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OR,

HISTORICAL SKETCHES

OF

THE MOUND-BUILDERS, THE INDIAN TRIBES,

AND THE

PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION

IN THE

NORTH-WEST;

FROM A.D. 1600 TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY GEORGE GALE.

CHICAGO:

CLARKE AND COMPANY.

NEW YORK:

OAKLEY AND MASON.

1867.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867,

BY GEORGE GALE,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Northern District of Illinois.

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PREFACE.

THAT portion of the United States to which the following pages are chiefly devoted, was known to the old French traders and settlers as upper Louisiana," and included the country above the mouth of the Ohio river. That region is now generally called in the West by the name of the "upper Mississippi." The inhabitants of our Atlantic States generally spoke of this territory as "the country north-west of the Ohio river," which name they finally abbreviated to the "North-west;" and were understood by that name to include all the country in the United States extending west from the foot of Lake Erie and the Ohio river to the Rocky mountains.

This region was first explored and occupied by French traders and Catholic missionaries from Canada, and was but little known to the English until after the surrender of Canada in 1760, by which the English became possessed of the French trading-posts; but the Pontiac war, which soon followed, implicated many of the French traders and missionaries in the conspiracy against the English, and led to their expulsion from the country; and the long wars which followed soon after in Europe had the effect to lock up the early authentic history of the North-west in the archives of the French government. Many of these documents, however, have lately been copied, by the permission of the French officials, and published by the authority of the legislatures of New York and some other States; and valuable information touching this history has thus lately been brought to the knowlege of our inhabitants. But as this mass of facts, together with the explorations of the early French travelers and missionaries, are not collated and condensed so as to

be of value to the mass of the people, the writer has attentively examined these volumes, with the American histories, and the laws and documents of the United States and of the several States, and thus collected the leading incidents in the history of the north-west; to which he has added his own knowledge of events derived from a residence in the country of over twenty-six years.

In handling this mass of facts, the writer has endeavored to group together the kindred subjects for perspicuity, and by condensation to bring them into as small a compass as practicable, leaving mainly to the reader to make his own speculations on the motives of the actors, and draw his own philosophical conclusions. In this manner he has attempted to bring to light the extinct race of people called the "Mound-Builders," locate the north-western Indian tribes, and trace their wars with each other, and their connection with the "French and Indian" wars of the colonies, and their wars against the United States; marking their emigrations, and detailing the efforts of the whites to Christianize and civilize them; follow the tides of white emigrations, noting the organization of territorial and State governments, and other institutions; describe the physical character of the Mississippi, and the great lakes, and giving the progress of their navigation and commerce; mark the building of canals, railroads, telegraphs, and other works of internal improvement; and give statistics of the general advancement of civilization.

While the writer has not taken the space for the citation of authorities, he has made a special effort to gather the data from the most original and authentic sources.

It is not supposed that a work of this kind will be likely to beguile the devotee of pleasure; but the writer believes that it will be found acceptable and useful, not only to the student of history, but the statesman and merchant, and a welcome companion in all private libraries. With this hope it is presented to the public by

THE AUTHOR.

Galesville, Wisconsin, September, 1867.

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