenth part of a dollar. These small rags are not current at a great distance from the places of their nativity. A considerable proportion of the little specie to be seen is of what is called cut money.-Dollars cut into two, four, eight, or sixteen pieces. This practice prevents such money from being received in banks, or sent out of the country in the character of coin, and would be highly commendable were it not for the frauds committed by those who clip the pieces in reserving a part of the metal for themselves.

November 28. To-day I have crossed several flooded creeks: one by a tree which has accidentally fallen across it, and one has a tree that has been felled intentionally for a bridge; one I crossed on an accumulated heap of drift-wood; and once by a horse, where a farmer allows a Negro boy to derive a perquisite from carrying over travellers.Goods are now carried from Limestone to Lexington for a dollar per hundred pounds weight.This is somewhat lower than the usual rate. Waggoners are occasionally interrupted by flooded

streams.

Between the river Ohio and Lexington, limestone is the only rock which I have observed. Like that noticed in Ohio State, it is crowded with organic remains. The variety of the surface, in this part of the country, is pleasant. The eminences are gentle swells rather than hills, and the intervals between them are smooth, rich, and dry

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ground. Marshy land is scarcely to be seen.These are convincing marks of the excellence of the subsoil.

LETTER IX.

Lexington-Depreciated Paper Currency, and Fraudulent Bankers-Excess of Paper Money destructive to American Manufactures-Aversion to Menial Service-Atheneum-Dirking, Gouging, Kicking, and Biting-Prices of Live-stock-Provisions, &c.-Slavery-Effects of Slave-keeping on the White Population-Illiberal Reflections of British Tories against the Americans and against Free Government-Leave Lexington-Descend the Ohio to Cincinnati-Occurrences and Reflections intermixed.

Cincinnati, Ohio, 30th Dec. 1818.

LEXINGTON, the county town of Fayette, was the capital of the state of Kentucky, before the government was transferred to Frankfort. It is situated in north latitude, 38° 8', and in west longitude 80° 8'. The town is surrounded by a fertile and pleasant neighbourhood, and is regularly built of brick and frame houses. It has a university, seven places of worship, (three Presbyterian, one Episcopalian, one Baptist, one Methodist, and one Roman Catholic.) Three printing offices, where three weekly newspapers are published; a branch of the United States Bank, and two other banking houses;

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