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girls indiscriminately; about one-half of the number in at. tendance being girls—a system by the way which we look on as extremely dangerous and to be always avoided if possiblebut arising in the Whitehouse school, we presume, from the difficulty of procuring a really superior mistress to conduct the Female department. There are three Teachers, one male, the principal, assisted by two females and a paid monitor, a Catholic, and a little more than half the pupils are also Catholics. There is no religious instruction given at the evening school ; the special object of the evening being to develop their hearts and intellects, and to prepare their understandings for the exhortations of their respective pastors. The average at. tendance numbers about 60, the average in the book 110, and the average age of the pupils about 15 years. The grant the school made by the Commissioners of National Education, is £10 annually, independent of books at reduced rates and free stock; and there being 110 pupils on the books and 3 teachers in the schools this shows that each teacher receives only about 75 per head per annum for each pupil.
The state does not always obtain its prizes at so nominal a cost, sevenpence farthing, (a penny farthing in the Callender. street School,) for the tuition of an adolescent for a year!!! As a financial curiosity which has been hitherto denied the light, we publish this fact; but whilst our feeling is partly regretful, that the grant is so small, we must state that it is also in a large degree a hopeful one, that the wisdom of the Board will soon lead them to deal more generously with adult evening schools. This little school at Whitehouse is performing its work nobly; it is held in a building which, in the year 1832, was amongst the first upon which the inscription “National School” was ever placed ; and it is under the immediate supervision of one who passes by the door of her fellow-creatures, not with the high airs in which fashion would warrant her to indulge, but with the meek and assuasive influence of a messenger of peace and of comfort.
In bringing this brief narrative of what Belfast is doing, and not doing, in respect to Adult Female Education to a termination, we have only to express our extreme anxiety, that the discussion of the question to which our paper refers, may soon become familiar to the pen of the educationist, the reflections of the philanthropist, and the deliberations of the Statesman.
ART. VIII.-IRISH FISHERIES. Opinions of the Press on a Pamphlet by Thomas Edward
Symonds, R.N., on which is based the proceedings of the London and West of Ireland Fishing and Fish Manure Company. Published by Chapman and Hall, 193, Piccadilly. Dublin: J. M Glashan, Sackville-street; Hodges and Smith, and W. B. Kelly, Grafton-street. 1856,
Within the small compass of six years, we have seen spring up, arrive at the full maturity of their fungus growth, and die out hopelessly, five, indeed, we may say six different political Societies, (for there are few so bold as to affirm that the Tenant League exhibits any substantial evidence of vitality,) created with much apparent, and it may be with much actual sincerity, to work out comprehensive ameliorations for the Irish
Fame, with her thousand tongues proclaimed the future success of all; the Liberal Press teemed daily with high-flown eulogiams on their admirable principles, and spoke glowingly of their practical tendencies, and of the noble achievements which were to crown the labors of those who upheld and disseminated their doctrines. They have, however, vanished like shadows, leaving behind them no good result, save and except the experience which they have given us of their utier unfitness to carry out the objects which they were intended to accomplish. Our bitter knowledge of these unpalatable facts must make us hail with tenfold the pleasure which we should feel under different circumstances, the appearance of a Society amongst us so well calculated as is “The London and West of Ireland Fishing and Fish Manure Company,” to improve the condition of a large portion of our people, to encourage habits of industry in a country where such encouragement has been so necessary, and to invite so many capitalists to our shores; and this not only by the peculiar nature of such a Company, but, also by the business-like manner in which its affairs are to be conducted. The inexhaustible supply of the most wholesome and nutritious fish which the Coasts of Ireland afford, has been no discovery of a modern date; it is a fact which has been known for centuries. We are told by Captain Symonds, the Managing Director of this excellent
Company, that " Philip the Second of Spain paid into the Irish treasury £1,000 for liberty to fish on the Irish Coast.'
“In the reign of Charles the First, the Dutch were allowed a similar license on the payment of £30,000, and they founded a fishing establishment on the Island of Innis Boffin, off the Mayo Coast, where many of the descendants of the Dutch settlers are to be found at the present day.
“ In 1650, Sweden was permitted as a favor to employ one hundred vessels in the Irish fishery.
“ About the year 1800, the Americans fitted out a vessel, and fished the Irish Coast for three years. The result of the experiment was that, if the permission of the British Government could be obtained, they would settle on the coast for the purpose of carrying out a fishery, and were ready to bring £100,000, if so permitted, requiring neither premium nor bounty. However, the permission was not granted, and so the proposition fell to the ground."
In the Morning Post for September 6th 1855, we have seen an extract from a report made by Mr. Tuke, who says :
" While standing on the magnificent cliffs at Achill, overlooking the wide Atlantic, I saw the deep inlets and bays of that island literally filled with shoals of mackerel and herring, indeed the whole surface of the sea seemed completely alive with them. Around me stood groups of hungry creatures, who looked down upon this inexhaustible supply of food, wholly unable to procure it to allay their cravings. One fishing boat, or three or four curraghs, alone were engaged, where there was employment for hundreds, and food for thousands of hungry creatures on the island.”
In the same paper, an extract from Colonel Thompson's evidence given before the Government Commission in 1836, informas us that
“ The fish on the coast, from Achill Head to Galway, would supply all Ireland. It is a fact not generally known, that about 200,0001. is annually paid by Ireland for Scotch herrings, although there is around her shores not only an ample supply for her own consumption, but also sufficient to form an article of export were proper means adopted to render this bountiful supply available."
Every descrption of fish is to be found on the Coast of Ireland; turbot, sole, brill, plaice, dorys, lobsters, ling, eels, mackerel, salmon, herrings, and sprats. Captain Symonds tells us that simply from want of buyers, turbot are often cut up for bait ; he also adds :
“ That at Innis Boffin, on the Galway coast, an acquaintance of
his made a bargain to purchase turbot of a man who himself bought them from the fishermen. To meet these two profits he paid eighteen shillings per dozen of thirteen turbot, and the fish were of the finest quality, and from nine pounds to twenty-six pounds in weight. In England they were probably selling at the same time for about thirty shillings apiece. On the spot no doubt it answered better to sell them even at this price than that the fishing-boats should be obliged to leave their proper business and run, perhaps against the wind and tide, fifty miles to the Galway market on the chance of a better."
In a report made in 1855, by Mr. Howard, a gentleman largely engaged in the fisheries of the North Sea, and the Coast of Norway, he states, (speaking of the Southern Coast frup Cork to Berehaven) —
"I have no hesitation in saying, that, both as regards quantity and quality, the banks off the coasts and the Irish shores are richer in fish of all descriptions than those of any country I have ever seen. On returning from Berehaven to Bantry, we came by boat, and literally rowed across that fine bay through a bank of herrings. I feel confident that with nets such as those used in Scotland, the Isle of Man, or on the Cornish coast, 40,000 barrels might have been taken that Dight. In fact, the coast was swarıning, and if properly fished would rival Scotland in her annual take."
In the winter of 1854, we are informed, Captain Symonds fished between the Saltees and Helvick Head, on the Coast of Waterford, exploring the more distant grounds, and collecting all particulars about the south-eastern fisheries.
"Twenty-five trawlers fished in company, and all had taken an average quantity, but the wind blowing off shore, they were not enabled to make Dunmore in proper time to send the fish by rail for the Dublin market on Friday. They had from ten to fifteen tons, chiefly turbot, sole, brett, early plaice, cod, &c., which might have been bought for 5l. a ton, though in any of the good markets the ton would have readily fetched from 201. to 25l. In summer, the take would have been almost profitless if the weather were equally unfavourable, the more delicate fish running tu taint on the second day. Though the weather was very bad, the trawler of forty tons, in which Mr. Symonds was, cleared nearly 401. in three weeks, and during that period threw overboard five tons of unsaleable fish, out of which M. de Molon, of Finisterre, would have manufactured prime fishguano, worth at least 121. a ton."
The following extract from a letter, written by Eneas MacDonuell, to the Editor of “ The Dublin Evening Mail," and in which reference is inade to the valuable pamphlet of Captain Symonds, will inake manifest among many other agreeable disclosures, the very great variety of fish to be
found along the Western Coast of Ireland. Mr. MacDonnell received some valuable assistance in his researches from Mr. J. Redmond Barry, the Commissioner of Irish Fisheries, to whose excellent judgment he bears willing testimony :
“ I shall now turn to the publication issued by Captain Symonds. Referring to the supply of fish on the west coast of Ireland, Captain Symonds observes, (page 17)— It is notorious that all writers on this subject, during the past and present century, agree on the most essential point-the abundant supply of every description of fish and shell-fish, and that it only needs proper boats and gear, common energy and skill, to capture any quantity.'
This opinion is fully borne out by the result of every experiment, government or otherwise, up to the present date.
The Committee of the British Association for extending the fisheries of Ireland and Scotland, made an experiment on the west coast to test this point in 1847, and report as follows:
• The Committee are of opinion that the fisheries on this coast may be successfully developed so as to afford a considerable profit on the capital employed by carrying out effectually the principle of the government curing stations. That principle is to afford a steady price to the fishermen for the fish which they may catch. The agents of the government curing-stations have been restricted as to price, and, also, as to the kind of fish they should purchase ; turbot, and all other fish not fit for curing, has not been purchased, and as this class of fish is the most abundant on that coast, it has followed that no sufficient stimulus was given to induce the fishermen to go out.'
Captain Bennett, the gentleman who conducted this experiment, adds—I am satisfied from the quality of the fish, the abundance of it on the coast (even in the unseason. able time of year we commenced the fishery, cod and ling being out of season), that with perseverance and due exertion, and an adequate provision of gear, &c., laid in and kept on hand, that the next season's fishing would realise a profit exceeding fifty per cent., and that the natives would cheerfully and immediately present themselves to embark in the undertaking. We have turbut, soles, brill, plaice, lobster, crabs, &c., in abundance.'
Captain Symonds states (page 28), • Periwinkles, collected near the Isle of Sky, on the coast of Scotland. are carried in steam-boats to Glasgow, and are found to pay railway carriage to London for sale in Hungerford Market; also, mussels are sent from Exmouth, in Devonshire, to London per rail.' In page 29, he adds, that * many of the largest dealers in fish in the United Kingdom have expressed an anxious desire to see increased supplies coming from Ireland, stating that such was the growing demand for fresh fish in the interior of the country, that every new line of railway opened additional markets far beyond the present means of supply.'
Again (page 30), “Mr. Leonard, a respectable owner of several fishing vessels out of the port of Dublin, is quite convinced of the abun. dance of fish there (the north-west coast), and also of herrings and sun-fish.'
The idea has gone forth that the her