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QUARTERLY RECORD OF THE PROGRESS OF RE
FORMATORY SCHOOLS AND OF PRISON DISCIPLINE.
In our Record, in the last, XXI, Nurnber of this Review, page cxxx, we referred to THE LAW AMENDMENT JOURNAL in terms of very great approbation, and from that number then before us, to that now last issued, May 20th, we have proofs more than sufficient to support our former opinions.
In the number of The Journal for April 24th, we have the following account of the three Scotch Reformatories most frequently named-the Aberdeen Schools are, of course, to be judged by their own peculiar, and most able reports :
VISITS TO INDUSTRIAL
AND OTHER SCHOOLS
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, GLASGOW (ROTTEN ROW). In this school the great majority of the children are those sent thither by the magistrates, under Dunlop's Act, for being in a state of destitution ; the remainder are admitted from charity, for the
All the children are fully fed, and those sent by the magistrates are lodged as well as fed: the diet is porridge and milk for breakfast and supper, and Scotch broth or pea-soup and bread for dinner. From the healthy and hearty appearance of the children, it would appear that the food is sufficient. The building of the institution, though old, is roomy and in a high, airy situation ; and there is a playground adjoining.
The master, Mr. Wilkie, kindly accompanied me over the establishment. The boys were employed in making paper bags for grocers, &c., and in picking cotton waste : they seemed to be working with spirit. The master informed me that there was no difficulty in obtaining work for them that indeed twice as much work could be obtained as the children could do. The girls whom I saw were employed in sewing and knitting ; and I learned that they do the housework and make the clothes. "Trades are not taught in this school. I was informed that it was not considered desirable to make shoemakers or tailors of the children, since the journeymen in those trades are generally in a low moral position.
The religious instruction consists of reading portions of the Scriptures ; no catechism is used. A large part of the pupils have heer the children of Irish R 1 (tholic primity, Voll"}},prto) ilipo sebesi! Bole Ilano niinin Oundar t'i
girls' school, informed me that great pains are taken to find situations for the pupils when they are of an age to quit the institution. Factory work is objected to, as leaving the children too uncontrolled. It is thought undesirable also that the lads should be employed as errand boys, since they would be so much in the streets, and have unoccupied time on their hands. For the girls, domestic service is preferred, particularly in the families of working men or small tradespeople, it being found that the position of servants in gentle. men's families is too great a rise for them. The boys are chiefly apprenticed to trades, such as carpenters, smiths, &c.: a large number have been taken into shipbuilders' yards, the owners of which are friends of the institution. A supervision over the pupils is kept up for some years after they leave the school ; and when out of work they are, I believe, permitted to return to the school till they can obtain employment. One condition is made with the persons to whom the pupils are intrusted, viz., that they shall cause them to attend a Protestant place of worship. The children have generally turned out well, and some of them have risen to a respectable posi
REPUGE FOR BOYS (DUKE STREET, GLASGOW). This establishment is in an open, airy situation, on the east side of Glasgow; the building is large and roomy, though in a style of architecture of more pretension than is, perhaps, suitable to an insti. tution of this character.
The boys have all been convicted of offences, and are sent here to be detained for seven years, if necessary, for their reformation. I was informed, however, by Mr. McCallum, the superintendent, who kindly showed me the institution, that it is rarely necessary to keep a boy for more than four years. Many of the pupils have been in prison. Mr. McCallum much prefers that they should be sent direct to the institution without having been in gaol. The pupils are taught trades, such as tailoring, shoemaking, carpentry, &c. The trades are tanght by men who also, I believe, superintend their pupils at other times and sleep with them at night. These men are workmen thoroughly skilled in their crafts, and are paid full wages. The consequence is, that the pupils become really good workmen, and are able at once to gain a livelihood on leaving the institution. I saw some ladies' boots and shoes, which were very well made. The proceeds of the work, I was informed, pay the cost of the raw material, the wages of the teachers, and leave a surplus, which is de. voted to the general expenses of the establishment. No part of the earnings is given to the pupils.
The lads were plainly but neatly dressed in the usual working garb of Scotland, and seemed to be well fed. The diet, I learned, was of the ordinary Scotch character, viz. : porridge and milk for breakfast and supper, and barley broth or pea soup with bread for dinner,
There is a steam-boiler which supplies steam for heating purposes, and also to an engine drawing a fanning apparatus which ventilates the house. This is intrusted to the care of two of the boys.
When I visited the institution, it being near the dinner hour, most
of the boys were in the play-ground, which is spacious and airy : some of them were being instructed by a drill-serjeant in the sword exercise, Upon the ringing of the dinner.bell all who were in the play-ground formed into columns at the word of command, and marched in good order into the dining-hall. The military discipline, Mr McCallum informed me, is considered useful as accustoming the boys to prompt obedience, and saving much time in proceeding to work, meals, &c.
When the pupils leave the establishment great pains are taken to provide them with situations at a distance from Glasgow. The majority emigrate to Canada. Many of the owners of vessels trading from Glasgow to that country take the lads out gratis, two in each ship. The institution furnishes them with an outfit and a bag of biscuits towards their provisions ; and they are expected to make themselves useful on board. On arriving in Canada, they are received by persons friendly to the institution, who procure them employment. Of those who do not emigrate, many are apprenticed to shoemakers and other artizans in the country, and some have
into the army and navy.
It is calculated that 85 per cent. of the boys who leave this establishment ultimately turn out well. This, however, is upon assumption that those whose career is unknown are going on aright; Mr. McCallum, however, believes that any who went wrong would be heard of. This success is probably in a great measure to be at. tributed to the removal of the pupils from Glasgow, which prevents their associating with their old connexions.
There is also a refuge for girls in Glasgow, but I had not an opportunity of inspecting it.
The combined effect of these institutions, and the industrial schools, has been to reduce crime to a considerable extent. In the last year, though the price of provisions was high and trade not good, the number of prisoners in the gaol of Glasgow was one hundred less than in the preceding year. EDINBURGH UNITED INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL (SOUTH GRAY's close.)
This school is conducted in a large roomy old house in an enclosed court, formerly the dwelling of a nobleman. I arrived a short time before the dinner hour. I went through several rooms where the children were engaged in industrial employment, particularly shoemaking and tailoring, while some of the younger ones were making paper bags and bandboxes. I learned that the shoemakers and tailors were allowed a small portion of the proceeds of their labour, as a penny per pair for shoes, &c. Those who had attained to some skill had learners under them (called apprentices), some one, some two, and even three. The work done by the apprentices is placed to the credit of the boy-teacher. The boys working at trades were in different rooms, each under the care of a master. The children appeared to work with spirit.
The account of the industrial department, I find, shows a balance of loss; but as the clothing consumed by the children themselves is not credited, the real loss, if any, will be trilling.